Expedition of Khalid ibn al-Walid (2nd Dumatul Jandal)

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Khalid ibn al-Walid invaded the city of Dumatul Jandal in April 631 AD, to destroy the holy symbol of Wadd and allegedly "slaughter" its inhabitants.[1][2]

This was the 2nd time Khalid was sent on a military invasion to Dumatul Jandal. He was also sent to Dumatul Jandal in March 631 to invade the land of a Christian prince who ruled the area.[3][4][5][6]

Wadd[edit]

Wadd (Arabic: ود‎) meaning the God of Love and Friendship, also known as Ilumquh, ʻAmm and Sīn, was the Minaean moon god. Snakes were held sacred to the believers of Wadd. He is mentioned in the Qur'an (71:23) as a God in the time of the Prophet, Noah.

And they say: By no means leave your gods, nor leave Wadd, nor Suwa'; nor Yaghuth, and Ya'uq and Nasr. (Qur'an 71:23)

Before it razzed by the invasion of Khalid, the holy shrine of Wadd was located at Dumatul Jandal.[2][7]

Expedition[edit]

Muhammad sent Khalid ibn Walid the demolish Wadd after the battle of Tabuk ,[1][2] an idol worshipped by the Banu Kalb tribe.[7]

Khalid went to Dumatul Jandal to destroy it, but the Banu Abd-Wadd and the Banu Amir al Ajdar tribes resisted. Khalid allegedly "slew all resistance", Ibn Kalbi also mentions that among those "slaughtered" were Qatan ibn-Shurayb, whose mother wept at his death and fell over to his body and started sobbing until she supposedly died. Khalid demolished the deistic symbol and allegedly destroyed the entire shrine.[1][2]

Islamic primary sources[edit]

The Muslim historian Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi, mentions this event as follows:

Abu-al-Mundbir related that [his father] al-Kalbi once said: I was told by Malik ibn-Harithah al-Ajdari that he himself had seen Wadd, and that his father was wont to send him to it with some milk saying, "Offer it unto thy god to drink." Malik added, "I used to drink the milk myself.' He also said, "I also saw it after Khalid ibn-al-Walid had destroyed it and smashed it into pieces." For the Apostle of God had, after the battle of Tabuk, sent Khalid ibn-al-Walid to destroy it. But the banu-'Abd-Wadd and the banu-'Amir al-Ajdar resisted Khalid and attempted to defend the idol. Khalid, therefore, fought and defeated them, and then destroyed [the shrine] and demolished the idol. Among those killed in battle on that day was a man of the banu-'Abd-Wadd whose name was Qatan ihn-Shurayb. His mother happened upon him dead and thereupon cried out saying:

"Verily friendiship doth never last, Nor do the blissful times 'er endure; A mother's love doth not save a son From misfortune, nor his life insure." She then said:

"O thou the centre of my love, The source of all my joy and mirth! Would that thy mother were never born, Nor e'er to thee hath given birth." After which she fell over his body sobbing and died. Hassan ibn-Masad, the cousin of al-Ukaydir the ruler of Dumat al-Jandal, was also killed. [In short] it was Khalid who destroyed [Wadd].

[The Book of Idols, By Hisham Ibn-Al-Kalbi, Pg 48-49] [2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c William Pickthall, Marmaduke (1967). Islamic culture, Volume 9. Islamic Culture Board. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-142-49174-1.  Original is from the University of Virginia
  2. ^ a b c d e ibn al Kalbi, Hisham (1952). The book of idols: being a translation from the Arabic of the Kitāb al-asnām. Princeton University Press. p. 48. ASIN B002G9N1NQ. 
  3. ^ Abu Khalil, Shawqi (1 March 2004). Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Dar-us-Salam. p. 239. ISBN 978-9960-897-71-4. 
  4. ^ Abū Khalīl, Shawqī (2003). Atlas of the Quran. Dar-us-Salam. p. 244. ISBN 978-9960-897-54-7. 
  5. ^ Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, Saifur (2005), The Sealed Nectar, Darussalam Publications, p. 277 
  6. ^ Muir, William (10 August 2003). Life of Mahomet. Kessinger Publishing Co. p. 458. ISBN 978-0-7661-7741-3. 
  7. ^ a b Sale, George (12 Jan 2010). The Koran: commonly called the Alcoran of Mohammed, Volume 1. BiblioBazaar, LLC. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-142-49174-1.