Expressways of China

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The expressway network of China is an integrated system of national and provincial-level expressways in the People's Republic of China, forming the world's largest expressway system by length. At the end of 2013, the total length of the network was 104,500 kilometres (64,900 mi), of which 8,260 kilometres (5,130 mi) of expressways were built in that year alone.[1] A system of national-level expressways, officially known as the National Trunk Highway System (simplified Chinese: 中国国家高速公路网; traditional Chinese: 中國國家高速公路網; pinyin: Zhōngguó Guójiā Gāosù Gōnglùwǎng) and abbreviated NTHS,[2] with 7 radial expressways (from the capital Beijing), 9 north-south expressways and 18 east-west expressways, forms the backbone of the expressway network in the country. This backbone is known as the 7918 network (simplified Chinese: 7918网; traditional Chinese: 7918網; pinyin: 7918 wǎng).[3] In addition, the provincial-level divisions of China each have their own expressway systems.

Expressways in China are a fairly recent addition to the transportation infrastructure in the country. Previously, the national road network consisted of a system of at-grade China National Highways. China's first expressway, the Shanghai–Jiading Expressway, opened in October 1988.[4][note 1] This 17.37 kilometres (10.79 mi) expressway now forms part of Shanghai's expressway network. The early 1990s saw the start of the country's massive plan to upgrade its network of roads.[2] In 1999, the length of the network exceeded 10,000 kilometres (6,200 mi) in length.[5] Many of the major expressways parallel routes of the older China National Highways.

History[edit]

Length of National Trunk Highway System by year[5]
Year[note 2] Length
1988 0 km (0 mi)
1989 147 km (91 mi)
1990 271 km (168 mi)
1991 522 km (324 mi)
1992 574 km (357 mi)
1993 652 km (405 mi)
1994 1,145 km (711 mi)
1995 1,603 km (996 mi)
1996 2,141 km (1,330 mi)
1997 3,422 km (2,126 mi)
1998 4,771 km (2,965 mi)
1999 8,733 km (5,426 mi)
2000 11,605 km (7,211 mi)
2001 16,314 km (10,137 mi)
2002 19,453 km (12,088 mi)
2003 25,200 km (15,700 mi)
2004 29,800 km (18,500 mi)
2005 34,300 km (21,300 mi)
2006 41,005 km (25,479 mi)
2007 45,339 km (28,172 mi)
2008 53,913 km (33,500 mi)
2009 60,436 km (37,553 mi)
2010 65,055 km (40,423 mi)
2011 74,113 km (46,052 mi)
2012 84,946 km (52,783 mi)
2013 96,200 km (59,800 mi)
2014 104,500 km (64,900 mi)

Prior to the 1980s, freight and passenger transport activities were predominantly achieved by rail transport rather than by road. The 1980s and 1990s saw a growing trend toward roads as a method of transportation and a shift away from rail transport. In 1978, rail transport accounted for 54.4% of the total freight movement in China, while road transport only accounted for 2.8%. By 1997, road transport's share of freight movement had increased to 13.8% while the railway's share decreased to 34.3%. Similarly, road's share of passenger transport increased from 29.9% to 53.3% within the same time period, with railway's share decreasing from 62.7% to 35.4%. The shift from rail to road can be attributed to the rapid development of the expressway network in China.[2]

On 7 June 1984, China's expressway ambitions began when construction of the Shenyang–Dalian Expressway began between the cities of Shenyang and Dalian. The expressway is now part of the longer G15 Shenyang–Haikou Expressway. Later that year, construction began on the Shanghai–Jiading Expressway in the city of Shanghai. The Shanghai–Jiading Expressway opened on 31 October 1988, becoming the first completed expressway in China.[4]

On 13 January 2005, Zhang Chunxian, China's Minister of Transport announced that that China would build a network of 85,000 kilometres (53,000 mi) expressways over the next three decades, connecting all provincial capitals and cities with a population of over 200,000 residents. The announcement introduced the 7918 network (simplified Chinese: 7918网; traditional Chinese: 7918網; pinyin: 7918 wǎng), a grid of 7 radial expressways from Beijing, 9 north-south expressways, and 18 east-west expressways that would form the backbone of the national expressway system.[3] This replaced the earlier proposal for five north-south and seven east-west core routes, proposed in 1992.[2]

Costs[edit]

