Executive Order 12333
On December 4, 1981 President Ronald Reagan signed Executive Order 12333, an Executive Order intended to extend powers and responsibilities of US intelligence agencies and direct the leaders of U.S. federal agencies to co-operate fully with CIA requests for information. This executive order was entitled United States Intelligence Activities.
It was amended by Executive Order 13355: Strengthened Management of the Intelligence Community, on August 27, 2004. On July 30, 2008, President Bush issued Executive Order 13470 amending Executive Order 12333 to strengthen the role of the DNI.
Goals, Direction, Duties and Responsibilities With Respect to the National Intelligence Effort lays out roles for various intelligence agencies, including the Departments of Defense, Energy, State, and Treasury.
Conduct of Intelligence Activities provides guidelines for actions of intelligence agencies.
Proscription on assassination
Part 2.11 of this executive order reiterates a proscription on US intelligence agencies sponsoring or carrying out an assassination. It reads:
- No person employed by or acting on behalf of the United States Government shall engage in, or conspire to engage in, assassination.
Previously, EO 11905 (Gerald Ford) had banned political assassinations and EO 12036 (Jimmy Carter) had further banned indirect U.S. involvement in assassinations. As early as 1998, this proscription against assassination was reinterpreted, and relaxed, for targets who are classified by the United States as connected to terrorism.
- Ronald Reagan (December 4, 1981). "Executive Order 12333—United States intelligence activities". US Federal Register. Retrieved December 30, 2008.
- "Executive Order 13470". Fas.org. Retrieved May 6, 2011.
- "Bush Orders Intelligence Overhaul", by Associated Press, July 31, 2008
- Executive Order: Further Amendments to Executive Order 12333, United States Intelligence Activities, White House, July 31, 2008
- "Executive Orders". Archives.gov. Retrieved May 6, 2011.
- CRS Report for Congress Assassination Ban and E.O. 12333: A Brief Summary January 4, 2002
- Walter Pincus (February 15, 1998). "Saddam Hussein's Death Is a Goal, Says Ex-CIA Chief". Washington Post. p. A36. Retrieved December 30, 2008. mirror
- Barton Gellman (October 21, 2001). "CIA Weighs 'Targeted Killing' Missions: Administration Believes Restraints Do Not Bar Singling Out Individual Terrorists". Washington Post. p. A01. Retrieved December 30, 2008. mirror
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- Text of the Order from NARA
- Metadata concerning Executive Order 12333, US Federal Register – indicates other executive orders that this E.O. amends, revokes, and is amended by.
- Should U.S. officials say anything that could harm U.S. soldiers?, Milnet – (a 5k summary of eo12333)
- Executive Order 13355: Strengthened Management of the Intelligence Community, White House, August 27, 2004
- Executive Order 13355: Strengthened Management of the Intelligence Community, US Federal Register, September 1, 2004
- Procedures Governing the Activities of DoD Intelligence Components that Affect United States Persons, December 1982
- Another Law Under Assault, Washington Post, September 29, 2005
- Hess, Pamela (November 8, 2002). "Experts: Yemen strike not assassination". UPI.
- Elizabeth B. Bazan (January 4, 2002). "Assassination Ban and E.O. 12333:A Brief Summary" (PDF). CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved April 26, 2006.
- Tom O'Connor, Mark Stevens (November 2005). "The Handling of Illegal Enemy Combatants". Archived from the original on May 5, 2006. Retrieved April 26, 2006.
- "Memorandum on Executive Order 12333 and Assassination" (PDF). Retrieved April 26, 2006.
- Jeffrey Addicott (November 7, 2002). "The Yemen Attack: Illegal Assassination or Lawful Killing?". HTML. Retrieved April 26, 2006.