Ewing Township, New Jersey

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Ewing Township, New Jersey
Township
Township of Ewing
Official seal of Ewing Township, New Jersey
Seal
Ewing Township highlighted in Mercer County. Inset map: Mercer County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Ewing Township highlighted in Mercer County. Inset map: Mercer County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Ewing Township, New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Ewing Township, New Jersey
Coordinates: 40°15′46″N 74°47′54″W / 40.262722°N 74.798307°W / 40.262722; -74.798307Coordinates: 40°15′46″N 74°47′54″W / 40.262722°N 74.798307°W / 40.262722; -74.798307[1][2]
Country  United States of America
State  New Jersey
County Mercer
Incorporated February 22, 1834
Government[8]
 • Type Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)
 • Mayor Bert H. Steinmann (term ends December 31, 2013)[3][4][5]
 • Administrator James McManimon[6]
 • Clerk Kim J. Macellaro[7]
Area[2]
 • Total 15.599 sq mi (40.400 km2)
 • Land 15.250 sq mi (39.497 km2)
 • Water 0.349 sq mi (0.903 km2)  2.23%
Area rank 174th of 566 in state
8th of 13 in county[2]
Elevation[9] 125 ft (38 m)
Population (2010 Census)[10][11][12]
 • Total 35,790
 • Estimate (2013)[13] 36,547
 • Rank 66th of 566 in state
3rd of 13 in county[14]
 • Density 2,346.9/sq mi (906.1/km2)
 • Density rank 260th of 566 in state
6th of 13 in county[14]
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 08560, 08618, 08628, 08638[15][16]
Area code(s) 609[17]
FIPS code 3402122185[18][2][19]
GNIS feature ID 0882128[20][2]
Website www.ewingnj.org

Ewing Township is a township in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 35,790,[10][11][12] reflecting an increase of 83 (+0.2%) from the 35,707 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,522 (+4.5%) from the 34,185 counted in the 1990 Census.[21]

History[edit]

Woodlands along West Branch Shabakunk Creek represent what Ewing looked like before Europeans arrived

The earliest inhabitants of present-day Ewing Township were Lenni Lenape Native Americans, who lived along the banks of the Delaware River. Pre-colonial subsistence activities in the area included hunting, fishing, pottery-making, and simple farming.

Ewing Township was incorporated as a township by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 22, 1834, from portions of Trenton Township, while the area was still part of Hunterdon County. It became part of the newly created Mercer County on February 22, 1838.[22] The township was named in honor of Charles Ewing, who was posthumously honored for his work as Chief Justice of the New Jersey Supreme Court from 1824–1832.

Ewing Township was originally farmland punctuated by hamlets, including Ewingville, West Trenton and Wilburtha. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the township has developed as a suburb of Trenton. The sections near the city border are distinctly urban, but most of the township is suburban residential development. The main commercial district extends along North Olden Avenue Extension (County Route 622), originally constructed to connect north Trenton residences with the now-closed General Motors plant. Ewing Township is also the location of The College of New Jersey, the Community Blood Council of New Jersey, New Jersey State Police headquarters, the Jones Farm State Correction Institute, the Trenton Psychiatric Institute, the New Jersey Department of Transportation headquarters, Katzenbach School for the Deaf and Trenton-Mercer Airport (KTTN), the location of Trenton's weather observations.

Ewing was home to the Inland Fisher Guide Plant, a plant that opened in 1938 for the Ternstedt division of GM's Fisher Body unit. During World War II, the plant was used to build torpedo bombers for the United States Navy. The plant was converted back to manufacture car parts after the war and became the first location of an industrial robot used to replace human workers.[23] After its closure in 1998. The plant was demolished and has been targeted for cleanup and commercial redevelopment, with a $10.4 million grant received in 2011 to cover the costs of remediation of the site.[24]

