Evolutionary linguistics

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Evolutionary linguistics is a cover term for the scientific study of both the origins and development of language as well as the cultural evolution of languages.[1] The main challenge in this research is the lack of empirical data: spoken language leaves practically no traces. This led to an abandonment of the field for more than a century. Since the late 1980s, the field has been revived in the wake of progress made in the related fields of psycholinguistics, neurolinguistics, evolutionary anthropology, evolutionary psychology, and cognitive science.

History[edit]

Inspired by the natural sciences, especially by biology, August Schleicher (1821–1868) became the first to compare changing languages to evolving species.[2] He introduced the representation of language families as an evolutionary tree (Stammbaumtheorie) in articles published in 1853.[3] Stammbaumtheorie proved very productive for comparative linguistics, but did not solve the major problem of studying the origin of language: the lack of fossil records. Some scholars abandoned the question of the origin of language as unsolvable. Famously, the Société Linguistique de Paris in 1866 refused to admit any further papers on the subject.

Joseph Jastrow published a gestural theory of the evolution of language in the seventh volume of Science, 1886.[4]

The field re-appeared in 1988 in the Linguistic Bibliography as a subfield of psycholinguistics. In 1990, Steven Pinker and Paul Bloom published their paper "Natural Language and Natural Selection"[5] which strongly argued for an adaptationist approach to language origins. This development strengthened further with the establishment (in 1996) of a series of conferences on the Evolution of Language (subsequently known as "Evolang"), promoting a scientific, multi-disciplinary approach to the issue, and interest from major academic publishers (e.g., the Studies in the Evolution of Language series has appeared with Oxford University Press since 2001)[6] and from scientific journals.

Recent developments[edit]

Evolutionary linguistics as a field is rapidly emerging as a result of developments in neighboring disciplines. To what extent language's features are determined by genes, a hotly debated dichotomy in linguistics, has had new light shed upon it by the discovery of the FOXP2 gene.[7][8] An English family with a severe, heritable language dysfunction was found to have a defective copy of this gene.[9][10] Mutations of the corresponding gene in mice (FOXP2 is fairly well conserved; modern humans share the same allele as Neanderthals)[11][12] cause reductions in size and vocalization rate. If both copies are damaged, the Purkinje layer (a part of the cerebellum that contains better-connected neurons than any other) develops abnormally, runting is more common, and pups die within weeks due to inadequate lung development.[13] Additionally, higher presence of FOXP2 in songbirds is correlated to song changes, with downregulation causing incomplete and inaccurate song imitation in zebra finches. In general, evidence suggests that the protein is vital to neuroplasticity. There is little support, however, for the idea that FOXP2 is 'the grammar gene' or that it had much to do with the relatively recent emergence of syntactical speech.[14]

Another controversial dichotomy is the question of whether human language is solely human or on a continuum with (admittedly far removed) animal communication systems. Studies in ethology have forced researchers to reassess many claims of uniquely human abilities for language and speech. For instance, Tecumseh Fitch has argued that the descended larynx is not unique to humans. Similarly, once held uniquely human traits such as formant perception, combinatorial phonology and compositional semantics are now thought to be shared with at least some nonhuman animal species. Conversely, Derek Bickerton and others argue that the advent of abstract words provided a mental basis for analyzing higher-order relations, and that any communication system that remotely resembles human language utterly relies on cognitive architecture that co-evolved alongside language.

As it leaves no fossils, language's form and even its presence are extremely hard or impossible to deduce from physical evidence. Computational modeling is now widely accepted as an approach to assure the internal consistency of language-evolution scenarios. Approximately one-third of all papers presented at the 2010 Evolution of Language conference[15] rely at least in part on computer simulations.

