Exodus: Gods and Kings

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Exodus: Gods and Kings
Exodus2014Poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Ridley Scott
Produced by
  • Peter Chernin
  • Ridley Scott
  • Jenno Topping
  • Michael Schaefer
  • Mark Huffam
Written by
Starring
Music by Alberto Iglesias
Cinematography Dariusz Wolski
Edited by Billy Rich
Production
companies
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Release dates
  • December 12, 2014 (2014-12-12) (United States)
Running time
150 minutes[1]
Country
  • United States
  • United Kingdom
  • Spain[2]
Language English
Budget $140 million[3]
Box office $268 million[4]

Exodus: Gods and Kings is a 2014 biblically-inspired epic fantasy film directed by Ridley Scott. It was written by Adam Cooper, Bill Collage, Jeffrey Caine and Steven Zaillian. The film stars Christian Bale, Joel Edgerton, John Turturro, Aaron Paul, Ben Mendelsohn, María Valverde, Sigourney Weaver, and Ben Kingsley. It is a loose interpretation of the exodus of the Hebrews from Egypt as led by Moses and related in the Book of Exodus.

Plot[edit]

In 1300 BC, Moses, a general and member of the royal family, prepares to attack the Hittite army with Prince Ramesses. A High Priestess divines a prophecy from animal intestines, which she relates to Ramesses' father, Seti I. He tells the two men of the prophecy, in which one (of Moses and Ramesses) will save the other and become a leader. During the attack on the Hittites, Moses saves Ramesses' life, leaving both men troubled. Later, Moses is sent to the city of Pithom to meet with the Viceroy Hegep, who oversees the Hebrew slaves. Upon his arrival, he encounters the slave Joshua and is appalled by the horrific conditions of the slaves. Shortly afterwards, Moses meets Nun, who informs him of his true lineage; he is the child of Hebrew parents who was sent by his sister Miriam to be raised by Pharaoh's daughter. Moses is stunned at the revelation and leaves angrily. However, two Hebrews also overhear Nun's story and report their discovery to Hegep.

Seti dies soon after Moses' return to Memphis, and Ramesses becomes the new Pharaoh (Ramesses II). Hegep arrives to reveal Moses' true identity, but Ramesses is conflicted about whether to believe the story. At the urging of Queen Tuya, he interrogates the servant Miriam, who denies being Moses' sister. When Ramesses threatens to cut off Miriam's arm, Moses comes to her defense, revealing he is a Hebrew. Although Tuya wants Moses to be put to death, Ramesses decides to send him into exile. Before leaving Egypt, Moses meets with his adopted mother and Miriam, who refer to him by his birth name of Moishe. Following a journey into the desert, Moses comes to Midian where he meets Zipporah and her father, Jethro. Moses becomes a shepherd, marries Zipporah and has a son Gershom.

Nine years later, Moses gets injured during a rockslide. He comes face to face with a burning bush and a boy called Malak, who serves as a representation of God. While recovering, Moses confesses his past to Zipporah and reveals what God has asked him to do. This drives a wedge between the couple, because Zipporah fears he will leave their family. After he arrives in Egypt, Moses reunites with Nun and Joshua, as well as meeting his brother Aaron for the first time. Moses returns to confront Ramesses, demanding the Hebrews be released from servitude. Ramesses refuses to listen, insisting that to free the slaves would be economically impossible. Upon Moses threatening Ramesses life, Ramesses orders the death of Moses, executing random Hebrew families until he his found. Using his military skills, he trains the slaves in the art of war. The Hebrews start attacking the Egyptians, prompting Ramesses to raid slave villages. Malak appears to Moses and explains that ten plagues will affect Egypt. All the water in the land turns to blood, and the Egyptians are further afflicted by the arrival of frogs, lice, and flies. The plagues of the death of livestock, boils, hail and thunder, locusts, and darkness continue to affect the Egyptians. While conversing with Malak, Moses is horrified at learning the tenth plague will be the death of all firstborn children. The Hebrews protect themselves by covering their doors with the blood of lambs, as instructed by Moses. Ramesses is devastated over his son's death and relents, telling Moses and the Hebrews to leave.