From 1953 until 1997 Ewing was home of the 'Naval Air Warfare Center', encompassing 528 acres on Parkway Avenue.[25] It was used as a jet engine test facility for the US Navy until its closure per recommendations of the 1993 Base Closure and Realignment Commission.[25] Nearly 700 civilian positions were lost, most of which were relocated to other facilities in Maryland and Tennessee.[26] The base's Marine operations were transferred to Fort Dix, which has since become Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst.[27] A charity to end homelessness acquired the base at no cost in October 2013 in a process involving the Department of Defense, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, Mercer County and Ewing Township.[27]

Geography[edit]

Ewing Township is located at 40°15′46″N 74°47′54″W / 40.262722°N 74.798307°W / 40.262722; -74.798307 (40.262722,-74.798307). According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 15.599 square miles (40.400 km2), of which, 15.250 square miles (39.497 km2) of it was land and 0.349 square miles (0.903 km2) of it (2.23%) was water.[1][2]

The Delaware River forms the western border of Ewing Township.

The highest elevation in Ewing Township is 225 feet (69 m) AMSL just east of Interstate 95 and just west of Trenton-Mercer Airport,[28] while the lowest point is just below 20 feet (6.1 m) AMSL along the Delaware River near the border with Trenton.[29]

Lake Sylva is man-made lake that was created in the 1920s when an earthen dam was constructed across the Shabakunk Creek. The 11-acre (4.5 ha) lake is located on the campus of The College of New Jersey.[30]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1840 1,017
1850 1,480 45.5%
1860 2,079 40.5%
1870 2,477 19.1%
1880 2,412 −2.6%
1890 3,129 29.7%
1900 1,333 * −57.4%
1910 1,889 41.7%
1920 3,475 84.0%
1930 6,942 99.8%
1940 10,146 46.2%
1950 16,840 66.0%
1960 26,628 58.1%
1970 32,831 23.3%
1980 34,842 6.1%
1990 34,185 −1.9%
2000 35,707 4.5%
2010 35,790 0.2%
Est. 2013 36,547 [13] 2.1%
Population sources:
1840-1920[31] 1840[32] 1850-1870[33]
1850[34] 1870[35] 1880-1890[36]
1890-1910[37] 1910-1930[38]
1930-1990[39] 2000[40][41] 2010[10][11][12]
* = Lost territory in previous decade.[42]

Census 2010[edit]

At the 2010 United States Census, there were 35,790 people, 13,171 households, and 7,982 families residing in the township. The population density was 2,346.9 per square mile (906.1 /km2). There were 13,926 housing units at an average density of 913.2 per square mile (352.6 /km2). The racial makeup of the township was 63.14% (22,598) White, 27.62% (9,885) Black or African American, 0.30% (109) Native American, 4.30% (1,538) Asian, 0.04% (15) Pacific Islander, 2.24% (803) from other races, and 2.35% (842) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 7.62% (2,727) of the population.[10]

There were 13,171 households, of which 22.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.0% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.4% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.97.[10]

In the township, 16.3% of the population were under the age of 18, 20.0% from 18 to 24, 23.0% from 25 to 44, 25.9% from 45 to 64, and 14.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37.2 years. For every 100 females there were 88.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.9 males.[10]

The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $69,716 (with a margin of error of +/- $2,668) and the median family income was $86,875 (+/- $4,312). Males had a median income of $56,308 (+/- $6,003) versus $52,313 (+/- $1,887) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $30,489 (+/- $1,527). About 4.7% of families and 10.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.3% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over.[43]

Census 2000[edit]

As of the 2000 United States Census[18] there were 35,707 people, 12,551 households, and 8,208 families residing in the township. The population density was 2,328.6 people per square mile (899.3/km2). There were 12,924 housing units at an average density of 842.8 per square mile (325.5/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 69.02% White, 24.82% African American, 0.15% Native American, 2.27% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.83% from other races, and 1.84% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.44% of the population.[40][41]

There were 12,551 households out of which 25.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.6% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.00.[40][41]

In the township the population was spread out with 18.0% under the age of 18, 17.3% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.0 males.[40][41]

The median income for a household in the township was $57,274, and the median income for a family was $67,618. Males had a median income of $44,531 versus $35,844 for females. The per capita income for the township was $24,268. About 3.3% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.4% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.[40][41]

Economy[edit]