Map of the National Expressway Network
     Radial line      North–South line    East–West line
     Zonal ring line (Dot line: Planned)
Combined G4/G5 (formerly, G030) (Jingshi Expressway section) after Zhaoxindian/Changxindian exit (Early July 2004 image)
G50 Huyu Expressway crossing over the Si Du River Bridge in Enshi Prefecture, Hubei. The bridge cost around US $100 million.[6]

The total costs of the national expressway network are estimated to be 2 trillion yuan (some 240 billion US dollars). From 2005 to 2010, the annual investment was planned to run from 140 billion yuan (17 billion US dollars) to 150 billion yuan (18 billion US dollars), while from 2010 to 2020, the annual investment planned is to be around 100 billion yuan (12 billion US dollars).

The construction fund will come from vehicle purchase tax, fees and taxes collected by local governments, state bonds, domestic investment and foreign investment. Unlike other freeway systems, almost all of the roads on the NTHS/"7918 Network" are toll roads that are largely financed by private companies under contract from provincial governments. The private companies raise money through bond and stock offerings and recover money through tolls.

Efforts to impose a national gasoline tax to finance construction of the tollways met with opposition and it has been very difficult for both the Communist Party of China and the State Council to pass such a tax through the National People's Congress of China.[7][8]

Expressway nomenclature[edit]

An old signpost refers the Jingshi Expressway as the Jingshi Freeway, thus hinting at its previous nomenclature. (Summer 2004 image)

Neither officially named "motorway" nor "highway", China used to call these roads "freeways". In this sense, the word "free" means that the traffic is free-flowing; that is, cross traffic is grade separated and the traffic on the freeway is not impeded by traffic control devices like traffic lights and stop signs. However, many misinterpret "free" as meaning "no cost", and this may be misleading because most of the expressways charge tolls. Some time in the 1990s, "expressways" became the standardised term.

Note that "highways" refers to China National Highways, which are not expressways at all.

"Express routes" exist too; they are akin to expressways but are mainly inside cities. The "express route" name is a derivation of the Chinese name kuaisu gonglu (compare with expressway, gaosu gonglu). Officially, "expressway" is used for both expressways and express routes, which is also the standard used here.

The names of the individual expressways are regularly composed of two characters representing start and end of expressway, e.g. "Jingcheng" expressway is the expressway between "Jing" (meaning Beijing) and Chengde.

Expressway speed limits[edit]

The Road Traffic Safety Law of the People's Republic of China has raised the speed limit nationwide from 110 km/h to 120 km/h (75 mph), effective May 1, 2004.

A minimum speed limit of 70 km/h is in force. On overtaking lanes, however, this could be as high as 100 km/h to 110 km/h. Penalties for driving both below and in excess of the prescribed speed limits are enforced.

Expressway legislation[edit]

Only motor vehicles are allowed to enter expressways. As of May 1, 2004, "new drivers" (i.e., those with a Chinese driver's licence for less than a year) are allowed on expressways, something that was prohibited from the mid-1990s.

Overtaking on the right, speeding, and illegal use of the emergency belt (or hard shoulder) cost violators stiff penalties.

Expressway signage[edit]

Chinese expressway distances road sign. Shown here are some connections to the Expressways of Beijing in eastern Beijing. (Spring 2003 image)
Chinese expressway exit sign (older version). Shown here is an exit sign to Liangxiang Airport in southwestern Beijing on the Jingshi Expressway. (Summer 2004 image)

Expressways in China are signed in both Simplified Chinese and English (except for parts of the Jingshi Expressway, which relies only on Chinese characters, and some provinces, in Inner Mongolia for example signs are in Mongolian and Chinese, and in XUAR the signs are in Chinese and Uyghur Language which uses Perso-Arabic Alphabet). This sharply reduces the language barrier; however, very few toll officials at toll gates speak English.

The signs on Chinese expressways use white lettering on a green background, like Japanese highways, Swiss autobahns and United States freeways. Newer signage places the exit number in an exit tab to the upper right of the sign, making them very similar in appearance to American freeway signs.

Exits are well indicated, with signs far ahead of exits. There are frequent signs that announce the next three exits. At each exit, there is a sign with the distance to the next exit. Exit signs are also posted 3000 m, 2000 m, 1000 m, and 500 m ahead of the exit, immediately before the exit, and at the exit itself.