During the exodus from Egypt, the Hebrews follow Moses' original path through the desert and towards the Red Sea. Still grieving for his son, Ramesses decides to go after the Hebrews with his army. After making their way through a dangerous mountain pass, Moses and the Hebrews arrive at the edge of the sea, uncertain about what to do. Moses flings his sword into the water, which begins to recede. Ramesses and his army pursue the Hebrews, but Moses stays behind to confront them. The Red Sea reverts to its normal state, drowning the majority of the Egyptians (crossing the Red Sea). Moses survives and makes his way back to the Hebrews. Ramesses is revealed to have survived, but he is distraught over the destruction of his army. Moses leads the Hebrews back to Midian, where he reunites with Zipporah and Gershom. At Mount Sinai, after seeing Malak's displeasure at the Hebrews' construction of the Golden Calf, Moses transcribes the Ten Commandments. Years later, an elderly Moses riding with the Ark of the Covenant sees Malak walking with the Hebrews through the desert.

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

On March 15, 2013, Deadline.com reported Ridley Scott wanted Christian Bale to star in the film;[8] in August he confirmed the role to be Moses himself.[9] On the same day, Joel Edgerton joined the cast to play Ramses and production was set to begin in September.[10] The studio announced the casting calls in Spain's Almería and Pechina for 3,000 to 4,000 extras and with another 1,000 to 2,000 extras on the island of Fuerteventura.[11] On August 27, Aaron Paul joined the film to play Joshua.[12] Sigourney Weaver, Ben Kingsley and John Turturro were then still in talks about joining the cast.[13] On March 27, 2014, the studio changed the title of the film from Exodus to Exodus: Gods and Kings.[14]

Filming[edit]

Exodus set in Pechina, Andalusia, Spain

Shooting of the film began in October 2013 in Almería.[15] Additional filming was scheduled at Pinewood Studios, England. Shooting begun on October 22 in Tabernas (Almería) as the first and main location is Ouarzazate (Morocco), and in Sierra Alhamilla (Almería).[16][17] The Red Sea scene was filmed at a beach on Fuerteventura, one of the Canary Islands off the northwest coast of Africa.[18] Shooting also reportedly took place in Almeria and in Fuerteventura and lasted 74 days.[19]

Post-production[edit]

VFX supervisor Peter Chiang supervised the film's visual effects.[18] He said that "Ridley wanted to convey the sense that everything could be natural phenomenon, like an eclipse or tsunami, not just someone waving a stick at the sea."[20]

It took more than 1,500 visual effects shots to digitally bolster the ranks of the Hebrews and to help authentically render plagues of hail, locusts and frogs,[19] although 400 actual real life frogs were used on the set.[18] Around 30 to 40 people accompanied Bale while crossing the Red Sea, the rest being computer generated, along with the 180-foot wave, the horses and the chariots; there were 400,000 humans depicted in all.[18] In close-ups of people fleeing across the sea bed, the filmmakers used the beach's real waters.[18] For the hailstorm scene, the film's special effects team built special cannons that would fire polymer balls that would bounce and shatter with the same characteristics as an ice ball. About 30 such cannons were used in the film. For the distant hail, computer simulation were used.[18]

In an interview for Access Hollywood, Scott claimed there was a "final" cut of the film that was 4 hours,[21] implying that the version released in theaters was reduced by 90 minutes.

Music[edit]

On July 8, 2014, it was announced that Alberto Iglesias would be scoring the music for the film with additional music by Harry Gregson-Williams.[22]

Release[edit]

The film was released on the first weekend of December 4 and 5 in 6,462 screens and in markets such as South Korea, Mexico, Hong Kong, India.[23]

The film saw a nationwide release in North America on December 12 in 3,503 theaters.[24] It was released in the United Kingdom on December 26.