Approaches[edit]

One original researcher in the field is Luc Steels, head of the research units of Sony CSL in Paris and the AI Lab at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. He and his team are currently investigating ways in which artificial agents self-organize languages with natural-like properties and how meaning can co-evolve with language. Their research is based on the hypothesis that language is a complex adaptive system that emerges through adaptive interactions between agents and continues to evolve in order to remain adapted to the needs and capabilities of the agents. This research has been implemented in fluid construction grammar (FCG), a formalism for construction grammars that has been specially designed for the origins and evolution of language. The approach of computational modeling and the use of robotic agents grounded in real life is claimed to be theory independent. It enables the researcher to find out exactly what cognitive capacities are needed for certain language phenomena to emerge. It also focuses the researcher in formulating hypotheses in a precise and exact manner, whereas theoretical models often stay very vague.

Some linguists, such as John McWhorter, have analyzed the evolution and construction of basic communication methods such as Pidginization and Creolization.[16]

"Nativist" models of "Universal Grammar" are informed by linguistic universals such as the existence of pronouns and demonstratives, and the similarities in each languages process of nominalization (the process of verbs becoming nouns) as well as the reverse, the process of turning nouns into verbs.[17] This is a purely descriptive approach to what we mean by "natural language" without attempting to address its emergence.

Finally there are those archaeologists and evolutionary anthropologists – among them Ian Watts,[18] Camilla Power[19] and Chris Knight (co-founder with James Hurford of the EVOLANG series of conferences) — who argue that 'the origin of language' is probably an insoluble problem. In agreement with Amotz Zahavi,[20] Knight argues that language — being a realm of patent fictions — is a theoretical impossibility in a Darwinian world, where signals must be intrinsically reliable. If we are going to explain language's evolution, according to this view, we must tackle it as part of a wider one — the evolutionary emergence of symbolic culture as such.[21]

EVOLANG Conference[edit]