Service areas and refreshment areas are standard on some of the older, more established expressways, and are expanding in number. Gas stations are frequent.

Signs indicate exits, toll gates, service/refreshment areas, intersections, and also warn about keeping a fair distance apart. "Distance checks" are commonplace; the idea here is to keep the two-second rule (or, as Chinese law requires, at least a 100 m distance between cars). Speed checks and speed traps are often signposted (in fact, on the Jingshen Expressway in the Beijing section, even the cameras have a warning sign above them), but some may just be scarecrow signs. Signs urging drivers to slow down, warning about hilly terrain, banning driving in emergency lanes, or about different road surfaces are also present. Also appearing from time to time are signs signaling the overtaking lane (which legally should only be used to pass other cars). Although most English signs are comprehensible, occasionally the English is garbled.

Some, if not most, expressways have digital displays. These displays may advise against speeding, indicate upcoming road construction, warn of traffic jams, or alert drivers to rain. Recommended detours are also signaled. The great majority of messages are only in Chinese.

Expressway exit numbering[edit]

Exit numbering has been standardised in China from its inception. Most Chinese expressways, especially those in the national network, use distance-based exit numbering, with the last three numbers before the decimal point taken used as the exit number. Hence, an exit present at km 982.7 would be Exit 982, whereas an exit at km 3,121.2 would be Exit 121.

Mostly regional expressways still use sequential exit numbering, although even here, new signage feature distance-based exit numbering. Before the 2009–2010 numbering switchover, nearly all of China's expressways used sequential numbering, and a few expressways used Chinese names outright.

The exit is written inside an oval in green letters to the immediate right of the Chinese word for exit, "出口" (chukou).

Expressway tolls and financing[edit]

Chinese expressway toll gate. Shown here is the Dujiakan toll gate on the Jingshi Expressway in southwest Beijing. (Summer 2004 image)

Nearly all expressways charge tolls. Tolls are roughly around CNY 0.5 per kilometre, and minimum rates (e.g. CNY 5) usually apply regardless of distance. However, some are more expensive (the Jinji Expressway costs around CNY 0.66 per kilometre) and some are less expensive (the Jingshi Expressway in Beijing costs around CNY 0.33 per kilometre). It is noteworthy that cheaper expressways do not necessarily mean poorer roads or a greater risk of traffic congestion.[citation needed]

Chinese expressway toll charges table. In many jurisdictions it is legally required that charges be openly disclosed. Shown here is the toll charges table at Doudian exit on the Jingshi Expressway in southwest Beijing. (Autumn 2004 image)

Expressway planning is performed by the Ministry of Transportation of the People's Republic of China. Unlike the road networks in most nations, most Chinese expressways are not directly owned by the state, but rather are owned by for-profit corporations (which have varying amounts of public and private ownership) which borrow money from banks or securities markets based on revenue from projected tollways. One reason for this is that Chinese provinces, which are responsible for road building, have extremely limited powers to tax and even fewer powers to borrow.

Expressway construction has also been one of the rare instances in which the Communist Party of China and the State Council has had to back down on a major policy initiative. During the late-1990s, there were proposals to fund public highways by means of a fuel tax, but this was voted down by the National People's Congress.

Toll methods[edit]

Most expressways use a card system. Upon entrance to an expressway (or to a toll portion of the expressway), an entry card is handed over to the driver. The tolls to be paid are determined from the distance traveled when the driver hands the entry card back to the exit toll gate upon leaving the expressway. A small number of expressways do not use a card system but charge unitary fares. Passage through these expressways is relatively faster but it is economically less advantageous. An example of such an expressway would be the Jingtong Expressway.

ETC sign, along with exit signage, on China National Expressway 1 in Hebei

China is increasingly deploying a network of ETC systems, and in the latest edition of expressway toll gate signage, a new ETC sign is now shown at an increasing number of toll gates. ETC networks based around Beijing [1], Shanghai [2] and Guangdong province [3] all feature either mixed toll passages supporting toll card payment or full-service dedicated ETC lanes. Beijing, in particular, has a dedicated ETC lane at almost all toll gates.[9]

City transit cards are not widely used; one of the first experiments with the Beijing Yikatong Card on what is now the Jingzang Expressway (G6)[10] went live for only a year before a new national standard replaced it in early 2008.

Numeric System and List by number[edit]

G000 Series[edit]

For more details on this topic, see China National Highways.