The film was released in conventional 2D, 3D, and IMAX 3D.[25]

Reception[edit]

Box office[edit]

Exodus: Gods and Kings grossed $65,014,513 in the U.S. and Canada and $203,017,315 in other territories for a worldwide total of $268,031,828.[4]

It opened in North America on December 12, 2014 across 3,503 theatres.[24] It earned $8.7 million on its opening day (including previews).[26][27] The film topped the box office during its opening weekend with $24.1 million which was significantly lower than the opening of Noah ($43.7 million), another biblically-inspired film of 2014.[28]

Outside North America, the film was released in 10 markets on December 4–5 and earned $23.1 million from 6,462 screens on its opening weekend.[23] The following week it earned $17.8 million from 27 international markets coming at second place at the box office behind The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies.[29] The film went No. 1 in 13 markets.[30] In its third week, the film added $30.9 million from 39 markets and was still halted at #2 behind The Battle of the Five Armies.[31]

The highest openings came from Russia ($8 million),[32] Brazil ($6.68 million), South Korea ($6.2 million), Mexico ($5.4 million), France ($5.35 million), the UK ($4.25 million), Spain ($3.7 million) and Germany ($3.64 million).[31][33][34] At the end of its theatrical run, Russia proved to be the most successful country with $14.2 million followed by the U.K., Ireland and Malta with $11.4 million and Australia with $7 million.[35]

Critical response[edit]

Exodus: Gods and Kings has received mixed to negative reviews from critics.[36] It received praise for its acting performances and technical achievements, but was criticized for its pacing, thin screenwriting, lack of character development, and overall feeling of emptiness.[37] The film has a "rotten" score of 28% on Rotten Tomatoes based on 167 reviews, with an average rating of 4.9 out of 10. The critical consensus states, "While sporadically stirring, and suitably epic in its ambitions, Exodus: Gods and Kings can't quite live up to its classic source material."[38] On Metacritic, the film has a score of 52 out of 100, based on 42 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews".[39]

Stephen Farber of The Hollywood Reporter gave a positive review and said, "Scott did a great job reviving the Roman sand-and-sandals epic when he made the Oscar-winning Gladiator. This Egyptian saga is not quite in the same league, but it confirms the director's flair of widescreen imagery. Exodus has the added kick of 3D technology, and it has enough eye-popping set pieces to please adventure fans."[40] Peter Travers of Rolling Stone was positive of the film and said, "Exodus is a biblical epic that comes at you at maximum velocity but stays stirringly, inspiringly human."[41] Reagan Gavin Rasquinha of The Times of India gave the film 4 out of 5 stars and said, "Exodus: Gods and Kings is 'spectacle' with a capital 'S' and in more ways than one, definitely epic."[42] Catherine Shoard of The Guardian gave 3 out of 5 stars and said, "It’s impossible not to feel some awe at the spectacle, but more shocks would have helped see you through the two-and-a-half hour running time."[43] Phillips Hawker of The Sydney Morning Herald gave a mixed review and awarded the film 3 out of 5 stars, saying, "Exodus: Gods And Kings... lacks Gladiator's full-on intensity and committed central performances, however; it's a mixture of the grand and the bland, and when it's not spectacular it's a little plodding."[44] Justin Chang of Variety said, "Some may well desire a purer, fuller version of the story, one more faithful to the text and less clearly shaped by the demands of the Hollywood blockbuster. But on its own grand, imperfect terms, "Exodus: Gods and Kings" is undeniably transporting, marked by a free-flowing visual splendor that plays to its creator’s unique strengths: Given how many faith-based movies are content to tell their audiences what to think or feel, it’s satisfying to see one whose images alone are enough to compel awestruck belief."[45] Jim Vejvoda of IGN said, "Director Ridley Scott gets lost in the desert at times in Exodus: Gods and Kings, his epic, but not entirely effective take on the story of Moses' journey from Prince of Egypt to Hebrew leader.[46]