The Evolution of Language International Conferences[22] have been held biennially since 1996.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Croft, William (October 2008). "Evolutionary Linguistics". Annual Review of Anthropology (Annual Reviews) 37: 219–234. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.37.081407.085156. 
  2. ^ Taub, Liba. Evolutionary Ideas and "Empirical" Methods: The Analogy Between Language and Species in the Works of Lyell and Schleicher. British Journal for the History of Science 26, pages 171–193 (1993)
  3. ^ Schleicher, August (1869). "Darwinism tested by the science of language : Free Download". Internet Archive. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  4. ^ Jastrow J (1886). "The Evolution of Language". Science 7 (176S): 555–557. doi:10.1126/science.ns-7.176S.555. JSTOR 1761264. PMID 17778380. 
  5. ^ Pinker, Steven; Bloom, Paul (2011). "Natural language and natural selection". Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (04): 707–727. doi:10.1017/S0140525X00081061. 
  6. ^ "Oxford Studies in the Evolution of Language". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  7. ^ Scharff C, Haesler S (December 2005). "An evolutionary perspective on FoxP2: strictly for the birds?". Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 15 (6): 694–703. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2005.10.004. PMID 16266802. 
  8. ^ Scharff C, Petri J (July 2011). "Evo-devo, deep homology and FoxP2: implications for the evolution of speech and language". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 366 (1574): 2124–40. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0001. PMC 3130369. PMID 21690130. 
  9. ^ Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Liegeois, Frederique (2007). "From speech to gene: The KE family and the FOXP2". In Stein Braten. On Being Moved : From Mirror Neurons to Empathy (Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company). pp. 137–146. ISBN 9789027252043. OCLC 643718628. 
  10. ^ Vargha-Khadem F, Watkins K, Alcock K, Fletcher P, Passingham R (January 1995). "Praxic and nonverbal cognitive deficits in a large family with a genetically transmitted speech and language disorder". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (3): 930–3. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.3.930. PMC 42734. PMID 7846081. 
  11. ^ Krause J, Lalueza-Fox C, Orlando L, et al. (November 2007). "The derived FOXP2 variant of modern humans was shared with Neandertals". Curr. Biol. 17 (21): 1908–12. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.10.008. PMID 17949978. 
  12. ^ Rizzi E, Lari M, Gigli E, De Bellis G, Caramelli D (2012). "Ancient DNA studies: new perspectives on old samples". Genet. Sel. Evol. 44: 21. doi:10.1186/1297-9686-44-21. PMC 3390907. PMID 22697611. 
  13. ^ Shu W, Lu MM, Zhang Y, Tucker PW, Zhou D, Morrisey EE (May 2007). "Foxp2 and Foxp1 cooperatively regulate lung and esophagus development". Development 134 (10): 1991–2000. doi:10.1242/dev.02846. PMID 17428829. 
  14. ^ Diller, Karl C.; Cann, Rebecca L. (2009). "Evidence Against a Genetic-Based Revolution in Language 50,000 Years Ago". In Rudolf Botha and Chris Knight. The Cradle of Language. Oxford Series in the Evolution of Language (Oxford.: Oxford University Press). pp. 135–149. ISBN 978-0-19-954586-5. OCLC 804498749. 
  15. ^ "Evolang8 - Program". 2010. Retrieved 11 December 2013. 
  16. ^ McWhorter, John H. (2001). The power of Babel : a natural history of languag. New York: Times Books. ISBN 978-0-7167-4473-3. OCLC 46564796. 
  17. ^ Deutscher, Guy (2005). The unfolding of language : an evolutionary tour of mankind's greatest inventi. New York: Metropolitan Books. ISBN 978-0-8050-7907-4. OCLC 57311730. 
  18. ^ Watts, Ian (2009). "Red Ochre, Body Painting, and Language: Interpreting the Blombos Ochre". In Rudolf Botha and Chris Knight. The Cradle of Language. Oxford Series in the Evolution of Language (Oxford.: Oxford University Press). pp. 62–92. ISBN 978-0-19-954586-5. OCLC 804498749. 
  19. ^ Power, Camilla (2009). "Sexual Selection Models for the Emergence of Symbolic Communication: Why They Should be Reversed". In Rudolf Botha and Chris Knight. The Cradle of Language. Oxford Series in the Evolution of Language (Oxford.: Oxford University Press). pp. 257–280. ISBN 978-0-19-954586-5. OCLC 804498749. 
  20. ^ Zahavi A (May 1993). "The fallacy of conventional signalling". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 340 (1292): 227–30. doi:10.1098/rstb.1993.0061. PMID 8101657. 
  21. ^ Knight, Chris (2010). "The origins of symbolic culture". In Ulrich J Frey; Charlotte Störmer; Kai P Willführ. Homo novus : a human without illusion (Berlin ; New York: Springer). pp. 193–211. ISBN 978-3-642-12141-8. OCLC 639461749. 
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  24. ^ Hurford, James R.; Studdert-Kennedy, Michael.; Knight, Chris (1998). Approaches to the evolution of language : social and cognitive base. Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-63964-4. OCLC 37742390. 
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  33. ^ Cangelosi, Angelo.; Smith, Andrew D. M.; Smith, Kenny. (2006). The evolution of language : proceedings of the 6th international conference (EVOLANG6) , Rome, Italy, 12-15 April 200. New Jersey: World Scientific. ISBN 9789812566560. OCLC 70797781. 
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  37. ^ International Conference on the Evolution of Language (8th : 2010 : Utrecht, Netherlands); Smith, Andrew D. M. (2010). The evolution of language : proceedings of the 8th International Conference (EVOLANG8), Utrecht, Netherlands, 14-17 April 201. Singapore ; Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific. ISBN 978-981-4295-21-5. OCLC 712021789. 
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  39. ^ International Conference on the Evolution of Language (9th : 2012 : Kyoto, Japan); Scott-Phillips, Thomas C. (2012). The evolution of language : proceedings of the 9th International Conference (EVOLANG9), Kyoto, Japan, 13-16 March 201. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing. ISBN 978-981-4401-49-4. OCLC 804806330. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]