In mid–2013, Celator Pharmaceuticals established an office presence in Ewing.[44] Ewing's decommissioned Marine Reserve Center will be the headquarters of HomeFront, a charity dedicated to ending homelessness in the Mercer region, with construction starting summer 2014, including a shelter, job training and literacy programs, day care, computer rooms and a teaching kitchen.[27]

Government[edit]

Ewing Township Municipal Building

Local government[edit]

Ewing Township is governed under the Faulkner Act form of New Jersey municipal government, within Mayor-Council plan 2, as implemented as of January 1, 1995, based on the recommendations of a Charter Study Commission.[45] The Governing Body of the township consists of five Council members and a Mayor, all of whom are elected by the registered voters of the community. The Mayor is elected to a four-year term. Members of the Council are elected at-large to four-year terms of office, with either two or three seats up for election every other year.[8][46]

As of 2013, the Mayor of Ewing Township is Democrat Bert H. Steinmann, whose term of office ends December 31, 2014.[4] Members of the Ewing Township Council are Council President Kevin Baxter (D, 2016), Vice President Jennifer L. Keyes-Maloney (D, 2016), Sarah Steward (D, 2014), David P. Schroth (D, 2016) and Kathy Wollert (D, 2014).[5][47]

Federal, state and county representation[edit]

Ewing Township is located in the 12th Congressional District[48] and is part of New Jersey's 15th state legislative district.[11][49][50]

New Jersey's Twelfth Congressional District is represented by Rush D. Holt, Jr. (D, Hopewell Township).[51] New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark; took office on October 31, 2013, after winning a special election to fill the seat of Frank Lautenberg)[52][53] and Bob Menendez (D, North Bergen).[54][55]

For the 2014-2015 Session, the 15th District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Shirley Turner (D, Lawrence Township, Mercer County) and in the General Assembly by Reed Gusciora (D, Trenton) and Bonnie Watson Coleman (D, Ewing Township).[56][57] The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township).[58] The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).[59]

Mercer County is governed by a County Executive who oversees the day-to-day operations of the county and by a seven-member Board of Chosen Freeholders that acts in a legislative capacity, setting policy.[60] As of 2013, the County Executive is Brian M. Hughes (D; term ends December 31, 2013, Princeton).[61] Members of the Board of Chosen Freeholders are elected at-large to serve three-year terms of office on a staggered basis, with either two or three seats coming up for election each year. At an annual reorganization meeting held each January, the board selects a Freeholder Chair and Vice-Chair from among its members.[62] Mercer County's freeholders are Freeholder Chair John Cimino (D; 2014, Hamilton Township)[63], Freeholder Vice Chair Andrew Koontz (D; 2013, Princeton),[64] Ann M. Cannon (D; 2015, East Windsor Township),[65] Anthony P. Carabelli (D; 2013, Trenton),[66] Pasqual "Pat" Colavita, Jr. (D; 2015, Lawrence Township),[67] Samuel T. Frisby (D; 2015; Trenton)[68] and Lucylle R. S. Walter (D; 2014, Ewing Township)[69][70] Constitutional officers elected on a countywide basis are County Clerk Paula Sollami Covello (D, 2015).[71] Sheriff John A. "Jack" Kemler (D, 2014)[72] and Surrogate Dianne Gerofsky (D, 2016).[73][5]

The New Jersey Juvenile Justice Commission has its headquarters in the township.[74][75]

Politics[edit]

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 21,714 registered voters in Ewing Township, of which 9,358 (43.1%) were registered as Democrats, 3,256 (15.0%) were registered as Republicans and 9,087 (41.8%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 13 voters registered to other parties.[76]

In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 70.0% of the vote here (11,911 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 28.1% (4,787 votes) and other candidates with 1.2% (200 votes), among the 17,021 ballots cast by the township's 22,913 registered voters, for a turnout of 74.3%.[77] In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 62.0% of the vote here (10,091 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 34.7% (5,653 votes) and other candidates with 0.6% (135 votes), among the 16,284 ballots cast by the township's 22,019 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 74.0.[78]