On the negative side, Scott Mendelson of Forbes criticized the film for being too "dark" and "gritty," saying that the film lacked in humor or excitement, offering little nuance and little artistic interpretation beyond hitting the expected goal posts. He added, "Ridley Scott’s Exodus: Gods and Kings is a terrible film. It is a badly acted and badly written melodrama that takes what should be a passionate and emotionally wrenching story and drains it of all life and all dramatic interest."[47] Pete Hammond of Deadline.com in his review said, "Ridley Scott [can] do a plague well, and here, he gets to do 10 of them. But is this oh-so-familiar tale still fresh enough to get people into theaters in the droves needed to make back the very high production values that we see on screen?"[48] Alonso Duralde of The Wrap also gave a negative review and said, "If you're going into Exodus: Gods and Kings thinking that director Ridley Scott is going to give the Moses story anything we didn't already get from Cecil B. DeMille in two versions of The Ten Commandments, prepare to be disappointed."[49]

Controversies[edit]

Race in casting[edit]

The Sydney Morning Herald and Christian Today reported that the casting of white actors in the lead roles was being protested.[50][51] Four white actors were cast to play the lead roles (Hebrew and ancient Egyptian characters): Christian Bale as Moses, Joel Edgerton as Ramses II, Sigourney Weaver as Queen Tuya, and Aaron Paul as Joshua. The Sydney Morning Herald also reported the online community's observations that the Great Sphinx of Giza in the film has a European profile.[50] Christian Today reported that an online petition was under way. It also compared Exodus to the 1956 film The Ten Commandments with its all-white cast and said, "The racial climate, number of black actors, and opportunities provided to them were very different in 1956, however."[51] Some Twitter users called for a boycott of the film.[52][53]

More so, Forbes' Scott Mendelson said that the film didn't need to be "whitewashed" and stated that "Even if we accept the argument that Moses had to be played by a world-renowned movie star and that in all likelihood that meant a white actor, I do not accept the idea that the rest of the main cast needed to be filled out with Caucasian actors of varying recognisably."[54]

Scott responded that without the casting of big-name actors, the film would never have been made, by saying "I can't mount a film of this budget...and say that my lead actor is Mohammad so-and-so from such-and-such...I'm just not going to get financed",[55][56] and that those seeking to boycott the movie on such grounds should "get a life."[57]

Biblical accuracy[edit]

Before the film's release, some controversy arose over statements from Ridley Scott that he would be looking to natural causes for the miracles, including drainage from a tsunami for the parting of the Red Sea.[58] This, combined with statements from Christian Bale about Moses, whom he portrayed ("I think the man was likely schizophrenic and was one of the most barbaric individuals that I ever read about in my life"),[59] raised criticism. Those who voiced their concern included author Brian Godawa saying, "It's accurate to portray Moses as an imperfect hero, so Christians won't take issue with that, but to be so extreme as to call him one of the most barbaric people in history, that sounds like he's going out of his way to distance himself from the very people you’d think he wants to appeal to."[60] Another was the CEO of Faith-Driven Consumer, Chris Stone, saying about Bale's comments "There's nothing in the biblical history that supports that. It's an indication that there will be a tremendous disconnect between Bale’s interpretation and the expectations of the market"[60] and suggesting that Christians will not go to cinemas to see the film.[61] According to Scott, the parting of the Red Sea was inspired by a tsunami believed to have been triggered by an underwater earthquake off the Italian coast around 3000 BC.[19]

In her review, Ellen White (a senior editor at the Biblical Archaeology Society), highlighted the Biblical inaccuracies of the film. She notes that all theological points in the Biblical plagues have been removed for the film version, there are fewer than ten plagues in the film, the plagues themselves are of a different nature (crocodiles, for example), and the Israelites were afflicted by the plagues along with the Egyptians. She summarized her assessment of the inaccuracies by stating, "Their story was so different that if they didn't use the Biblical names and released the same movie with a different title, I might not have even recognized it".[62] Peter Enns of Patheos responded to the widespread reaction of criticism with a satirical article arguing that Scott's interpretation of the text may be "plausibly" accurate, to parallel defenses of biblical inerrancy.[63]

