External cardinal

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For the mathematical concept, see Inaccessible cardinal.
Pope Victor III (1087), before his election to the papacy, was simultaneously the cardinal and abbot of Monte Cassino.

In the category of the members of the College of Cardinals in the late Middle Ages (11th to 13th century), an external cardinal (opposite to the "curial cardinal"[1]) was a Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church who did not reside in the Roman Curia, because of simultaneously being a bishop of the episcopal see other than suburbicarian, or abbot of an abbey situated outside Rome.[2] In the wider sense, it may also concern cardinals who were appointed to the external episcopal sees and resigned their memberships in the College of Cardinals with this appointment. As well, it can concern cardinals who were generally curial cardinals, but for some time exercised the posts of administrators or prelates of the external churches.[3]

Today, the great majority of the cardinals are archbishops of the main metropolitan dioceses of the world and reside in their countries. Apart from the exclusive right of the election of the new pope, their dignity is purely honorific. However, originally the College of Cardinals was simply a college of the clergy of the City of Rome, constituted of the bishops of the seven dioceses (called suburbicarian sees) bordering the diocese of Rome (cardinal-bishops), priests of the parochial churches of Rome (cardinal-priests) and deacons heading the ecclesiastical regions of the city of Rome (cardinal-deacons). Unlike today, the cardinals had real jurisdiction over the dioceses, parochial churches (called tituli) or deaconries to which they were attached.[4] The phenomenon of the external cardinalate in the late Middle Ages constituted the first exception to the rule, that cardinals – members of the clergy of the diocese of Rome – cannot serve simultaneously in another, external church, which is now common practice.

History[edit]

Origins and development[edit]

At least eight abbots of Monte Cassino between 1057–1259/62 were simultaneously cardinals of the Holy Roman Church.

The College of Cardinals originated from the college of the main clergy of the city of Rome. The title of cardinal initially concerned only the priests of the 28 parochial churches of the Eternal City (tituli), who were required to assist the pope in the liturgical service in the four Basilicas of Rome (Vatican Basilica, Liberian Basilica, Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls and San Lorenzo fuori le Mura).[5] Later (probably in the 8th century) the term was extended to the bishops of the seven dioceses bordering the diocese of Rome: Ostia, Porto, Albano, Palestrina, Silva Candida (1079 replaced by Segni), Gabii-Lavicum (whose name later changed to Tusculum, and later to Frascati) and Velletri (after 1060 replaced by Sabina). These bishops (cardinal-bishops) performed the liturgical service in the Lateran Basilica.[6] Finally, the deacons serving in the papal household or heading the ecclesiastical regions of the city (and later attached to the churches called deaconries), also became the cardinals (cardinal-deacons).[7]

The cardinals of the Holy Roman Church up to the 11th century had strictly liturgical duties and generally took no part in the government of the Church. Cardinal bishops were equal to the other bishops, even if celebrating the rite of consecration of the new pope gave them considerable prestige, while the dignity of the cardinal priest or deacon was considered lower than that of a bishop. The liturgical service in the five patriarchal basilicas of Rome, as well as day pastoral duties in their titular churches required the constant presence of the cardinals at Rome.[8]

This situation started to gradually change with the ascension of Pope Leo IX (1049–1054) and the beginning of the Reform Papacy. This pope, in order to reform the corrupted Roman clergy, appointed several new cardinals from the monastic centers outside Rome, such as Monte Cassino, Remiremont and Cluny. These new cardinals became his close advisors. Leo’s successors continued this trend and Nicholas II in 1059 gave the cardinals the exclusive right to elect a new pope.[9] At the end of the 11th century the cardinals formed a single College of Cardinals, which became the main body of the papal government — they served as experts or judges in the legal causes (auditors), countersigned the solemn papal privileges, acted as governors of the cities or provinces of the Papal States or were sent by the popes on important diplomatic missions. The cardinals became the most important members of the Roman Curia, and as such were still required to reside in the papal court, unless they were dispatched for a legatine mission in the name of the pope.[10]

Bernardo degli Uberti was simultaneously a cardinal and abbot of Vallombrosa. In 1106 he became bishop of Parma and resigned his cardinalate with this appointment

Almost simultaneously to the development of the College of Cardinals as a body of papal advisors, the popes started to elevate to the cardinalate some "external" abbots. After such appointments, they continued to reside in their abbeys and did not become members of the Papal curia. On the other hands, the elections of the cardinals to the posts of abbots of external monasteries were also ratified by the popes.[11] The main goal of such appointments was probably to strengthen the ties between some important monastic centers with the Roman Church.[11] The first known instances of such appointments concerned the abbey of Montecassino, one of the main centers supporting reform of the Church.[12] In 1057 cardinal-deacon Frederick de Lorraine (the future pope Stephen X) was elected abbot of Montecassino; Pope Victor II confirmed his election and simultaneously named him cardinal-priest of S. Crisogono.[13] His successor as abbot of Montecassino, Desiderio, was also quickly promoted to the cardinalate, but continued to act also as abbot.[14] From 1057 until 1259/62 at least eight abbots of Montecassino were simultaneously members of the College of Cardinals.[15] Also some other Italian (e.g. Subiaco, Farfa, Vallombrosa, S. Sophia in Benevento) and French abbeys (St. Victor at Marseille) were for some time ruled by the cardinal-abbots.[15]

During the Investiture Controversy, both the legitimate Popes as well as Antipope Clement III developed another, not entirely new, practice.[16] They appointed their cardinals to the important Episcopal sees in Italy in order to assure their government by their own trusted collaborators.[17] Antipope Clement III named cardinals Hugo Candidus and Roberto of S. Marco bishops of Fermo and Faenza respectively.[18] Popes Victor III and Urban II appointed their cardinals to the episcopal sees of Brescia (Herimanus) and Reggio-Emilia (Bonussenior). The practice was continued by successive popes, who named their cardinals particularly to the recently reestablished Latin archiepiscopal sees in southern Italy (Siponto, Brindisi, Salerno, Benevento).[19] Also, three successive archbishops of Pisa: Uberto Rossi Lanfranchi (1133–1137/38), Balduino (1138–1145) and Villano Caetani (1146–1175) were initially the cardinals.[20]

Coat of arms of Guillaume aux Blanches Mains, archbishop of Reims and cardinal-priest of S. Sabina

Up to the pontificate of Pope Alexander III (1159–1181), all the cardinals who were appointed to the external episcopal sees, resigned their membership in the College of Cardinals after receiving episcopal consecration, which clearly shows that the episcopate was considered a higher dignity than that of cardinal-priest or deacon.[21] On the other hand, the bishops were never appointed cardinals.[22] Certainly, the episcopate and cardinalate were considered incompatible dignities.[23] However, during Alexander’s pontificate a change is apparent; although there were still the cases of the cardinals leaving the College of Cardinals after assuming episcopal office (Lombardo of Benevento, Rainaldo of Gaeta), there also appeared members of the College who were simultaneously cardinals and bishops.[24] Perhaps Alexander III followed here an example of his rival, Antipope Victor IV, who in 1162 appointed Aicardo Cornazzano bishop of Parma and cardinal-priest.[25] The first such instance in the legitimate obedience was Conrad of Wittelsbach, who was appointed cardinal-priest of S. Marcello in December 1165 and subsequently promoted to the suburbicarian see of Sabina, but continued to act also as archbishop of Mainz.[26] Archbishop of Reims Guillaume aux Blanches Mains was named cardinal priest of S. Sabina in 1179, but retained archdiocese of Reims;[27] similarly bishops Giovanni of Toscanella, Ruffino of Rimini and Gerardo of Novara, elevated to the cardinalate in 1189, 1190 and 1211 respectively.[28] On the other hand, when cardinal-priest Uberto Crivelli was elected and consecrated archbishop of Milan in 1185, he retained his cardinalate and his Roman titulus (S. Lorenzo in Damaso). The posts of cardinal and bishop were no longer considered incompatible with each other. Moreover, the rank of cardinal-priest or cardinal-deacon became equal to that of bishop. However, it seems that the elected, but not yet consecrated, bishops who were appointed cardinals were generally obliged to resign their sees.[29]