A previous system, the 1992 "five vertical + seven horizontal expressways" system, was used for arterial expressways and were, in essence, G0-series expressways (e.g. G020, G025). This was replaced by the present-day new numeric system (see below).

New Numbering System[edit]

Signs using the new numbering system as seen on China National Expressway 1 in Tianjin

A new system, which dates from 2004 and began use on a nationwide level beginning late 2009 and early 2010, integrates itself into the present-day G-series number system. The present-day network, termed the 7918 Network (also known as the National Trunk Highway System (NTHS)), uses one, two or four digits in the G-series numbering system, leaving three-figured G roads as the China National Highways.

The new 7918 Network is composed of

  • 7 radial expressways leaving Beijing (G1-G7)
  • 9 vertical expressways going north to south (double digit G roads with numbers ending in an odd numeral)
  • 18 horizontal expressways head west to east (double digit G roads with numbers ending in an even numeral)

The network is additionally composed of connection expressways as well as regional and metropolitan ring expressways.

On a nationwide basis, expressways use the G prefix (short for "guojia" or "nation" in Chinese), as well as the character "国家高速" (National Expressway, white letters on a red stripe on top of the sign). For regional expressways, the prefix S (short for "shengji" or "province-level") is used instead, as well as the one-character abbreviation of the province and "高速" (expressway, black letters on an orange-yellow stripe on top of the sign.) The same numbering system is used for both national and regional expressways.

Numbering Rules[edit]

  • All expressways in this network begin with the letter G. (For regional expressways, the letter S is used instead.)
  • All expressways have a thin band on top of the sign. For national expressways, this will be red; for regional expressways, it will be orange-yellow.
  • For radial expressways leaving from or ending in Beijing, use a single digit from 1 to 9 (e.g. G1, G2).
  • For north-south expressways, use an odd number from 11-89 (e.g. G13, G35).
  • For west-east expressways, use an even number from 10-90 (e.g. G30, G46).
  • For regional expressways in the 7918 network, use numbers from 91-99 (e.g. G91, G93)
  • For the parallel expressways running alongside primary expressways, add the direction signal "W", "E", "N", "S" after the primary expressway number (e.g. G4W).
  • For connection expressways, use "1" plus an order number after the main line (e.g. G1511).
  • For city ring expressways, use "0" plus an order number after the main line number, starting from the smallest possible number.

NTHS Expressways[edit]