Local adaptation and censorship[edit]

In Morocco the state-run Moroccan Cinema Centre (CCM) initially approved the film's screening, only for officials to ban it on the day before its premiere because of the personnification of the voice of God. After some of the film's dialogue had been edited, the film was subsequently approved for screening.[64]

Exodus was banned in Egypt.[65] The Egyptian culture minister described it as "a Zionist film", and said it was banned because of "historical inaccuracies", such as creating a false impression that Moses and the Jews built the pyramids.[66][67][68] Unlike other biblical epics, Exodus was not censored by the Ministry of Culture. In Islam, Moses is considered to be a prophet of Allah, but the country's top religion institution, Al-Azhar, did not object to the contents of the movie, as it had with the 2014 film on Noah.[69]

The film was also denied release in the United Arab Emirates. Authorities said they had found "many mistakes" in the story. The director of Media Content Tracking at the National Media Council explained: "This movie is under our review and we found that there are many mistakes not only about Islam but other religions too. So, we will not release it in the UAE."[70]

The film was also banned in Kuwait.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "EXODUS: GODS AND KINGS [2D] (12A)". British Board of Film Classification. November 21, 2014. Retrieved November 21, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Exodus Gods and Kings (2014)". British Film Institute. Retrieved December 15, 2014. 
  3. ^ "‘Exodus: Gods and Kings’ Director Ridley Scott on Creating His Vision of Moses". Variety. Retrieved November 26, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b "Exodus: Gods and Kings (2014)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved February 26, 2015. 
  5. ^ "EXODUS: Gods and Kings". Exodus: Gods and Kings. 
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  7. ^ "EXODUS: Gods and Kings". Exodus: Gods and Kings. 
  8. ^ "Christian Bale Eyeing Moses?". deadline.com. March 14, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2013. 
  9. ^ "‘EXODUS’ Confirms Christian Bale as Moses, Casting Joel Edgerton as Ramses". screencrush.com. August 13, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2013. 
  10. ^ "Joel Edgerton to Battle Christian Bale in ‘Exodus’". variety.com. August 13, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2013. 
  11. ^ "‘Moses’ Calls For Extras In Spain; Masses Flock". deadline.com. August 20, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2013. 
  12. ^ "‘Breaking Bad’ Star Aaron Paul Joins Christian Bale in Moses Biblical Drama ‘Exodus’". variety.com. August 27, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Ridley Scott In ‘Exodus’ Talks With Ben Kingsley, John Turturro, Sigourney Weaver, Aaron Paul". deadline.com. August 27, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2013. 
  14. ^ Tapley, Kristopher (March 27, 2014). "Ridley Scott's 'Exodus' with Christian Bale gets a title change". hitfix.com. Retrieved March 28, 2014. 
  15. ^ Vilkomerson, Sara (July 1, 2014). "First look: Christian Bale as Moses in Ridley Scott's 'Exodus'". ew.com. Retrieved July 2, 2014. 
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  17. ^ "Christian Bale looks ready for battle as filming on Ridley Scott's biblical epic Exodus gets underway in Spain". dailymail.co.uk. October 22, 2013. Retrieved October 25, 2013. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f Don Steinberg (November 16, 2015). "Special Effects Enliven ‘Exodus’ Epic". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 20, 2015. 