Further development occurred in the pontificate of Clement III (1187–1191). Cardinals elected to the external sees renounced their titular churches but without resigning their membership in the College of Cardinals. They used the title cardinalis Sancte Romanae Ecclesiae in addition to the episcopal title, without indicating their cardinalitial order or titular church.[30] The first such case was that of Adelardo Cattaneo, cardinal-priest of S. Marcello from 1185 and bishop of Verona 1188–1214.[31] That he resigned the church of San Marcello appears not only from his titulature in the documents, but also from the fact that during his lifetime a new cardinal-priest of this title (Fidanzio) was appointed.[32] The case of Adelardo was followed by the cardinal-archbishops Guy Paré of Reims (1204), Uberto Pirovano of Milan (1207) and Stephen Langton of Canterbury (1207) under Pope Innocent III.[33] At the end of 12th century ca. 15% of the members of the College of Cardinals were "external" cardinals.[34]

End of the medieval "external" cardinalate[edit]

Despite the cases mentioned above, the pontificate of Innocent III marks also the beginning of the end of the "external" cardinalate. Stephen Langton was the last cardinal allowed by the Pope to become a residential bishop of the external see. From that time the popes constantly rejected all such postulations made by the cathedral chapters, indicating that the presence of the cardinals in the papal curia is indispensable.[35] On the other hand, bishops appointed to the College of Cardinals were obliged to resign their sees (although it must be remarked that until the end of the 13th century they were appointed always to the rank of cardinal-bishop).[36] It is still possible to find a few cases of the cardinals who exercised the posts of administrators of the episcopal sees, but only for a short time, often as part of their legatine duties. The last instance of external cardinal sensu stricto was abbot Riccardo of Montecassino (1252–1259/62). Generally already in the pontificate of Gregory IX (1227–1241), the College of Cardinals became an exclusively curial body, without any "external" element,[37] and remained such until the Great Western Schism (1378–1417). However, during this time the rank of cardinal became also the highest in the Catholic Church, inferior only to the Pope.[38]

The phenomenon of the "external" cardinalate was revived during the Great Western Schism, but in another form and for other reasons. Popes from the rival obediences gave the cardinalitial dignities to the churchmen serving European monarchs (Crown-cardinals) without calling them to the Roman Curia, in order to assure the support of the monarchs. These cardinals continued to reside in their countries. Additionally, the curial cardinals in 13th century started to cumulate a great number of the benefices,[39] from the time of the Schism including also the episcopal sees.[40] After the Council of Trent (1545–1563), the cardinals occupying external bishoprics were generally obliged to reside in them.[41] Today, the majority of the cardinals are simultaneously residential archbishops or bishops,[42] and they have no real jurisdiction over their titular churches at Rome.[43]

Titulature and engagement in the papal government[edit]

Pope Alexander III (pictured highest at right) was the first pope who allowed the cardinals to occupy the external episcopal sees.

There was no consistency to the titulature used by the "external" cardinals in the official documents issued by the popes, secular rulers or by themselves. Cardinal-abbots subscribed or were called sometimes only as cardinals, sometimes only as abbots, and sometimes using both titles. Abbot Mainardo of Pomposa subscribed papal bulls only as cardinal-bishop of Silva Candida. Desiderius of Montecassino subscribed papal bulls as abbot and cardinal or only as cardinal, while the papal privileges for the abbey Montecassino call him either cardinal and abbot or only abbot. Abbot Richard of St.-Victor used the forms “cardinal and abbot” or only abbot. Leonato of S. Clemente in Casauria in the private documents subscribed as cardinal and abbot but the papal privileges issued for him call him only abbot without indicating his cardinalate.[44]

Cardinals who simultaneously were also bishops usually appear in the documents with both titles: cardinalitial and episcopal. The only exceptions are archbishop Uberto Crivelli of Milan, who subscribed papal bulls only as cardinal, and Ruggiero of Benevento, who generally was styled only as archbishop, while his cardinalate was mentioned very infrequently.[45]

Even more differentiated was the engagement of the "external" cardinals in the Church government and the papal policy, even if limited evidence does not fully highlight this question. Certainly some of them spent some time working in the papal curia, which is attested by their subscriptions on the papal bulls. Among the signatories of the papal privileges appear abbots Desiderius of Montecassino, Mainardo of Pomposa, Giovanni of Subiaco, Richard of St.-Victor, Oderisio de Marsi of Montecassino, Bernardo degli Uberti of Vallombrosa, Amico of S. Vincenzo, Adenulf of Farfa, Benedetto of Torre Maggiore and Giovanni of S. Sophia,[46] as well as the bishops Hugo Candidus, Konrad von Wittelsbach, Guillaume of Reims, Uberto Crivelli of Milan, Giovanni of Toscanella and Ruffino of Rimini.[47] The last three seem to have been de facto curial cardinals, having spent at the papal court most of their time.[48] On the other hand, cardinals like Pietro of S. Benedetto in Salerno, Rainaldo of Montecassino, Simone of Subiaco, Leonato of S. Clemente in Casauria, Ruggiero of Benevento, Roffredo of Montecassino or Riccardo of Montecassino seem to have never participated in the curial business.[49] Also cardinals Adelardo Cattaneo of Verona, Guy Paré of Reims, Uberto Pirovano of Milan and Stephen Langton of Canterbury after their episcopal appointments are no longer attested in the papal curia.[50]

Several "external" cardinals acted as papal legates or vicars, often in the region of their episcopal seat or abbey. Among them were:[51]

  • Peter Igneus of S. Salvatore – legate in Germany (1079) and France (1080),
  • Mainardo of Pomposa – legate before Emperor Henry IV (1065) and in Milan (1067)
  • Richard of St.-Victor – legate in Spain for many years
  • Konrad von Wittelsbach – legate in Germany from 1177
  • Guillaume of Reims – legate in France from 1179
  • Ruffino of Rimini – legate in Imola (ca.1191)
  • Gerardo de Sessio – legate in Lombardy (1210–11)

Besides, some "external" cardinals participated in the papal elections: Desiderius of Montecassino and Richard of St.-Victor in 1086,[52] Oderisio de Marsi in 1088,[53] Enrico of Mazara and Amico of S. Vincenzo in 1118,[54] Simone Borelli in 1159,[55] Uberto Crivelli in 1185, probably also Konrad von Wittelsbach in 1185,[56] Giovanni of Toscanella in 1191 and 1198,[57] and Ruffino of Rimini in 1191.[58]

Three "external" cardinals became popes: Frederick of Montecassino became Pope Stephen IX in 1057, Desiderius of Montecassino became Pope Victor III in 1086 and Uberto Crivelli of Milan became Pope Urban III in 1185.

Lists of the "external" cardinals[edit]

Note: The "external" cardinals have been divided into four subcategories, of whom only the first two concern the "external" cardinals sensu stricto. Some cardinals belonged to more than one subcategory. The disputed cases are listed separately at the end of the each subsection. Cardinals created by antipopes ("pseudocardinals") are also included.

Cardinal-abbots[edit]

The list is arranged chronologically by the date of appointment of the abbot to the cardinalate or of the cardinal to the abbacy.