In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 59.4% of the vote here (6,529 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 34.1% (3,751 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 4.7% (520 votes) and other candidates with 0.7% (81 votes), among the 10,989 ballots cast by the township's 22,263 registered voters, yielding a 49.4% turnout.[79]

Education[edit]

The Ewing Township Board of Education oversees the Ewing Public Schools. Schools in the district (with 2010-11 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics[80]) are three K-5 elementary schools — W.L. Antheil Elementary School[81] (731 students) Francis Lore Elementary School[82] (521) Parkway Elementary School[83] (462) — Gilmore J. Fisher Middle School[84] (880) for grades 6-8 and Ewing High School[85] (1,151) for grades 9-12.[86]

A court case filed in 1946 challenged a policy of the Ewing Public Schools under which the district provided bus transportation to students living in the districts who attended private parochial schools. In Everson v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled for the first time that state and local government were subject to the establishment clause but that it had not been violated in this instance.[87]

The Ewing Public Education Foundation, established in 1995, is an independent, not-for-profit citizen’s organization whose mission is to mobilize community support, concern, commitment and resources to help improve the quality of education in Ewing Township. EPEF provides grants to Ewing Township Schools for innovative educational programs through fund-raising activities, and corporate and institutional sponsorship. The Foundation also seeks to match corporate and organizational donors with teachers to fund additional projects of mutual interest. These programs enhance the educational experience without the use of additional taxpayer dollars.[88]

Thomas J. Rubino Academy (formerly Mercer County Alternative High School) is one of Mercer County's only alternative schools, offering an alternative educational program for students who have struggled in the traditional school environment, featuring smaller classes, mentoring and counseling.[89]

The Marie H. Katzenbach campus of the New Jersey School for the Deaf serves 175 hearing-impaired students on a campus covering 148 acres (60 ha) that was opened in West Trenton in 1926.[90][91] The school was established in Ewing through the efforts of Marie Hilson Katzenbach and was renamed in her honor in 1965.[92]

Incarnation-St. James Catholic School (formerly Incarnation School), constructed in 1955, is a Pre-K to 8th grade parish school administered by The Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary and overseen by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Trenton.[93] The school added a parish center in 2003, which includes a gym, locker rooms, offices, meeting rooms, boiler room, and a kitchenette to be used to the benefit of its students, faculty, and staff. In 2006, the Incarnation School and parish combined with the St. James School and parish.[94]

The Villa Victoria Academy is a private Catholic school in Ewing Township, christened as a private academy in 1933, and operated by the Religious Teachers Filippini. This single-gender school offers an education to young women from pre-Kindergarten to twelfth grade.[95]

The College of New Jersey (formerly Trenton State College) is located on a campus covering 289 acres (117 ha) within the township.[96]

Neighboring municipalities[edit]

Transportation[edit]

View north along I-95 from Bear Tavern Road (CR 579)

Ewing Township is traversed by multiple main roadways, as well as by a passenger rail line and is the location of an airport.

Interstate 95 (the Scudder Falls Freeway and Bridge) crosses the northwestern section of the township. It is a 55 to 65 miles per hour (89 to 105 km/h), 4-6 lane divided freeway facility. It was constructed as a 4-lane facility in the 1960s, and widened to 6 lanes in the 1990s, with the exception of the Scudder Falls Bridge over the Delaware River. It connects south with Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and connects north to U.S. 1, where this branch of Interstate 95 ends. It becomes Interstate 295. From there, travelers use U.S. 1 or Interstate 195 and the New Jersey Turnpike to reach the next major destination northwards, New York City. The Ewing portion of Interstate 95 will eventually be redesignated as "Interstate 195 Extension" when a direct interchange between Interstate 95 in Pennsylvania and the Pennsylvania Turnpike is completed, re-routing Interstate 95 onto the New Jersey Turnpike at Exit 6 (in Mansfield Township).

U.S. Route 206 (Princeton Avenue) skirts the southeastern section of the township. It is a 25 miles per hour (40 km/h), undivided four-lane[97] facility. Although part of US 206, it was not constructed and is not maintained by the state. US 206 also connects south to Trenton, and connects north to Princeton and Somerville.