Number and Name Origin Terminus Length
(km)
Notes
Radial Expressways from Beijing
China Expwy G1 sign no name.svg G1 Beijing–Harbin Expressway Beijing Harbin 1,205 km (749 mi)
China Expwy G2 sign no name.svg G2 Beijing–Shanghai Expressway Beijing Shanghai 1,220 km (760 mi)
China Expwy G3 sign no name.svg G3 Beijing–Taipei Expressway Beijing Fuzhou (Taipei) 2,030 km (1,260 mi) See also Political Status of Taiwan.
China Expwy G4 sign no name.svg G4 Beijing–Hong Kong–Macau Expressway Beijing Hong KongMainland China border 2,285 km (1,420 mi) Extends into Shenzhen section of Hong Kong Route 10 and connects other expressways in Hong Kong. Hong Kong is a special administrative region of China.
China Expwy G4W sign no name.svg G4W Guangzhou–Macau Expressway Guangzhou MacauMainland China border Connects to Macau's roads. Macao is a special administrative region of China.
China Expwy G5 sign no name.svg G5 Beijing–Kunming Expressway Beijing Kunming 2,714 km (1,686 mi)
China Expwy G6 sign no name.svg G6 Beijing–Lhasa Expressway Beijing Lhasa 3710
China Expwy G7 sign no name.svg G7 Beijing–Ürümqi Expressway Beijing Ürümqi 2540
North–South Expressways
China Expwy G11 sign no name.svg G11 Hegang–Dalian Expressway Hegang Dalian 1,474 km (916 mi)
China Expwy G1111 sign no name.svg G1111 Hegang–Harbin Expressway Hegang Harbin
China Expwy G1112 sign no name.svg G1112 Ji’an–Shuangliao Expressway Ji'an Shuangliao
China Expwy G1113 sign no name.svg G1113 Dandong–Fuxin Expressway Dandong Fuxin
China Expwy G15 sign no name.svg G15 Shenyang–Haikou Expressway Shenyang Haikou 3710
China Expwy G15W sign no name.svg G15W Changshu–Taizhou Expressway Changshu Taizhou
China Expwy G1511 sign no name.svg G1511 Rizhao–Lankao Expressway Rizhao Lankao 473 km (294 mi)
China Expwy G1512 sign no name.svg G1512 Ningbo–Jinhua Expressway Ningbo Jinhua 185 km (115 mi)
China Expwy G1513 sign no name.svg G1513 Wenzhou–Lishui Expressway Wenzhou Lishui 115 km (71 mi)
China Expwy G1514 sign no name.svg G1514 Ningde–Shangrao Expressway Ningde Shangrao 352 km (219 mi)
China Expwy G25 sign no name.svg G25 Changchun–Shenzhen Expressway Changchun Shenzhen 3580
China Expwy G2511 sign no name.svg G2511 Xinmin–Lubei Expressway Xinmin Lubei, Jarud Banner
China Expwy G2512 sign no name.svg G2512 Fuxin–Jinzhou Expressway Fuxin Jinzhou 119 km (74 mi)
China Expwy G2513 sign no name.svg G2513 Huai'an–Xuzhou Expressway Huai'an Xuzhou 222 km (138 mi)
China Expwy G35 sign no name.svg G35 Jinan–Guangzhou Expressway Jinan Guangzhou 1,953 km (1,214 mi)
China Expwy G45 sign no name.svg G45 Daqing–Guangzhou Expressway Daqing Guangzhou 3,435 km (2,134 mi)
China Expwy G4511 sign no name.svg G4511 Longnan–Heyuan Expressway Longnan Heyuan 127 km (79 mi)
China Expwy G55 sign no name.svg G55 Erenhot–Guangzhou Expressway Erenhot Guangzhou 2,699 km (1,677 mi)
China Expwy G5511 sign no name.svg G5511 Jining–Arun Expressway Jining Arun (Arong) Banner
China Expwy G5512 sign no name.svg G5512 Jincheng–Zhengzhou Expressway Jincheng Zhengzhou 116 km (72 mi)
China Expwy G5513 sign no name.svg G5513 Changsha–Zhangjiajie Expressway Changsha Zhangjiajie
China Expwy G59 sign no name.svg G59 Hohhot–Beihai Expressway Hohhot Beihai
China Expwy G65 sign no name.svg G65 Baotou–Maoming Expressway Baotou Maoming 3130
China Expwy G69 sign no name.svg G69 Yinchuan–Baise Expressway Yinchuan Baise
China Expwy G75 sign no name.svg G75 Lanzhou–Haikou Expressway Lanzhou Haikou 2570
China Expwy G7511 sign no name.svg G7511 Qinzhou–Dongxing Expressway Qinzhou Dongxing Connects Vietnamese expressway to Hanoi, Vietnam
China Expwy G85 sign no name.svg G85 Yinchuan–Kunming Expressway Yinchuan Kunming 838
China Expwy G8511 sign no name.svg G8511 Kunming–Mohan Expressway Kunming Mohan, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture Part of the Kunming-Bangkok Expressway via Laos and Thailand to Bangkok
East–West Expressways
China Expwy G10 sign no name.svg G10 Suifenhe–Manzhouli Expressway Suifenhe Manzhouli 1520 Two terminal are both boundary cities. Connects the expressway in Russia and Mongolia
China Expwy G1011 sign no name.svg G1011 Harbin–Tongjiang Expressway Harbin Tongjiang, Heilongjiang