Name Cardinalate "External" Abbacy Notes
Frederick de Lorraine, O.S.B.[59] Cardinal-deacon 1051–57, cardinal-priest of S. Crisogono 1057 Abbot of Montecassino 1057 Became Pope Stephen IX (1057–1058)
Peter Damiani, O.S.B.Cam.[60] Cardinal-bishop of Ostia 1057–1072 Abbot of Fonte Avellana 1043–1072 Future saint
Desiderius, O.S.B.Cas.[61] Cardinal-priest of S. Cecilia 1059–1087 Abbot of Montecassino 1058–1087 Became Pope Victor III (1086–1087); as cardinal, he was frequently noted in the papal curia
Mainardo, O.S.B.Cas.[62] Cardinal-bishop of Silva Candida 1061–1073 Abbot of Pomposa 1063–1073 He resided in the papal curia until 1069
Pietro Atenolfo, O.S.B.[63] Cardinal-priest created after 1067 Abbot of S. Benedetto in Salerno 1067–after 1069 He was never attested in the papal curia
Peter Igneus, O.S.B.Vall.[64] Cardinal-bishop of Albano 1072–1089 Abbot of S. Salvatore in Fucecchio until 1081 Future saint; resided in his abbey until 1079
Giovanni, O.S.B.[65] Cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Domnica 1073–1121 Abbot of Subiaco 1069–1121 He joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III in 1084 and then became archdeacon of the Holy Roman Church. Later, he made submission to the Pope Paschalis II
Richard de Saint-Victor, O.S.B.[66] Cardinal-priest 1078–1106 Abbot of St.-Victor at Marseille 1079–1106 He was named archbishop of Narbonne in 1106 and resigned his cardinalate (see table below)
Damianus, O.S.B.Cam.[67] Cardinal-deacon 1076–ca.1091 Abbot of Fonte Avellana 1078–1080, abbot of Nonantola in 1086 Nephew of Cardinal Pietro Damiani
Oderisio de Marsi, O.S.B.Cas.[68] Cardinal-deacon 1059–88, Cardinal-priest (of S. Cecilia?) 1088–1105 Abbot of Montecassino 1087–1105 Future saint
Bernardo degli Uberti, O.S.B.Vall.[69] Cardinal-priest of S. Crisogono 1098/99–1106 Abbot of Vallombrosa 1098–1106 Future saint (canonized 1665); in 1106 he was appointed bishop of Parma and resigned his cardinalate (see table below)
Bruno of Segni, O.S.B.Cas.[70] Cardinal-bishop of Segni 1079–1123 Abbot of Montecassino 1107–1111 Future saint (canonized 1183)
Giovanni, O.S.B.[71] Attested as cardinal-priest in March 1110 Abbot of unknown abbey in the archdiocese of Capua in 1110 The identity of this cardinal remains unknown
Amico, O.S.B.Cas.[72] Cardinal-priest of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo 1117–1139 Abbot of S. Vincenzo al Volturno near Capua 1109/17–1139 1130–1138 in the obedience of Antipope Anacletus II
Oderisio de Sangro, O.S.B.Cas.[73] Cardinal-deacon of S. Agata ca.1112–ca.1137 Abbot of Montecassino 1123–1126 Deposed as abbot in 1126. After 1130 he joined the obedience of Antipope Anacletus II
Adenulf, O.S.B.[74] Cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin 1132–1144 Abbot of Farfa 1125–1144 Expelled from his abbey by the adherents of Antipope Anacletus II in 1130, returned in 1137
Benedetto, O.S.B.[75] Cardinal-priest of SS. IV Coronati ca.1135/37 Abbot of Terra Maggiore near San Severo ca. 1135/37 Pseudocardinal of Antipope Anacletus II
Rainaldo di Collemezzo, O.S.B.Cas.[76] Cardinal-priest of SS. Marcellino e Pietro 1139/41–1166 Abbot of Montecassino 1137–1166
Simone Borelli, O.S.B.Cas.[77] Cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Domnica ca.1157–1183 Abbot of Subiaco 1149–1159 and 1167–1183 In 1159 joined the obedience of Antipope Victor IV for a short time
Giovanni de Struma, O.S.B.Vall.[78] Cardinal-bishop of Albano 1163–1168 Abbot of Struma near Arezzo 1158–1168 Pseudocardinal created by Antipope Victor IV (1159–1164);

Became Antipope Callixtus III (1168–1178)

Giovanni, O.S.B.[79] Cardinal-priest of S. Sisto 1168–1177 Abbot of S. Sophia in Benevento 1142–1177
Leonato de Manoppello, O.S.B.[80] Cardinal-deacon 1170–1182 Abbot of S. Clemente in Casauria 1152/55–1182
Roffredo dell'Isola, O.S.B.Cas.[81] Cardinal-priest of SS. Marcellino e Pietro 1188–1210 Abbot of Montecassino 1188–1210
Riccardo, O.S.B.Cas.[82] Cardinal-priest of S. Ciriaco 1252/56–1259/62 Abbot of Montecassino 1252–1259/62 It is not known if he was promoted by Innocent IV (1243–1254) or by Alexander IV (1254–1261). He was deposed in 1259 for having participated in the coronation of Manfred of Sicily (the enemy of the pope Alexander IV), but continued to act as abbot and to style himself as cardinal until his death in 1262. The last instance of "external" cardinal in the Middle Ages

Disputed cases[edit]

Name Cardinalate "External" Abbacy Notes
Oderisius, O.S.B.[83] Cardinal-deacon 1063–1076 Abbot of S. Giovanni in Venere 1061–1076 According to historian Pietro Pollidoro (18th century) ancient inscription in the monastery of S. Giovanni in Venere calls Abbot Oderisio I "deacon of the Holy Roman Church"; this testimony can not be verified because this inscription has not been preserved to our times
Odericus, O.S.B.[84] Cardinal-priest of S. Prisca 1066–1082 Abbot of Vendome 1045–1082 The theory that he was a cardinal of S. Prisca is based on the privilege issued for him by Pope Alexander II in July 1066. However, the true meaning of this privilege is uncertain because in other documents issued after that date he is constantly referred to only as abbot[85]
Oderisio di Palearia, O.S.B.Cas.[86] Cardinal-deacon created by Alexander III Abbot of S. Giovanni in Venere 1155–1204 The only contemporary source attesting his cardinalate is the necrology of the abbey of Montecassino. In the few official contemporary documents that refer to him (issued 1176, 1195 and 1200) he appears only as abbot. One inscription dated April 1165 calls him "subdeacon of the Holy Roman Church"[87]
Teodino de Scarpa, O.S.B.Cas.[88] Cardinal-priest created by Alexander III Abbot of Montecassino 1166–1167 No documents issued during his short reign in the abbey of Montecassino have been preserved to our times. Therefore, the testimony of Alphonsus Ciacconius (1540–1599) that he was named cardinal by Alexander III can not be verified.

Cardinals – residential bishops (11–13th century)[edit]

The list is arranged chronologically by the date of appointment of the bishop to the cardinalate or of the cardinal to the episcopate.

Name Cardinalate "External" episcopate Notes
Hugo Candidus, O.S.B.Clun.[89] Cardinal-priest of S. Crisogono 1049–1089, cardinal-bishop of Palestrina 1089–1099 Bishop of Fermo in 1084[90] Excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII in 1078, joined the obedience of Antipope Clement III in 1080. In 1089 he was transferred to the suburbicarian see of Palestrina
Aicardo Cornazzano[91] Cardinal-deacon in 1160, cardinal-priest in 1164 Bishop of Parma 1162–1167 Pseudocardinal of Antipope Victor IV. He was also podesta of the city of Parma 1164–67. In 1167 he was expelled from Parma by the adherents of Pope Alexander III
Konrad von Wittelsbach[92] Cardinal-priest of S. Marcello 1165–1166, cardinal-bishop of Sabina 1166–1200 Archbishop of Mainz 1161–1177 and 1183–1200, archbishop of Salzburg 1177–1183, administrator of Sora 1167–after 1170 He was expelled from his archdiocese in 1165 by the adherents of Antipope Paschalis III. Until 1177 he resided in papal curia or acted as papal legate.