  19. ^ a b c Gina Mcintyre (December 4, 2014). "Ridley Scott's 'Exodus' casts a wide net of spectacle and family". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  20. ^ Scott Bowles (November 25, 2015). "Noah and Exodus: Gods and Kings presented VFX challenges of biblical proportions.". Deadline.com. Retrieved March 20, 2015. 
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  23. ^ a b Pamela McClintock (December 8, 2014). "Global Box Office: 'Exodus: Gods and Kings' Delivers $23 Million in Early Foreign Launch". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 8, 2014. 
  24. ^ a b Ray Subers (December 11, 2014). "Forecast: 'Exodus' to Reign Supreme at the Box Office This Weekend". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 12, 2014. 
  25. ^ "Exodus: Gods and Kings An IMAX 3D Experience". imax.com. Retrieved December 16, 2014. 
  26. ^ Anthony D'Alessandro (December 12, 2014). "Exodus’, ‘Top Five’ Kickstart Weekend With Thursday Shows — UPDATE". Deadline.com. Retrieved December 13, 2014. 
  27. ^ Anthony D'Alessandro (December 13, 2014). "Moses Battles Plague Of Holiday Shoppers On Friday – Box Office". Deadline.com. Retrieved December 14, 2014. 
  28. ^ Ray Subers (December 14, 2014). "Weekend Report: 'Exodus' is Weak 'King'". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 29, 2014. 
  29. ^ Ray Subers (December 14, 2014). "Around-the-World Roundup: 'Hobbit' Finale Opens to $122 Million Overseas". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved December 15, 2014. 
  30. ^ Nancy Tartaglione (December 14, 2014). "Footloose ‘Hobbit’ Grows; ‘Mockingjay’ Tempers ‘Fire': Intl Box Office Final". Deadline.com. Retrieved December 15, 2014. 
  31. ^ a b Nancy Tartaglione (December 29, 2014). "‘Hobbit’, ‘Exodus’ Lead XMas Frame; Euro, Korea Pics Boom Locally: Intl BO Update". Deadline.com. Retrieved December 29, 2014. 
  32. ^ Nancy Tartaglione (January 4, 2015). "‘Hobbit’ Passes $500M; ‘American Sniper’, ‘Taken 3′ Skillful: Intl Box Office Update". Deadline.com. Retrieved January 5, 2015. 
  33. ^ Nancy Tartaglione (December 7, 2014). "‘Exodus: Gods And Kings’ Commands $23.1M In Overseas Debut: Intl Box Office". Deadline.com. Retrieved December 8, 2014. 
  34. ^ Phil Hoad (December 10, 2014). "Global box office: Exodus grapples with Noah for top prophet margins". The Guardian. Retrieved December 11, 2014. 
  35. ^ "Exodus: Gods and Kings". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 18, 2015. 
  36. ^ Faughdner, Ryan (December 12, 2014). "'Exodus: Gods and Kings' rides in with $1.2 million Thursday night". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 12, 2014. 
  37. ^ Sandy Schaefer (December 2, 2014). "‘Exodus: Gods and Kings’ Early Reviews: Ridley Scott’s Epic Draws Mixed Reaction". Screenrant. Retrieved December 4, 2014. 
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  41. ^ Peter Travers (December 11, 2014). "Exodus: Gods and Kings". The Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 12, 2014. 
  42. ^ Reagan Gavin Rasquinha (December 4, 2014). "Exodus: Gods and Kings". Times of India. Retrieved December 7, 2014. 
  43. ^ Catherine Shoard (November 29, 2014). "Exodus: Gods and Kings review – holy Moses, wholly acceptable for the devout". The Guardian. Retrieved December 8, 2014. 
  44. ^ Phillipa Hawker (December 5, 2014). "Exodus: Gods and Kings review: Ridley Scott's biblical epic is equally inspired and plagued". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved December 7, 2014. 
  45. ^ Justin Chang (November 29, 2014). "Film Review: ‘Exodus: Gods and Kings’". Variety. Retrieved December 7, 2014. 
  46. ^ Jim Vejvoda (December 3, 2014). "Exodus: Gods and Kings Review". IGN. Retrieved December 7, 2014. 