View north along the Daniel Bray Highway and River Road (NJ 29 and NJ 175) in Ewing
Signage for the Delaware River Scenic Byway along NJ 29

Route 29 (Daniel Bray Highway and River Road) extends north-south along the western edge of the township, along the Delaware River. The southern section, Daniel Bray Highway, is a 55 mph (90 km/h), divided four-lane facility with at-grade intersections and traffic lights, and was constructed in the 1950s. The northern section, River Road, is a 45 mph (70 km/h), undivided two-lane facility whose construction as a state highway dates from the 1930s. NJ 29 connects southwards to Trenton, and northwards to Lambertville and Frenchtown. The entire section of Route 29 in Ewing is designated the Delaware River Scenic Byway, a National Scenic Byway.

Route 31 (Pennington Road) extends north-south towards the eastern side of the township. It is a 35-45 mph (60–70 km/h), undivided four-lane facility whose construction as a state highway also dates to the 1930s. It once also carried a trolley line, but it has long since been removed. It was once proposed to be bypassed by a freeway, but this plan has since been cancelled. NJ 31 also connects south to Trenton, and connects north to Pennington, Flemington, and Clinton.

The West Trenton Railroad Bridge across the Delaware River.

The West Trenton Station ia at the terminus of SEPTA's West Trenton Line. This commuter rail facility mainly serves commuter traffic to and from Philadelphia. New Jersey Transit has proposed a new West Trenton Line of its own, that would stretch for 27 miles (43 km) to from the West Trenton Station to a connection with the Raritan Valley Line at Bridgewater Township, and from there to Newark Penn Station in Newark.[98][99]

Ewing Township is the site of the Trenton-Mercer Airport (TTN), which was created in 1929 and is one of three commercial airports in the state. The airport has 100,000 takeoffs and landings annually, and is served by Frontier Airlines, which offers nonstop service to and from 10 different points nationwide.[100]

Ewing Township is also traversed by the Delaware and Raritan Canal near the Delaware River. Originally important to commerce and trade, the advent of railroads caused the canal's commercial demise. The strip of land along the canal is currently part of the Delaware and Raritan Canal State Park.

New Jersey Transit provides service between the township and Trenton on the 601, 602, 607, 608 and 609 routes.[101]

Points of interest[edit]

Ewing Presbyterian Church
  • Ewing Presbyterian Church is an historic building dated 1867 and set within the American Revolution era Ewing Church Cemetery. It is the fourth church to be built in the cemetery grounds. The current church building has been under threat of demolition after several engineering studies found the roof trusses are buckling and beyond the point of cost effective repair. Numerous preservation groups say that the structural problems are much easier to resolve than the studies claim. Various organizations have endeavored to raise funds to secure the stability of the original church structure.[104]
  • Our Lady of Good Counsel Church, located on W. Upper Ferry Road, is a Roman Catholic church built in the early 1960s to meet the growing needs of the rapidly expanding township. Its architecture is similar to Saint Paul's Church in Princeton. The Church is a major worship center for the Catholic community in what is called the West Trenton section of the township.[105]
  • Louis Kahn's Trenton Bath House was an early work of the influential mid-twentieth century architect, made for the Trenton Jewish Community Center (now the Ewing Senior & Community Center).[106]
  • The offices and studios of radio station WKXW, "New Jersey 101.5", are located in Ewing.[107]

Notable people[edit]