The first instance of the legitimate cardinal who was also residential bishop

Pietro da Pavia, Can.Reg.[93] Cardinal-priest of S. Crisogono 1173–1179, cardinal-bishop of Tusculum 1179–1182 Bishop-elect of Meaux 1171–1175, archbishop(-elect?) of Bourges 1180–1182 Pope Alexander III forced him to resign the see of Meaux in 1175. His election to the archbishopric of Bourges remains obscure; he continued to subscribe the documents only as cardinal-bishop of Tusculum until his death, which indicates that he probably did not take possession of this see. As cardinal, he frequently acted as legate in France and in 1175 resided in Meaux for a short time
Guillaume aux Blanches Mains[94] Cardinal-priest of S. Sabina 1179–1202 Archbishop of Reims 1176–1202
Ruggiero di San Severino, O.S.B.Cas.[95] Cardinal-priest of S. Eusebio 1178/80–1221 Archbishop of Benevento 1179–1221 It is not possible to establish whether he was created cardinal before, after or simultaneously with his appointment as archbishop.
Uberto Crivelli[96] Cardinal-priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso 1182–1185 Bishop-elect of Vercelli 1183–85, archbishop of Milan 1185–1187 De facto curial cardinal. He became Pope Urban III (1185–1187) and as such, he retained the see of Milan until his death
Adelardo Cattaneo[97] Cardinal-priest of S. Marcello 1185–1188, S.R.E. cardinalis 1188–1214 Bishop of Verona 1188–1214 First cardinal who after appointment as bishop renounced his titulus without renouncing of his cardinalate. In 1193 Pope Celestine III gave his former title of S. Marcello to cardinal Fidanzio[98]
Giovanni[99] Cardinal-priest of S. Clemente 1189–1199, cardinal-bishop of Albano 1199–1210/11 Bishop of Toscanella 1188–1199 (from 1192 of Viterbo e Toscanella) De facto curial cardinal; in 1199 he was transferred to the suburbicarian see of Albano
Ruffino[100] Cardinal-priest of S. Prassede 1190–1191/92 Bishop of Rimini 1185–1191/92 De facto curial cardinal
Soffredo[101] Cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata 1182–1193, cardinal-priest of S. Prassede 1193–1210 Patriarch-elect of Jerusalem in 1203 Pope Innocent III confirmed his election but shortly thereafter the cardinal (legate in Outremer at that time) resigned the see without being consecrated

In 1201 he was elected also archbishop of Ravenna but this election was not ratified by the Holy See (see below)

Guy Paré, O.Cist.[102] Cardinal-bishop of Palestrina 1200–1204, S.R.E. cardinalis 1204–1206 Archbishop of Reims 1204–1206 He resigned his cardinalitial title without resigning the membership in the Sacred College.

Shortly before his death Guido Papareschi was appointed new cardinal-bishop of Palestrina[103]

Uberto Pirovano[104] Cardinal-deacon of S. Angelo 1206–1207, S.R.E. cardinalis 1207–1211 Archbishop of Milan 1206/7–1211 He resigned his cardinalitial deaconry without resigning the membership in the Sacred College.
Stephen Langton[105] Cardinal-priest of S. Crisogono 1206–1207, S.R.E. cardinalis 1207–1228 Archbishop of Canterbury 1206/7–1228 He resigned his cardinalitial title without resigning the membership in the Sacred College. The last instance of the cardinal being simultaneously residential bishop before the Great Western Schism
Gerardo de Sessio, O.Cist.[106] Elected cardinal-bishop of Albano in 1211 Bishop-elect of Novara 1210–1211, archbishop-elect of Milan 1211 He never received episcopal consecration; during his brief cardinalate he acted as papal legate in Lombardy

Disputed case[edit]

Name Cardinalate "External"episcopate Notes
Anselmo[107] Named cardinal-priest of SS. Nereo ed Achilleo in January 1201[108] Archbishop of Naples 1191–1214 The letter of his nomination issued in January 1201 is the only documentary proof of his cardinalate. In all known documents issued after that date he appears only as archbishop. Therefore, it is not certain whether his promotion went into effect[109]

Cardinals who renounced their cardinalate after appointments to the external bishoprics[edit]

The list is arranged chronologically by the date of appointment of the cardinal to the external episcopal see and his renouncement of the cardinalate.

Name Cardinalate "External" episcopate Notes
Johannes[110] Cardinal-deacon ca. 960/1 Bishop of Narni 961–965 Future Pope John XIII 965–972
Friedrich[111] Cardinal-priest in 1001 Archbishop of Ravenna 1001–1004
Airardus, O.S.B.[112] Cardinal-priest of unknown titulus attached to the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls[113] 1050 Bishop of Nantes 1050–ca.1054/60 Expelled from his diocese ca. 1054 and died ca. 1060
Roberto[114] Cardinal-priest of S. Marco in 1086 Bishop of Faenza 1086–1104 Pseudocardinal of Antipope Clement III
Herimannus, O.S.B.[115] Cardinal-priest of SS. IV Coronati 1080–1098 Bishop of Brescia 1087/98–1115 For eleven years (1087–98) he was simultaneously cardinal and bishop-elect, but after receiving episcopal consecration (1098) resigned his cardinalate. He was deposed as bishop in 1115 and died after 1116.

In 1100 Augustinus became new cardinal-priest of SS. IV Coronati[116]

Bonussenior[117] Cardinal-priest of S. Maria in Trastevere 1082–1098 Bishop of Reggio Emilia 1098–1118 By 1109 Odelricus was a new cardinal-priest of S. Maria in Trastevere[118]
Alberto, O.S.B.[119] Cardinal-priest of S. Sabina 1091/95–1100 Archbishop of Siponto 1100–1116 By 1112 cardinal Albericus occupied his former titulus S. Sabina[120]
Niccolo (?)[121] Cardinal-priest ca.1100/01 (?) Archbishop of Brindisi 1101–1104 This archbishop of Brindisi is referred to as former cardinal only in one document of Pope Paschalis II, which, however, does not mention his name. Therefore, his identity remains uncertain[122]
Bernardo degli Uberti, O.S.B.Vall.[123] Cardinal-priest of S. Crisogono 1098/99–1106 Bishop of Parma 1106–1133 Future saint; as cardinal, he was also abbot of Vallombrosa 1098–1106 (see table above).

In 1109/10 Berardo de Marsi became new cardinal-priest of S. Crisogono[124]

Richard de Saint-Victor, O.S.B.[125] Cardinal-priest 1078–1106 Archbishop of Narbonne 1106–1121 As cardinal-priest, he was also abbot of St.-Victor at Marseille 1079–1106 (see table above)
Giovanni da Piacenza[126] Cardinal-priest 1096–1106 Bishop of Gubbio 1106–before 1126 As cardinal he acted for some time (1101–03) as vicar and administrator of the see of Piacenza (see table below)
Landolfo[127] Cardinal-priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina 1106–1108 Archbishop of Benevento 1108–1119 In 1116 Gregorio of Siena became new cardinal-priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina[128]
Berardo de Marsi, O.S.B.Cas.[129] Cardinal-deacon of S. Angelo 1105/07–1109/10, cardinal-priest of S. Crisogono 1109/10 Bishop of Marsi 1110–1130 Future saint

In 1111 Gregorio of Lucca was appointed new cardinal-priest of S. Crisogono[130]