China Expwy G12 sign no name.svg G12 Hunchun–Ulanhot Expressway Hunchun Ulanhot 924 km (574 mi) Connects the expressways in North Korea
China Expwy G1211 sign no name.svg G1211 Jilin–Heihe Expressway Jilin City Heihe Connects the expressways in Russia
China Expwy G1212 sign no name.svg G1212 Shenyang–Jilin Expressway Shenyang Jilin City 372 km (231 mi)
China Expwy G16 sign no name.svg G16 Dandong–Xilinhot Expressway Dandong Xilinhot 960
China Expwy G18 sign no name.svg G18 Rongcheng–Wuhai Expressway Rongcheng, Shandong Wuhai 1820
China Expwy G1811 sign no name.svg G1811 Huanghua–Shijiazhuang Expressway Huanghua, Hebei Shijiazhuang
China Expwy G20 sign no name.svg G20 Qingdao–Yinchuan Expressway Qingdao Yinchuan 1,511 kilometres (939 mi)
China Expwy G2011 sign no name.svg G2011 Qingxin Expressway Qingdao Xinhe County, Hebei 108 km (67 mi)
China Expwy G2012 sign no name.svg G2012 Dingwu Expressway Dingbian Wuwei
China Expwy G22 sign no name.svg G22 Qingdao–Lanzhou Expressway Qingdao Lanzhou 1,872 km (1,163 mi)
China Expwy G30 sign no name.svg G30 Lianyungang–Khorgas Expressway Lianyungang Khorgas 4,244 km (2,637 mi) longest contiguous expressway in China; also called Lianhuo Expressway
China Expwy G3011 sign no name.svg G3011 Liuyuan–Golmud Expressway Liuyuan, Guazhou County, Jiuquan Golmud
China Expwy G3012 sign no name.svg G3012 Turpan–Hotan Expressway Turpan Hotan
China Expwy G3013 sign no name.svg G3013 Kashgar–Irkeshtam Expressway Kashgar Irkeshtam Connects to Kyrgyzstan
China Expwy G3014 sign no name.svg G3014 Kuytun–Aksu Expressway Kuytun Aksu
China Expwy G3015 sign no name.svg G3015 Kuytun–Tacheng Expressway Kuytun Tacheng Connects Kazakh expressways
China Expwy G3016 sign no name.svg G3016 Qingshuihe–Yining Expressway Qingshuihe Yining
China Expwy G36 sign no name.svg G36 Nanjing–Luoyang Expressway Nanjing Luoyang 755 km (469 mi)
China Expwy G40 sign no name.svg G40 Shanghai–Xi'an Expressway Shanghai Xi'an 1,525 km (948 mi)
China Expwy G4011 sign no name.svg G4011 Yangzhou–Liyang Expressway Yangzhou Liyang 99 km (62 mi)
China Expwy G42 sign no name.svg G42 Shanghai–Chengdu Expressway Shanghai Chengdu 1,981 km (1,231 mi)
China Expwy G4211 sign no name.svg G4211 Nanjing–Wuhu Expressway Nanjing Wuhu
China Expwy G4212 sign no name.svg G4212 Hefei–Anqing Expressway Hefei Anqing
China Expwy G50 sign no name.svg G50 Shanghai–Chongqing Expressway Shanghai Chongqing 1,774 km (1,102 mi)
China Expwy G5011 sign no name.svg G5011 Wuhu–Hefei Expressway Wuhu Hefei
China Expwy G56 sign no name.svg G56 Hangzhou–Ruili Expressway Hangzhou Ruili 3405 Connects Burmese expressways
China Expwy G5611 sign no name.svg G5611 Dali–Lijiang Expressway Dali Lijiang
China Expwy G60 sign no name.svg G60 Shanghai–Kunming Expressway Shanghai Kunming 2370
China Expwy G70 sign no name.svg G70 Fuzhou–Yinchuan Expressway Fuzhou Yinchuan 2485
China Expwy G7011 sign no name.svg G7011 Shiyan–Tianshui Expressway Shiyan Tianshui
China Expwy G72 sign no name.svg G72 Quanzhou–Nanning Expressway Quanzhou Nanning 1,488 km (925 mi)
China Expwy G7211 sign no name.svg G7211 Nanning–Youyiguan Expressway Nanning Youyiguan 224 km (139 mi) Connects Vietnamese expressways
China Expwy G76 sign no name.svg G76 Xiamen–Chengdu Expressway Xiamen Chengdu 2,207 km (1,371 mi)
China Expwy G78 sign no name.svg G78 Shantou–Kunming Expressway Shantou Kunming 1710
China Expwy G80 sign no name.svg G80 Guangzhou–Kunming Expressway Guangzhou Kunming 1610
China Expwy G8011 sign no name.svg G8011 Kaiyuan–Hekou Expressway Kaiyuan Hekou County, Yunnan Connects Vietnamese expressways
Zonal Ring Expressways
China Expwy G91 sign no name.svg G91 Liaozhong Ring Expressway Liaozhong Liaozhong Interconnects Tieling, Fushun, Benxi, Liaoyang,
Liaozhong, Xinmin, Tieling
China Expwy G92 sign no name.svg G92 Hangzhou Bay Ring Expressway Shanghai Ningbo Interconnects Shanghai, Hangzhou, Ningbo
China Expwy G9211 sign no name.svg G9211 Ningbo–Zhoushan Expressway Ningbo Zhoushan Interconnects Ningbo and Zhoushan
China Expwy G93 sign no name.svg G93 Chengdu–Chongqing Ring Expressway Chengdu Chengdu Interconnects Chengdu, Mianyang, Suining, Chongqing,