People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Ewing Township include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f County Subdivisions: New Jersey - 2010 Census Gazetteer Files, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 9, 2013.
  3. ^ 2013 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed May 12, 2013.
  4. ^ a b Mayor's Message, Ewing Township. Accessed October 11, 2013.
  5. ^ a b c Elected Officials, Mercer County, New Jersey. Accessed October 11, 2013.
  6. ^ Contact Us, Ewing Township. Accessed November 18, 2012.
  7. ^ Clerk’s Office, Ewing Township. Accessed November 18, 2012.
  8. ^ a b 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 73.
  9. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Township of Ewing, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 5, 2013.
  10. ^ a b c d e f DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Ewing township, Mercer County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 18, 2012.
  11. ^ a b c d Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 7. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  12. ^ a b c Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Ewing township, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed November 18, 2012.
  13. ^ a b PEPANNRES - Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2013 - 2013 Population Estimates for New Jersey municipalities, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 16, 2014.
  14. ^ a b GCT-PH1 Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - State -- County Subdivision from the 2010 Census Summary File 1 for New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 18, 2012.
  15. ^ Look Up a ZIP Code for Ewing, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed January 23, 2012.
  16. ^ Zip Codes, State of New Jersey. Accessed October 11, 2013.
  17. ^ Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Ewing, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed October 11, 2013.
  18. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  19. ^ A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed October 28, 2012.
  20. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  21. ^ Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed November 18, 2012.
  22. ^ Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 161. Accessed November 18, 2012.
  23. ^ Famous Firsts in New Jersey, State of New Jersey. Accessed August 11, 2011. "The first robot to replace a human worker was used by General Motors in Ewing Township in 1961."
  24. ^ Galler, Joan. "Ewing's vacant General Motors site soon to be cleaned", The Trentonian, August 10, 2011. Accessed August 11, 2011.
  25. ^ a b "Former Naval Air Warfare Center Trenton". US Navy. undated. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  26. ^ Staff. "Base-Closing Panel Wraps Up Five Days of Voting", The New York Times, June 28, 1993. Accessed October 11, 2013. "Under the panel's plan for the Ewing unit, the Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division, would be divided between the Arnold Engineering Center in Tullahoma, Tenn., and the Naval Air Warfare Center at Patuxent River, Md.... Officials were unclear how many people would lose their jobs because of the closing. The Ewing base employs 680 civilians and seven military workers, of whom 157 engineers and other high-level personnel are already awaiting transfer to Patuxent River as part of a 1991 base-closing decision."
  27. ^ a b c McGrath, Brendan (16 June 2014). "HomeFront charity to take over Marine Reserve Center in Ewing". Times of Trenton (NJ). New Jersey On-Line LLC. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  28. ^ Interchange 2 USGS Pennington Quad, NJ,PA, Topographic Map, TopoZone. Accessed November 18, 2012.
  29. ^ USGS Trenton West Quad, NJ,PA, Topographic Map, TopoZone. Accessed November 18, 2012.
  30. ^ USGS 01463740 Shabakunk C at Sylva Lake Dam at Ewingville NJ, United States Geological Survey. Accessed October 11, 2013.
  31. ^ Compendium of censuses 1726-1905: together with the tabulated returns of 1905, New Jersey Department of State, 1906. Accessed October 11, 2013.
  32. ^ Bowen, Francis. American Almanac and Repository of Useful Knowledge for the Year 1843, p. 231, David H. Williams, 1842. Accessed October 11, 2013. Population of 996 is listed, 21 less than shown in other sources
  33. ^ Raum, John O. The History of New Jersey: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present Time, Volume 1, p. 275, J. E. Potter and company, 1877. Accessed October 11, 2013. "Ewing township contained in 1850, 1,480 inhabitants; in 1860, 2,979; and in 1870, 2,477. The State Lunatic Asylum is located in this township."
  34. ^ Debow, James Dunwoody Brownson. The Seventh Census of the United States: 1850, p. 139. R. Armstrong, 1853. Accessed October 11, 2013.
  35. ^ Staff. A compendium of the ninth census, 1870, p. 260. United States Census Bureau, 1872. Accessed November 18, 2012.
  36. ^ Porter, Robert Percival. Preliminary Results as Contained in the Eleventh Census Bulletins: Volume III - 51 to 75, p. 98. United States Census Bureau, 1890. Accessed November 18, 2012.
  37. ^ Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 337. Accessed November 18, 2012.
  38. ^ Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 716. Accessed November 18, 2012.
  39. ^ New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930 - 1990, Workforce New Jersey Public Information Network. Accessed November 18, 2012.
  40. ^ a b c d e Census 2000 Profiles of Demographic / Social / Economic / Housing Characteristics for Ewing township, Mercer County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 18, 2012.
  41. ^ a b c d e DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Ewing township, Mercer County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed November 18, 2012.
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