Riso[131] Cardinal-priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso 1103/05–1112 Archbishop of Bari 1112–1118 In 1116 Deusdedit became new cardinal-priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso[132]
Romualdo[133] Cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata ca.1110–1121 Archbishop of Salerno 1121–1136 In 1123 Uberto Rossi Lanfranchi replaced him in the deaconry of S. Maria in Via Lata.[134] After 1130 he joined the obedience of Antipope Anacletus II
Baialardus[135] Cardinal-deacon 1120–1121/22 Archbishop of Brindisi 1121/22–after 1130 (1144?) Some sources erroneously say that he was named archbishop in 1118
Boso[136] Cardinal-deacon (before 1110–1113), cardinal-priest of S. Anastasia 1113–1122 Bishop of Turin 1122–after 1125 In 1123 Teobaldo Buccapeccus became new cardinal-priest of S. Anastasia[137]
Uberto Rossi Lanfranchi[138] Cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata 1123–1125/26, cardinal-priest of S. Clemente 1125/26–1133 Archbishop of Pisa 1133–1137/38 For a few months he acted simultaneously as cardinal-priest and archbishop-elect, but after episcopal consecration (September 1133) resigned his cardinalate
Balduino da Pisa, O.Cist.[139] Cardinal-priest of S. Maria in Trastevere 1137–1138 Archbishop of Pisa 1138–1145/46 In 1140 he was succeeded by Gregorio della Suburra as cardinal-priest of S. Maria in Trastevere[140]
Griffone[141] Cardinal-priest of S. Pudenziana 1138–1139 Bishop of Ferrara 1139–after 1156 In 1140 Presbitero succeeded him as cardinal-priest of S. Pudenziana[142]
Villano Caetani[143] Cardinal-priest of S. Stefano in Monte Celio 1144–1146 Archbishop of Pisa 1146–1175 In 1151 Gerardo was named new cardinal-priest of S. Stefano in Monte Celio[144]
Galdino della Sala[145] Cardinal-priest of S. Sabina 1166–1167 Archbishop of Milan 1166–1176 Despite receiving episcopal consecration on 18 April 1166 he continued to style himself as cardinal until he took possession of the see of Milan in September 1167
Rainaldo, O.S.B.Cas.[146] Cardinal-deacon in 1169 Bishop of Gaeta 1169–1171, archbishop of Bari 1171–1188 He appears as cardinal-deacon and bishop-elect of Gaeta in January 1169, but after receiving Episcopal consecration (before 29 March 1170) resigned his cardinalate
Lombardo da Piacenza[147] Cardinal-deacon 1170–1171, cardinal-priest of S. Ciriaco 1171 Archbishop of Benevento 1171–1177/79 He resigned as archbishop before March 1179 and died after July 1179. Probably the last instance of the cardinal who resigned his cardinalate after episcopal appointment[148]

Disputed cases[edit]

Name Cardinalate "External" episcopate Notes
Guitmund, O.S.B.[149] Cardinal-priest created by Gregory VII Bishop of Aversa 1088–after 1090 There are doubts if he was ever promoted to the cardinalate[150]
Alberico[151] Cardinal-priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli in 1100 Bishop of Sutri 1105–after 1112 The identity of the cardinal with bishop of Sutri is uncertain.[152]
Siro de Porcello[153] Cardinal in 1130 Archbishop of Genoa 1130–1163 (until 1133 only bishop) First archbishop of Genoa (from 1133). His cardinalate is attested only in the chronicle of Jacobus de Voragine, who lived over a hundred years later. However, Jacobus was himself archbishop of Genoa (1292–98), and it is possible that he may have used some documents that are lost today.

Cardinals who served as administrators or prelates of the external churches (until 13th century)[edit]

Name Cardinalate "External" post Notes
Giovanni da Piacenza[154] Cardinal-priest 1096–1106 Vicar and administrator of the see of Piacenza 1101–1103 He became bishop of Gubbio in 1106 and resigned his cardinalate (see table above)
Enrico[155] Cardinal-deacon of S. Teodoro in 1117/18 Dean of Mazara del Vallo ca.1117/18
Azo da Piacenza[156] Cardinal-deacon 1132–1134, cardinal-priest of S. Anastasia 1134–1139 Provost of the collegiate church of S. Antonino in Piacenza 1119–1139 During his cardinalate he resided in Piacenza in 1133–34 and 1137–38
Ildebrando Grassi, Can.Reg.[157] Cardinal-deacon of S. Eustachio 1152–1156, cardinal-priest of SS. Apostoli 1156–1178 Administrator of the see of Modena 1154–1156 and 1174–1175 In both cases administration of the see of Modena was only a part of his legatine duties
Rainiero Capocci, O.Cist.[158] Cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin 1216–1250 Administrator of the see of Viterbo in 1217 and 1243–1244 Administration of the see of Viterbo was only a part of his legatine duties
Stephan Vancza[159] Cardinal-bishop of Palestrina 1251–1270 Administrator of the see of Esztergom 1252–1254 He was archbishop of Esztergom 1243–1251/52. After his promotion to the cardinalate Pope Innocent IV initially allowed him to retain the administration of his former see but later forced him to resign it
Giovanni Castrocoeli, O.S.B.Cas.[160] Cardinal-priest of S. Vitale 1294–1295 Administrator of the sees of Benevento and S. Agata de' Goti 1294–1295 He was archbishop of Benevento 1282–1294 and retained the administration of this see after promotion to the cardinalate

Rejected episcopal elections of the cardinals in 13th century[edit]

Name Cardinalate Episcopal election Notes
Gerardo[161] Cardinal-deacon of S. Adriano 1182–1208 Elected bishop of Lucca in 1201 Pope Innocent III refused to confirm the election
Soffredo[162] Cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata 1182–1193, cardinal-priest of S. Prassede 1193–1210 Elected archbishop of Ravenna in 1201 In the letter issued in November/December 1201 Pope Innocent III rejected this election[163]

In 1203 he acted for a short time as patriarch-elect of Jerusalem (see table above)