Hejiang, Luzhou, Yibin, Leshan, Yaan, and Chengdu
China Expwy G94 sign no name.svg G94 Pearl River Delta Ring Expressway Hong Kong-Mainland China border Hong Kong-Mainland China border Interconnects Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Zhongshan, Jiangmen, Foshan, Huadu, Zengcheng and Dongguan of mainland China,
Hong Kong and
Macao
China Expwy G9411 sign no name.svg G9411 Dongguan–Foshan Expressway Dongguan Foshan Interconnects Dongguan, Humen, Foshan
China Expwy G95 sign no name.svg G95 Capital Ring Expressway Zhuolu Zhuolu
China Expwy G98 sign no name.svg G98 Hainan Ring Expressway Haikou Haikou Interconnects Haikou, Qionghai, Sanya, Dongfang, Haikou
China Expwy G99 sign no name.svg G99 Taiwan Ring Expressway (observed)
currently branded:
TWHW1.svg TNH 1, TW PHW1.svg TPH 1 [Kaohsiung-Fangshan],
TW PHW9.svg TPH 9 [Fangshan-Luodong], & TWHW5.svg TNH 5 (counter clockwise)
Taipei Taipei Connects Taipei, Taichung, Kaoshiung, Taitung, Hualien, Taipei together
This is a theoretical expressway listed by the People's Republic of China.
Taiwan Province is currently administered by the Republic of China.
See Political Status of Taiwan. See also Highway System in Taiwan for the
current Republic of China-maintained Taiwan freeway system, which uses a different numbering system.
City Ring Expressways
China Expwy G0102 sign no name.svg G0102 Changchun Ring Expressway Changchun
China Expwy G0401 sign no name.svg G0401 Changsha Ring Expressway Changsha
China Expwy G0601 sign no name.svg G0601 Hohhot Ring Expressway Hohhot
China Expwy G0601 sign no name.svg G0601 Lhasa Ring Expressway Lhasa
China Expwy G0601 sign no name.svg G0601 Xining Ring Expressway Xining
China Expwy G1001 sign no name.svg G1001 Harbin Ring Expressway Harbin
China Expwy G1101 sign no name.svg G1101 Dalian Ring Expressway Dalian
China Expwy G1501 sign no name.svg G1501 Fuzhou Ring Expressway Fuzhou
China Expwy G1501 sign no name.svg G1501 Guangzhou Ring Expressway Guangzhou
China Expwy G1501 sign no name.svg G1501 Haikou Ring Expressway Haikou
China Expwy G1501 sign no name.svg G1501 Ningbo Ring Expressway Ningbo
China Expwy G1501 sign no name.svg G1501 Qingdao Ring Expressway Qingdao
China Expwy G1501 sign no name.svg G1501 Shanghai Ring Expressway Shanghai
China Expwy G1501 sign no name.svg G1501 Shenyang Ring Expressway Shenyang
China Expwy G1501 sign no name.svg G1501 Xiamen Ring Expressway Xiamen
China Expwy G1502 sign no name.svg G1502 Quanzhou Ring Expressway Quanzhou
China Expwy G2001 sign no name.svg G2001 Jinan Ring Expressway Jinan
China Expwy G2001 sign no name.svg G2001 Shijiazhuang Ring Expressway Shijiazhuang
China Expwy G2001 sign no name.svg G2001 Taiyuan Ring Expressway Taiyuan
China Expwy G2001 sign no name.svg G2001 Yinchuan Ring Expressway Yinchuan
China Expwy G2501 sign no name.svg G2501 Hanzhou Ring Expressway Hangzhou
China Expwy G2501 sign no name.svg G2501 Nanjing Ring Expressway Nanjing
China Expwy G2501 sign no name.svg G2501 Shenzhen Ring Expressway Shenzhen
China Expwy G2501 sign no name.svg G2501 Tianjin Ring Expressway Tianjin
China Expwy G3001 sign no name.svg G3001 Lanzhou Ring Expressway Lanzhou
China Expwy G3001 sign no name.svg G3001 Ürümqi Ring Expressway Ürümqi
China Expwy G3001 sign no name.svg G3001 Xi'an Ring Expressway Xi'an
China Expwy G3001 sign no name.svg G3001 Zhengzhou Ring Expressway Zhengzhou
China Expwy G4001 sign no name.svg G4001 Hefei Ring Expressway Hefei
China Expwy G4201 sign no name.svg G4201 Chengdu Ring Expressway Chengdu
China Expwy G4201 sign no name.svg G4201 Wuhan Ring Expressway Wuhan
China Expwy G4202 sign no name.svg G4202 Chengdu Second Ring Expressway Chengdu
China Expwy G4501 sign no name.svg G4501 Beijing Ring Expressway Beijing
China Expwy G5001 sign no name.svg G5001 Chongqing Ring Expressway Chongqing
China Expwy G5601 sign no name.svg G5601 Kunming Ring Expressway Kunming
China Expwy G6001 sign no name.svg G6001 Guiyang Ring Expressway Guiyang
China Expwy G6001 sign no name.svg G6001 Nanchang Ring Expressway Nanchang
China Expwy G7201 sign no name.svg G7201 Nanning Ring Expressway Nanning