  47. ^ Scott Mendelson (December 5, 2014). "Review: 'Exodus' Is God-Awful". Forbes. Retrieved December 6, 2014. 
  48. ^ Pete Hammond (December 9, 2014). "‘Exodus: Gods And Kings’ Review: Pete Hammond On Great Hair And Great Plagues". Deadline.com. Retrieved December 10, 2014. 
  49. ^ Alonso Duralde (November 29, 2014). "‘Exodus: Gods and Kings’ Review: Christian Bale Makes a Stiff White Moses in Ridley Scott's Stolid Epic". The Wrap. Retrieved December 8, 2014. 
  50. ^ a b Begley, Patrick (July 29, 2014). "Ridley Scott's Exodus film cops complaints about 'racist' casting of Joel Edgerton and Sigourney Weaver". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved July 29, 2014. 
  51. ^ a b Marie, Brownie (July 21, 2014). "'Exodus: Gods and Kings' faces boycott calls over all-white lead cast". Christian Today. Retrieved July 29, 2014. 
  52. ^ Dickerson, Jessica (July 8, 2014). "‘Exodus: Gods And Kings' Film Sparks Backlash For Whitewashing Characters". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 10, 2014. 
  53. ^ Diaz, Evelyn (August 8, 2014). "Ridley Scott's Exodus Accused of Racism - Biblical epic features only white heroes, Black slaves and villains.". Black Entertainment Television. Retrieved August 10, 2014. 
  54. ^ Mendelson, Scott (December 15, 2014). "Why 'Exodus' Didn't Need to Be Whitewashed". Forbes. Retrieved December 16, 2014. 
  55. ^ http://variety.com/2014/film/news/ridley-scott-exodus-gods-and-kings-christian-bale-1201363668/
  56. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b04v8nj3/film-2014-episode-13
  57. ^ "Scott, Bale defend 'Exodus' casting". Associated Press. December 8, 2014. 
  58. ^ Vilkomerson, Sara (October 23, 2014). "How Ridley Scott looked to science -- not miracles -- to part the Red Sea in 'Exodus: Gods and Kings'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved November 19, 2014. 
  59. ^ Kumar, Anugrah (October 26, 2014). "Moses was 'Barbaric, Schizophrenic,' Says 'Exodus: Gods and Kings' Actor Christian Bale". The Christian Post. Retrieved November 19, 2014. 
  60. ^ a b Bond, Paul (October 25, 2014). "Christian Bale Calls Moses "Barbaric," "Schizophrenic" Ahead of 'Exodus' Release". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 19, 2014. 
  61. ^ Herman, Barbara (October 28, 2014). "'Exodus' Controversies: Christian Bale's 'Barbaric' Moses And All-White Cast Stir Up Critics". International Business Times. Retrieved November 19, 2014. 
  62. ^ White, Ellen (December 18, 2014). "Excruciating Exodus Movie Exudes Errors". Biblical Archaeology Review. Retrieved January 10, 2015. 
  63. ^ Enns, Peter (December 17, 2014). "Exodus: Gods and Kings–unless you’re a biased blasphemer, the movie is utterly historically plausible". Patheos. Retrieved January 10, 2015. 
  64. ^ Nancy Tartaglione (January 7, 2015). "Morocco Clears ‘Exodus: Gods And Kings’ For Release, With Tweaks (Report)". Deadline.com. Retrieved January 7, 2015. 
  65. ^ Awford, Jenny (December 26, 2014). "Now Egypt bans Hollywood bible epic Exodus because of 'historical inaccuracies'". Daily Mail. Retrieved January 10, 2015. 
  66. ^ "Egypt bans 'Zionist' film Exodus and cites 'historical inaccuracies'". The Guardian. December 26, 2014. 
  67. ^ "Egypt Reported to Ban Latest U.S. ‘Exodus’ Film". The New York Times. December 26, 2014. Retrieved January 17, 2015. 
  68. ^ "Egypt bans 'inaccurate' Exodus film". December 26, 2014. Retrieved January 17, 2015. 
  69. ^ "Noah film should be banned says Egypt's top Islamic body". The Telegraph. March 6, 2014. Retrieved January 17, 2015. 
  70. ^ Radhakrishnan, Manjusha (December 27, 2014). "‘Exodus’ will not release in the UAE". Gulf News. Retrieved January 10, 2015. 

External links[edit]