Exogyra

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Exogyra
Exogyracostata.JPG
Exogyra flabellata
(Owl Creek Formation, Late Cretaceous, Mississippi)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Bivalvia
Order: Ostreoida
Family: Gryphaeidae
Genus: Exogyra
Species
  • see text

Exogyra is an extinct genus of fossil saltwater clams, marine bivalve mollusks in the family Gryphaeidae, the foam oysters or honeycomb oysters.[1] These bivalves grew cemented by the more cupped left valve. The right valve is flatter, and the beak is curved to one side. Exogyra lived on solid substrates in warm seas.

The subgenus Aetostreon is sometimes considered a separate genus, due to a lack of the fine set of parallel ribs (chomata) separated by pits, on the inner surface of the valves (which is present in the nominate subgenus).[2]

Species[edit]

Exogyra (subgenus Exogyra) (Say, 1820)

  • Exogyra africana Say, 1820 [3]
  • Exogyra aquillana Stephenson, 1953
  • Exogyra arietina[4][5]
  • Exogyra callophyla Ihering, 1903
  • Exogyra cancellata Stephenson, 1914
  • Exogyra clarki Shattuck, 1903
  • Exogyra columbella Meek, 1876
  • Exogyra contorta Eichwald, 1868
  • Exogyra costata
Exogyra costata, Prairie Bluff Chalk Formation (Maastrichtian); Starkville, Mississippi.
  • Exogyra davidsoni[6]
  • Exogyra columba
  • Exogyra erraticostata Stephenson [7]
  • Exogyra fimbriata Conrad, 1855
  • Exogyra flabellata
  • Exogyra ganhamoroba Maury, 1936
  • Exogyra guadalupae Whitney, 1937 (thesis)
  • Exogyra haliotoidea Maury, 1936
  • Exogyra laevigata[8]
  • Exogyra laeviuscula Roemer, 1849
  • Exogyra lancha Stoyanow, 1949
  • Exogyra levis Stephenson, 1952
  • Exogyra mutatoria White, 1887
  • Exogyra obliquata Pulteney[9]
  • Exogyra paupercula Cragin, 1893
  • Exogyra plexa Cragin, 1893
  • Exogyra potosina Castillo and Aguilera, 1895
  • Exogyra ponderosa Roemer, 1852
  • Exogyra praevirgula Douville & Jourdy, 1924 [10][11]
  • Exogyra quitmanensis Cragin, 1893
  • Exogyra sergipensis Maury, 1936
  • Exogyra sigmoidea [12] Reuss, 1844
  • Exogyra solea Muller, 1910
  • Exogyra upatoiensis Stephenson, 1914
  • Exogyra whitneyi Bose, 1910
  • Exogyra woolmani Richards, 1947

Exogyra (subgenus Aetostreon) (Bayle, 1878)[13]

  • Exogyra aquila Brongniart, 1871
  • Exogyra bale
  • Exogyra couloni Say, 1820
  • Exogyra imbricatum Kraus, 1843 [2] (possibly a morphotype of E. couloni)
  • Exogyra latissimum [14]
  • Exogyra miotaurinensis Sacco, 1897 [15] (Type species of subgenus)
  • Exogyra neocomiensis[16]
  • Exogyra pilmatuegrossum [17]
  • Exogyra rectangularis[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://crnmac1.physics.uiowa.edu/fossils/oysters/ilymatogyra/Exogyra-plexa.html Evolution of Exogyra plexa
  2. ^ a b Pewgaczewska.H., (n.d.) http://www.app.pan.pl/archive/published/app20/app20-047.pdf
  3. ^ http://zipcodezoo.com/Animals/E/Exogyra_africana/
  4. ^ http://www.bivatol.org/downloads/Lab_2_Bivalve_Fossil_Record_curriculum.pdf
  5. ^ https://www.wardsci.com/store/catalog/product.jsp?catalog_number=528130
  6. ^ http://fossilworks.org/bridge.pl?a=taxonInfo&taxon_no=304725
  7. ^ http://fossilsofnj.com/invertebrates/exogyra.htm
  8. ^ Lake.P., and Rastall.R.H., (1913), A Text Book of Geology, 2nd edition, London: Edward Arnold's Geological series Page 426 and 436
  9. ^ Castell. C.P., and Cox. L.R., (1975), British Mesozoic Fossils, 5th edition, London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), page 86
  10. ^ http://translate.google.co.uk/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=http://science.mnhn.fr/all/list%3FspecificEpithet%3Dpraevirgula%26genus%3DExogyra&prev=search
  11. ^ http://gni.globalnames.org/name_indices/98855151/name_index_records
  12. ^ Ivanov. M., Hrdlickova. S., and Gregorova. R., (2005), The Complete Encyclopedia of Fossils, 3rd. ed., Lisse: Rebo International, page 133
  13. ^ Paleobiology Database, (n.d.), Exogyra (Aetostreon), [online], Exogyra (Aetostreon) entry, accessed 7th May 2013
  14. ^ Anon, (n.d.), Aetostreon latissium As a Derived Fossil, [online], Available at: http://www.fcaq-geolotech.co.uk/shop/bivalves/96-aetostreon-latissimum-as-a-dreived-fossil.html, Accessed 7th May 2013
  15. ^ Paleobiology Database, (n.d.), Exogyra (Aetostreon miotaurinensis, [online], Available at: http://paleodb.org/?a=basicTaxonInfo&taxon_no=118252, accessed 7th May 2013
  16. ^ a b Global Names Index, (2000), Global Names Index, [online], Available at: http://gni.globalnames.org/name_strings?page=213&search_term=ns%3AAET%2A, Accessed 7th May 2013
  17. ^ Rubillar A.E, Lazo, E.B., (2008), Description of Aetostreon pilmatuegrossum sp. nov. from the Lower Cretaceous of Argentina (Neuquén Basin), and significance of the conservative left valve morphology in oysters of the genus Aetostreon Bayle, [online], Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667108001705, accessed 7th May 2013
  • National Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Fossils