Regional expressways[edit]

Numbered: All expressways are ordered by number. Unnumbered: All expressways are ordered by direction, starting from north or east.

Anhui[edit]

Beijing[edit]

Chongqing[edit]

Fujian[edit]

Gansu Province[edit]

Guangdong[edit]

Guangxi[edit]

Guizhou[edit]

Hainan[edit]

Hebei[edit]

Main article: Expressways of Hebei

Heilongjiang[edit]

Henan[edit]

Hubei[edit]

Hunan[edit]

Inner Mongolia[edit]

Jiangsu[edit]

Jiangxi[edit]

Jilin[edit]

Liaoning[edit]

Ningxia[edit]

Qinghai[edit]

Shaanxi[edit]

Shandong[edit]

Shanghai[edit]

Shanxi[edit]

Sichuan[edit]

Tianjin[edit]

Tibet[edit]

Xinjiang[edit]

Yunnan[edit]

Zhejiang[edit]

Hong Kong and Macau[edit]

There is 160.9 kilometres (100.0 mi) of expressways in Hong Kong. Macau has less than 50 kilometres (31 mi) of highways and are partially controlled access.

For more see Expressways in Hong Kong and Highways in Macau.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Shanghai–Jiading Expressway was the first expressway to be built in Mainland China, excluding Taiwan (see Political status of Taiwan), as well as Hong Kong and Macau, which were under British and Portuguese control respectively at the time. If Taiwan is included, the first expressway to open in China was Taiwan's National Highway 1, known as the Zhongshan Expressway, which opened in 1974.
  2. ^ Length of network as of 1 January of the respective year.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "中国2013年全年新建高速公路8260公里". xinhuanet.com. 
  2. ^ a b c d Li, Si-ming and Shum, Yi-man. Impacts of the National Trunk Highway System on accessibility in China. Journal of Transport Geography.
  3. ^ a b 国家高速公路网规划 (National Trunk Highway System Planning). 13 January 2005. (Chinese)
  4. ^ a b 国内首条取消收费高速公路改建工程启动. News.cn. (Chinese)
  5. ^ a b National Bureau of Statistics of China.
  6. ^ Wang, Chongxu; Yuancheng Peng; Yinbo Liu (January 2009). "Crossing the Limits". Civil Engineering (Reston, Virginia: American Society of Civil Engineers) 79 (1): 64–69, 79–80. ISSN 0885-7024. 
  7. ^ http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/Issues/2009/January/ChinaBitesTheBulletOnFuelTax.asp
  8. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/in_depth/china_politics/government/html/7.stm
  9. ^ "365条ETC车道开通,基本实现全市收费站点全覆盖". 北京快通高速路电子收费系统有限公司. 2010-04-29. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 
  10. ^ "北京八达岭高速"速通卡"将停止使用". 京华时报. 2008-01-03. Retrieved 2010-08-03. 

External links[edit]