Pelagio Galvani[164] Cardinal-deacon of S. Lucia in Septisolio 1206/07–1211, cardinal-priest of S. Cecilia 1211–1213, cardinal-bishop of Albano 1213–1230 Elected Patriarch of Antioch in 1217 Pope Honorius III refused to confirm his election and on April 25, 1219 appointed Pietro Capuano (future cardinal) to the vacated patriarchal see[165]
Aldebrandino Gaetano Orsini[166] Cardinal- deacon of S. Eustachio 1216–1219, cardinal-priest of S. Susanna 1219–1221, cardinal-bishop of Sabina 1221–1223 Elected bishop of Paris in 1219 Honorius III in the letter issued on December 4, 1219 informed the cathedral chapter of Paris that he had refused to confirm this election and that the chapter should elect a new candidate[167]
Konrad von Urach, O.Cist.[168] Cardinal-bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina 1219—1227 Elected archbishop of Besancon in 1220 Pope Honorius III rejected his election[169]
Tommaso da Capua[170] Cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata 1216, cardinal-priest of S. Sabina 1216—1239 Elected patriarch of Jerusalem in 1227 Pope Gregory IX rejected his election[171]
Jacques de Vitry, Can.Reg.[172] Cardinal-bishop of Frascati 1229—1240 Elected patriarch of Jerusalem in 1239/40 On May 14, 1240 Pope Gregory IX appointed new patriarch and in the letter of his nomination explained the canons of the chapter of Jerusalem the reasons of his earlier rejection of the election of Cardinal de Vitry, who had died on May 1, 1240[173]
Egidius de Torres[174] Cardinal-deacon SS. Cosma e Damiano 1216/17—1254 Elected Archbishop of Toledo in 1247 On February 21, 1248 Pope Innocent IV rejected his postulation to that see and appointed Juan de Medina Pomar as new archbishop of Toledo
Pierre de Bar[175] Cardinal-priest of S. Marcello 1244—1252, cardinal-bishop of Sabina 1251/52—1253 Elected bishop of Noyon in 1249/50 Pope Innocent IV refused to confirm his election indicating that his presence in curia is indispensable[176]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ganzer, p. XI. See also Maleczek, p. 53, 125 and 295–296; Zenker, p. 248–249; Loud, p. 241.
  2. ^ Ganzer, p. XI; Maleczek, p. 53
  3. ^ Ganzer, p. 186, 189, 193–194; cf. Zenker, p. 249
  4. ^ Salvador Miranda General list of Cardinals: 5th Century (492-498) (note) and Guide to documents and events. Florida International University. Retrieved on August 27, 2009. This jurisdiction has been finally suppressed only in 1692 see Salvador Miranda The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church.Guide to documents and events. 17th Century (1605–1700) Florida International University. Retrieved on August 27, 2009 Archived May 4, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Klewitz, p. 47.
  6. ^ Klewitz, p. 24–36.
  7. ^ The term “cardinal-deacons” is known already in the 6th century, but in the official papal documents does not appear before the last quarter of the 11th century. Hüls, p. 17; Klewitz, p. 88.
  8. ^ On the early Roman cardinalate see Klewitz, p. 14–31, 47–60 and 79–87; Hüls, p. 3–44; Robinson, p. 33–34; Ganzer, p. 4–6; and Wikisource-logo.svg Sägmüller, Johannes Baptist (1913). "Cardinal (1)". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  9. ^ Robinson, pp. 57 ff.
  10. ^ For the development of the role of cardinals in the 11th century and the establishment of the College of Cardinals see Robinson, p. 35–41; Ganzer, p. 6–11; Klewitz, p. 31–47, 60–79 and 88–114. For the detailed study about the engagement of the cardinals in papal government in 12th and 13th centuries see Maleczek, pp. 297–351; and Robinson, pp.90–120.
  11. ^ a b Ganzer, p. 176.
  12. ^ Klewitz, p. 103, described Monte Cassino as "spiritual armoury of the reform papacy"
  13. ^ Ganzer, p. 15–16 no. 1; Hüls, p. 168–169 no. 2.
  14. ^ Ganzer, p. 17–23 no. 2; Hüls, p. 154–155 no. 1.
  15. ^ a b Ganzer, p. 185
  16. ^ For example, already in 1050 cardinal-priest Airardus was appointed bishop of Nantes (Hüls, p. 212 no. 3; cf. Gams, p. 581)
  17. ^ Ganzer, p. 189–190
  18. ^ Ganzer, p. 38–39 no. 10 and p. 190; Hüls, p. 185 no. 3
  19. ^ Loud, p. 216–217; Ganzer, p. 55–69, 72–75 and 190–191. The southern Italy for several hundred years belonged to the Byzantine Empire and was ecclesiastically subordinated to the Greek Patriarchate of Constantinople, not to Rome. It was only after the Norman conquest of southern Italy in the 11th century, when the papacy was able to regain the control over this region and to replace the Greek hierarchy with the Latin one; see Klewitz, pp. 137–205.
  20. ^ Ganzer, p. 86–91, 97–99; Robinson, p. 91; Zenker, p. 248
  21. ^ Robinson, p. 91; Ganzer, p. 187–189
  22. ^ The only exception was archbishop Rangerius of Reggio di Calabria 1091–94/95, who was appointed cardinal-priest of S. Susanna in 1094/95 and resigned his see, though probably retaining the personal title of archbishop. On Rangerius see Hüls, p. 207–208 no. 2, who has amended in some points Rangerius’ entry by Ganzer, p. 45–49 no. 14. Pope Gregory VII in 1073 elevated to the cardinalate also Atto, archbishop-elect of Milan from 1072; but Atto was unable to take possession of his see due to political reasons and never received episcopal consecration (Hüls, p. 185 no. 2; Gams, p. 796; cf. Kehr, vol. VI/1, p. 49–52 no. 101–120)
  23. ^ The only exception concerned bishps of the seven dioceses bordering the diocese of Rome (suburbicarian sees), who were the cardinals ex officio. Robinson, p. 91
  24. ^ Ganzer, p. 194–199; Robinson, p. 91
  25. ^ See Ganzer, p. 132–133 no. 54, p. 196; Brixius, p. 67 no. 1
  26. ^ Ganzer, p. 104–114 no. 43, p. 195–196
  27. ^ Ganzer, p. 125–129 no. 51
  28. ^ Maleczek, p. 68, 94–97 and 125. The case of Ruggiero, archbishop of Benevento (1179–1221) and cardinal of S. Eusebio (attested as such in 1180) remains obscure, with the contradictory statements of the historians (cf. on him Brixius, p. 66 no. 29; Ganzer, 129–131 no. 52; and Maleczek, p. 68 and 295)
  29. ^ For example, in September 1173 Alexander III named bishop-elect of Meaux, Pietro da Pavia, to the rank of cardinal-priest of S. Crisogono, and in 1175 forced him to resign his see (Ganzer, p. 123–125 no. 50). In 1182, Pedro de Cardona, archbishop-elect of Toledo, was named cardinal-priest of S. Lorenzo in Damaso by Lucius III and from the document dated 3 June 1182 appears that he resigned the see of Toledo: P(etro)…presbitero Cardinali, quondam electo vestro (Ramón Riu y Cabanas, Primeros cardenales de la sede primada, in: Boletín de la Real Academia de la Historia, XXVII, Madrid 1896, p. 144). Tommaso da Capua, archbishop elect of Naples from 1215, also resigned his see after becoming cardinal in 1216 (Ganzer, p. 162 no. 69; Maleczek, p. 201–03). More obscure is the case of Rolando, bishop-elect of Dol from 1177 and cardinal-deacon of S. Maria in Portico 1185–87; certainly he never resided in his diocese and after his promotion to the cardinalate he appears in the documents only as cardinal-deacon, which indicates his resignation, but the exact dates of his death and of the appointment of his successor are not known (cf. Ganzer, p. 137 no. 58; and Gams, p. 547; according to Gams Rolando remained bishop of Dol until his death, but the date of death given by Gams - March 4, 1187, is undoubtedly erroneous because he subscribed several documents after that date, cf. Ganzer, p. 137 no. 58 note 12)
  30. ^ Ganzer, p. 199–200
  31. ^ Ganzer, p. 137–140 no. 59 and p. 199
  32. ^ Ganzer, p. 138; on Fidanzio see Maleczek, p. 113–114
  33. ^ Ganzer, p. 149–159 and 199; Maleczek, p. 133–134, 153–154, 164–166.
  34. ^ Maleczek, p. 241
  35. ^ Paravicini Bagliani, p. 1; Ganzer, p. 202; see also several examples of the rejected episcopal elections of the cardinals in Ganzer, p. 162, 165 and 167.
  36. ^ Paravicini Bagliani, p. 537; Ganzer, p. 202. The first such instance occurred already in 1166, when bishop Ugo Pierleoni of Piacenza was transferred to the suburbicarian see of Tusculum by the Pope Alexander III (Ganzer, p. 114 no. 44; Brixius, p. 62 no. 9). However, it seems that it was the only such case in the 12th century. The next occurred only in the 13th century, and from the pontificate of Innocent IV (1243–1254) they became frequent (cf. Eubel, p. 3–13; Paravicini Bagliani, p. 385–388)
  37. ^ Paravicini Bagliani, p. 1
  38. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Sägmüller, Johannes Baptist (1913). "Cardinal (1)". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  39. ^ Cumulation of the benefices by the cardinals initially included only the posts in the cathedral chapters or of the commendatory abbots (cf. Paravicini Bagliani, p. 360)
  40. ^ About the transformation of the Sacred College during the Western Schism and the subsequent period see F. Bourkle-Young Papal elections in the Fifteenth Century
  41. ^ See Article on the Council of Trent from the Catholic Encyclopedia
  42. ^ See S. Miranda Current membership of the College of Cardinals
  43. ^ Cardinal-priests and deacons finally lost the jurisditcion over tituli and deaconries when Pope Innocent XII issued the constitution Romanum decet pontificum in 1692. Cardinal-bishops retained it much longer over the suburbicarian sees, but after 1965 they are also only titular bishops (Salvador Miranda: Guide to the events and documents. 20th century; retrieved on September 1, 2009).
  44. ^ Ganzer, p. 183–184
  45. ^ Ganzer, p. 131 and 198. Also Anselmo of Naples appears in the documents only as archbishop, but it is not certain whether his promotion actually went into effect (Maleczek, p. 125)
  46. ^ Ganzer, p. 182
  47. ^ Ganzer, p. 38, 106–113, 119, 126–129, 134–135, 145–147
  48. ^ Ganzer, p. 196–197; cf. Maleczek, p. 67.
  49. ^ Ganzer, p. 129–131 and 182
  50. ^ Ganzer, p. 200. Stephan Langton visited Rome in 1215–16 and 1220 but took no part in the consistories (Ganzer, p. 157–158 and 200).
  51. ^ Ganzer, p. 181, 196-198, 207. The list is not complete.
  52. ^ Ganzer, p. 183
  53. ^ Klewitz, p. 88; Hüls, p. 51 and 252; Robinson, p. 62; Ganzer, p. 34, 43 and 183
  54. ^ Klewitz, p. 132 no. 9; Hüls, p. 63–64, 193 and 242; Ganzer, p. 70
  55. ^ Ganzer, p. 103 and 183; Brixius, p. 24 and 60; Zenker, p. 140
  56. ^ Ganzer, p. 111.
  57. ^ The examination of his subscriptions on the papal bulls indicates his presence in the papal curia in the spring of 1191 and at the beginning of 1198, which makes his participation in these elections very likely (cf. Maleczek, p. 364, 376–377)
  58. ^ The examination of his subscriptions on the papal bulls indicates his presence in the papal curia in the spring of 1191, which makes his participation in this election very likely (cf. Ganzer, p. 147)
  59. ^ Ganzer, p. 15–16 no.1; Hüls, p. 168–169 no. 2; Klewitz, p. 64
  60. ^ Hüls, p. 99–100 no. 3.
  61. ^ Ganzer, p. 17–23 no. 2; Hüls, p. 154–157 no. 1; Klewitz, p. 64
  62. ^ Ganzer, p. 23–26 no. 3; Klewitz, p. 118 no. 21; Hüls, p. 134–136 no. 3
  63. ^ Ganzer, p. 36–37 no. 7; Hüls, p. 216 no. 17
  64. ^ Hüls, p. 90–91 no. 3; Ganzer, p. 207.
  65. ^ Hüls, p. 233–234 no. 1; Ganzer, p. 29–31 no. 5
  66. ^ Hüls, p. 217–218 no. 20; Klewitz, p. 130 no. 45
  67. ^ Hüls, p. 247 no. 10.
  68. ^ Ganzer, p. 43–45 no. 13; Hüls, p. 215–216 no. 16 and p. 251–252 no. 23; Klewitz, p. 123 no. 7.
  69. ^ Ganzer, p. 51–55 no. 16, Hüls, p. 12–174 no. 5; Klewitz, p. 122 no. 3.
  70. ^ Klewitz, p. 37–44, p. 118 no. 24 and p. 121 no. 13; Ganzer, p. 57–62 no. 19; Hüls, p. 129–130 no. 2
  71. ^ Ganzer, p. 71 no. 24; Hüls, p. 214 no. 12.
  72. ^ Klewitz, p. 126 no. 21 and p. 217; Ganzer, p. 69–71 no. 23; Hüls, p. 193–194 no. 1; Zenker, p. 96.
  73. ^ Brixius, p. 37 no. 31; Ganzer, p. 75–79 no. 29; Hüls, p. 221–222 no. 1; Klewitz, p. 133 no. 19 and p. 217; Zenker, p. 181–182
  74. ^ Brixius, p. 40 no. 1; Ganzer, p. 81–83 no. 30; Zenker, p. 160–161.
  75. ^ Klewitz, p. 22 note 40; Ganzer, p. 94 no. 37; Zenker, p. 139.
  76. ^ Brixius, p. 46 no. 42; Zenker, p. 191–192; Loud, p. 157–158 and 241; Ganzer, p. 94–97 no. 38 (Ganzer erroneously dated his creation to 1145, see Loud, p. 158 note 87).
  77. ^ Brixius, p.59–60 no. 11; Ganzer, p. 102–104 no. 42; Zenker, p. 140–141.
  78. ^ Brixius, p. 68–69 no. 1.
  79. ^ Ganzer, p. 119 no. 47; Loud, p. 241
  80. ^ Ganzer, p. 119–121 no. 48; Loud, p. 241 and 263–266
  81. ^ Ganzer, p. 141–144 no. 60; Maleczek, p. 68; Kartusch, p. 146–151 no. 28
  82. ^ Ganzer, p. 169–171 no. 86; Paravicini Bagliani, p. 545–551
  83. ^ Hüls, p. 252 no. 24.
  84. ^ Klewitz, p. 112–113; Ganzer, p. 26–29 no. 4; Hüls, p.198 no. 1.
  85. ^ Klewitz affirms his cardinalate, while Ganzer argues that he only obtained some privileges proper to the cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Hüls lists him among the occupants of the title of S. Prisca with a question mark
  86. ^ Ganzer, p. 131–132 no. 53; Kehr, vol. IV, p. 279–280
  87. ^ Subdeacons of the Holy Roman Church did not belong to the College of Cardinals (Robinson, p. 38).
  88. ^ Kehr, vol. VIII, p. 184, note to n. 274.
  89. ^ Hüls, p. 158–160 no. 1; Ganzer, p. 38–39 no. 10; cfr. Schwartz, p. 235, 336.
  90. ^ The episcopate of Hugo Candidus in Fermo remains obscure. In the bull of Clement III dated November 4, 1084 he is explicitly called "cardinal of S. Clemente and bishop of Fermo", but in 1080 appears in the documents bishop Hugo of Fermo who certainly wasn't identical to this cardinal; cf. Ganzer, p. 38
  91. ^ Brixius, p. 67 no. 1; Ganzer, p. 132–133 no. 54
  92. ^ Ganzer, p. 104–114 no. 43; Brixius, p. 63 no. 14; Maleczek, p. 67; Kartusch, p. 126–133 no. 23.
  93. ^ Brixius, p. 65 no. 23; Ganzer, p. 123–125 no. 50; Kartusch, p. 321–323 no. 79.
  94. ^ Ganzer, p. 125–129 no. 51; Brixius, p. 67 no. 34; Maleczek, p. 68; Kartusch, p. 424–427 no. 109.
  95. ^ Brixius, p. 66 no. 29; Ganzer, p. 129–131 no. 52; Maleczek, p. 68; Loud, p. 241; Kehr, vol. IX, p. 70.
  96. ^ Ganzer, p. 134–136 no. 56; Kartusch, p. 196–199 no. 41.
  97. ^ Ganzer, p. 137-14 no. 59; Maleczek, p. 68; Kartusch, p. 63–67 no. 1.
  98. ^ Maleczek, p. 113–114
  99. ^ Ganzer, p. 145–146 no. 61; Maleczek, p. 94–95; Kartusch, p. 229–231 no. 48.
  100. ^ Ganzer, p. 146–147; Maleczek, p. 96; Kartusch, p. 392–393 no. 100.
  101. ^ Ganzer, p. 149–151 no. 64; Maleczek, p. 73–76; Kartusch, p. 393–399 no. 101.
  102. ^ Maleczek, p. 133–134; Ganzer, p. 149–151 no. 64; Kartusch, p. 183–190 no. 39.
  103. ^ Maleczek, p. 99–101
  104. ^ Ganzer, p. 152–153 no. 65; Maleczek, p. 153–154; Kartusch, p. 199–200 no. 42.
  105. ^ Ganzer, p. 153–159 no. 66; Maleczek, p. 164–166; Paravicini Bagliani, p. 13 no. 9; Kartusch, p. 402–406 no. 103; cf. Eubel, p. 4 and 163.
  106. ^ Ganzer, p. 159–162 no. 67; Maleczek, p. 125; Kartusch, p. 142–145 no. 26.
  107. ^ Maleczek, p. 125; Ganzer, p. 163 no. 70; Kartusch, p. 86–88 no. 9.
  108. ^ Potthast, p. 114 n. 1255
  109. ^ Ganzer concludes that he was not a cardinal, while Kartusch and Maleczek list him among the cardinals created by Innocent III
  110. ^ Schwartz, p. 284-285; Gams, p. 707; Regesta Imperii Online. Abh. II, Bd. 5 (Regestennummer 543).
  111. ^ Schwartz, p. 154; Gams, p. 717.
  112. ^ Hüls, p. 212 no. 3; Sources of reform in the episcopate of Airard of Nantes, 1050–1054
  113. ^ The following titles were attached to the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls in the 11th century: S. Marcello, S. Sabina, S. Prisca, S. Balbina, SS. Nereo e Achilleo, S. Sisto and S. Susanna (Klewitz, p. 59). None of them had known occupant by 1050 (cf. Hüls, p. 153, 184, 193, 198, 203, 205 and 207)
  114. ^ See Hüls, p. 185 no. 3, who has amended Roberto’s entry by Ganzer, p. 39–40 no. 11; cf. Schwartz, p. 171.
  115. ^ Hüls, p. 202 no. 1; Ganzer, p. 40–43 no. 12; Schwartz, p. 108–109; cf. Gams, p. 779
  116. ^ Hüls, p. 203 no. 2; Klewitz, p. 130 no. 44; Ganzer, p. 42
  117. ^ Hüls, p. 188–189 no. 4; Ganzer, p. 49–51 no. 15; cf. Schwartz, p. 198–199.
  118. ^ Klewitz, p. 121 no. 1
  119. ^ Ganzer, p. 55–57 no. 17; Hüls, p. 203–204 no. 5; Klewitz, p. 124 no. 16.
  120. ^ Hüls, p. 204 no. 4
  121. ^ Ganzer, p. 57 no. 18.
  122. ^ Ganzer, p. 57, remarks that although this cardinal is commonly identified with archbishop Niccolo (1101–1104), it may have been also his successor Guglielmo (1104–1118). See also Kehr, vol. IX, p. 390 no. 20 with note; cf. Gams, p. 862
  123. ^ Ganzer, p. 51–55 no. 16; Hüls, p. 172–174 no. 5; Klewitz, p. 122 no. 3; Schwartz, p. 187–188.
  124. ^ Hüls, p. 174 no. 6 and p. 222 no. 1
  125. ^ Ganzer, p. 32–36 no. 6; Hüls, p. 217–218 no. 20; Klewitz, p. 130 no. 45
  126. ^ Hüls, p. 214 no. 10; Ganzer, p. 71 no. 25; cf. Gams, p. 699; Schwartz p. 247.
  127. ^ Klewitz, p. 129 no. 38; Hüls, p. 181 no. 2; Ganzer, p. 57 no. 18.
  128. ^ Klewitz, p. 129 no. 39; Hüls, p. 182 no. 3
  129. ^ Ganzer, p. 67–69 no. 22; Hüls, p. 174 no. 6 and p. 222 no. 1; Klewitz, p. 133 no. 14; Schwartz, p. 283.
  130. ^ Hüls, p. 175 no. 7; Ganzer, p. 69
  131. ^ Hüls, p. 179 no. 3; see also Loud, p. 216–217.
  132. ^ Hüls, p. 179–180 no. 4
  133. ^ Ganzer, p. 72–74 no. 27; Hüls, p. 238 no. 4; Klewitz, p. 133 no. 18.
  134. ^ Hüls, p. 238 no. 5
  135. ^ Hüls, p. 245 no. 4; Ganzer, p. 74–75 no. 28; see also Gams, p. 862; and Kehr, vol. IX, p. 392.
  136. ^ Hüls, p. 147–148 no. 6 and p. 246 no. 7; see also Gams, p. 824.
  137. ^ Hüls, p. 149 no. 7
  138. ^ Ganzer, p. 86–89 no. 34; Hüls, p. 162–163 no. 4 and p. 238 no. 5; Brixius, p. 35 no. 21; Zenker, p. 115–116; Klewitz, p. 224
  139. ^ Ganzer, p. 90–91 no. 35; Brixius, p. 41 no. 5; Zenker, p. 55–56
  140. ^ Zenker, p. 56
  141. ^ Ganzer, p. 92–94 no. 36; Brixius, p. 42 no. 19; Zenker, p. 111
  142. ^ Zenker, p. 111
  143. ^ Ganzer, p. 97–99 no. 39; Brixius, p. 53 no. 10; Zenker, p. 134–135
  144. ^ Zenker, p. 135; Brixius, p. 54 no. 6
  145. ^ Ganzer, p. 114–118 no. 45; Brixius, p. 60–61 no. 4
  146. ^ Ganzer, p. 118–119 no. 46; Loud, p. 239 and 241; cf. Gams, p. 856 and 881
  147. ^ Ganzer, p. 121–123 no. 49; Brixius, p. 64 no. 16
  148. ^ See Ganzer, p. 194. Ganzer suggests that after Lombardo perhaps also Ruggiero of Benevento resigned his cardinalate, but according to Brixius, p. 137 and Maleczek, p. 68 he remained a cardinal until his death.
  149. ^ Hüls, p. 213 no. 6; Wikisource-logo.svg Ott., Michael (1913). "Guitmund". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. ; cf. Kehr, vol. VIII, p. 281–283
  150. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Ott., Michael (1913). "Guitmund". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  151. ^ Klewitz, p. 128 no. 36; Hüls, p. 194–195 no. 2; Schwartz, p. 265.
  152. ^ According to Hüls, p. 195, the paleographical research on the original documents subscribed by the cardinal and bishop makes this identification very likely but absolute certainty has not been achieved.
  153. ^ Zenker, p. 192–193; cf. Gams, p. 815
  154. ^ Hüls, p. 214 no. 10; Ganzer, p. 71 no. 25; cf. Gams, p. 699; Schwartz, p. 195.
  155. ^ Hüls, p. 242 no. 2; Klewitz, p. 132 no. 9
  156. ^ Brixius, p. 41 no. 4; Zenker, p. 71–72 and 184; Ganzer, p. 83–86 no. 33
  157. ^ Brixius, p. 55 no. 12; Zenker, p. 107–109 and 176; Ganzer, p. 100–102 no. 41.
  158. ^ Ganzer, p. 164 no. 73; Kartusch, p. 360–373 no. 92; cf. Gams, p. 737; Eubel, p. 532.
  159. ^ Ganzer, p. 168–169 no. 85; Paravicini Bagliani, p. 349–357; Eubel, p. 7 and 464.
  160. ^ Eubel, p. 12, 75 and 133; and Giovanni Castrocoeli (entry by S. Miranda).
  161. ^ Maleczek, p. 78–79; Kartusch, p. 138–142 no. 25.
  162. ^ Maleczek, p. 73–76; Kartusch, p. 393–399 no. 101.
  163. ^ Potthast, p. 135 n. 1546
  164. ^ Ganzer, p. 165 no. 74; Eubel, p. 93 note 3; cf. Maleczek, p.166–169; Kartusch, p. 313–320 no. 77.
  165. ^ Cf. Ganzer, p. 165 no. 75
  166. ^ Ganzer, p. 165 no. 76; Kartusch, p. 82-84 no. 6.
  167. ^ Potthast, p. 540 n. 6173
  168. ^ Kartusch, p. 119–126 no. 22.
  169. ^ Kartusch, p. 120.
  170. ^ Maleczek, p. 201—203; Kartusch, p. 416–422 no. 107.
  171. ^ Maleczek, p. 203
  172. ^ Ganzer, p. 167 no. 80; Paravicini Bagliani, p. 99–109
  173. ^ Paravicini Bagliani, p. 108; Eubel, p. 275
  174. ^ Ganzer, p. 168 no. 84; Kartusch, p. 67–73 no. 2; Eubel, p. 487 note 2.
  175. ^ Paravicini Bagliani, p. 213–220.
  176. ^ Paravicini Bagliani, p. 219

Bibliography[edit]

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