Extinct Kannada literature
Although no works of this period are available now, references to them are found in the Kavirajamarga and a handful of other extant works. While a few scholars may have expressed reservations regarding the extent of this literature, noted modern scholars such as A.K. Ramanujan, K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, R.S. Mugali, and Anthony Warder, to name a few, have hypothesized that a body of literature must have existed in an earlier period.
Some early writings and forms
The earliest available examples of a Kannada inscriptions are the Halmidi inscription, allegedly a Kadamba royal edict commonly dated to fifth or sixth century CE, the Tamatekallu inscription which has been identified by some scholars to be from the 5th century, the Siragunda inscription of 500 CE, and the dated Badami cave inscription of King Mangalesa (578 CE). The Kappe Arabhatta record of the 7th century and the Shravanabelagola inscription of Nandisena, also from the 7th century, form the earliest surviving record of Kannada poetry.
The earliest surviving literature in rich manuscript form, the Kavirajamarga ("Royal Path for Poets") is dated to 850 CE; references are made in it to earlier prose writers such as Durvinita, Vimalachandra, Udaya, Nagarjuna, Jayabhandu and to poets including Kavisvara, Srivijaya, Pandita Chandra, Ravi Kirti (634) and Lokapala.
Extinct writings and forms
Kavirajamarga discusses earlier composition forms peculiar to Kannada, the gadyakatha, a mixture of prose and poetry, the chattana and the bedande, poems of several stanzas that were meant to be sung with the optional use of a musical instrument. Regarding earlier poetry in Kannada, the author of Kavirajamarga states "Hala Gannada (lit old Kannada) is appropriate in ancient poems but insipid in works of the present time, like an association with an old woman" .
Other writers, whose works are not in existence now but titles of which are mentioned in independent references are Syamakundacharya (c. 650), who authored the Prabhrita, and Srivaradhadeva (also called Tumubuluracharya, c. 650 or earlier), who wrote the Chudamani ("Crest Jewel"), a 96,000-verse commentary on logic. The Karnatheshwara Katha, a eulogy of the Chalukya King Pulakesi II, is ascribed to the 7th or 8th century. The Gajashtaka, a lost ashtaka (eight line verse) composition, was authored by King Shivamara II in c. 800. The composition served as the basis for two popular folk songs, ovanige and onakevadu, which were sung either while pounding corn or to entice wild elephants into a pit (ovam).
Srivijaya, a court poet of Amoghavarsha I, wrote the Chandraprabha Purana in early 9th century. His writing has been mentioned by Vijayanagara poets Mangarasa III and Doddiah (also spelt Doddayya, c. 1550) and praised by Durgasimha (c. 1025). During the same period, the Digambara Jain poet Asaga (or Asoka) authored, among other writings, Karnata Kumarasambhava Kavya and Varadamana Charitra. His works have been praised by later poets, although none of his works are available today. Gunagankiyam, the earliest known prosody in Kannada, was referenced in a Tamil work dated to 10th century or earlier (Yapparungalakkarigai by Amritasagara). Gunanandi, who was known as an expert in logic, Kannada grammar and prose lived in the 9th century. Around c. 900, Gunavarma I wrote Sudraka and Harivamsa (also known as Neminatha Purana). In Sudraka he compared his patron, Ganga king Ereganga Neetimarga II, to a noted king called Sudraka. Jinachandra, who is referred to by Sri Ponna (c. 950) as the author of Pujyapada Charita, had earned the honorific "modern Samantha Bhadra".
- Ramanujan A.K. (1973), p. 11
- Sastri (1955), p. 355
- Mugali R.S. (2006), pp. 173-175
- Warder (1988), p. 240
- Gai 1996, p. 26 Quote: "Since the Halmidi inscription does not belong to the reign of Kakusthavarman, it is not included in this volume."
- Quote: "The undated Halmidi (Hassan District, Karnataka) inscription, allegedly written during the reign of Kadamba Kakusthavarman, ..." (K. V. Ramesh) Ramesh 1984b, p. 55
- Sahitya Akademi (1988), pp. 1717, 1474
- Kamath (1980), p. 10
- Pai in Bhat, (1993), p. 102
- Rice E.P. (1921), p. 13
- Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1717
- Kamath (2001), p. 10, 57
- Kamath (1980), p. 67
- Sahitya Akademi (1988), p. 1717
- "Inscriptions". Official website of CIIL,Government of India. Classicalkannada.org. Retrieved 2012-02-29.
- Rao in Datta (1994), pp. 2278-2283
- Narasimhacharya (1934), p. 2
- Warder (1988), p. 240
- Rice E.P., (1921), pp. 25, 28
- Garg (1987), vol 4
- Narasimhacharya (1934), pp. 13, 17
- Nagaraj in Sheldon (2003), p. 333
- Narasimhacharya (1934), p. 12
- Such as Indranandi's Srutavatara, Devachandra's Rajavalikathe (Narasimhacharya, 1934, pp. 4–5); Bhattakalanka's Sabdanusasana of 1604 (Sastri 1955, p. 355), writings of Jayakirthi (Kamath 1980, p. 67)
- Sastri (1955), p. 355
- Rice B.L. (1897), pp. 496–497
- Rice E.P. (1921), p. 27
- Mugali (1975), p. 13
- Chidananda Murthy in Kamath (1980), p. 67
- Sahitya Akademi (1987), p. 248
- Kamath (1980), p. 50
- Narasimhacharya (1934), pp. 17–18
- Warder (1988), pp. 240–241
- Narasimhacharya 1934, p. 29
- Rice E.P. (1921), p. 28
- Narasimhacharya (1934), p. 18
- Lewis Rice (1985), p xv
- Altekar (1934), p412
- Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1934) . The Rashtrakutas And Their Times; being a political, administrative, religious, social, economic and literary history of the Deccan during C. 750 A.D. to C. 1000 A.D. Poona: Oriental Book Agency. OCLC 3793499.
- Bhat, Thirumaleshwara (1993) . Govinda Pai. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-7201-540-2.
- Gai, G. S. (1992). Studies in Indian History, Epigraphy, and Culture. Karnataka, India: Shrihari Prakashana. Pp. 346.
- Gai, G. S. (1996). Inscriptions of the Early Kadambas. Indian Council of Historical Research.
- Kamath, Suryanath U. (2001) . A concise history of Karnataka : from pre-historic times to the present. Bangalore: Jupiter books. LCCN 80905179. OCLC 7796041.
- Karmarkar, A.P. (1947) . Cultural history of Karnataka : ancient and medieval. Dharwad: Karnataka Vidyavardhaka Sangha. OCLC 8221605.
- Mugaḷi, Raṃ Śrī (2006) . The Heritage of Karnataka: in relation to India. Read Books [Bangalore: Satyasodhama]. ISBN 978-1-4067-0232-3.
- Nagaraj, D.R. (2003) . "Critical Tensions in the History of Kannada Literary Culture". In Sheldon I. Pollock. Literary Cultures in History: Reconstructions from South Asia. Berkeley and London: University of California Press. Pp. 1066. pp. 323&ndash. ISBN 0-520-22821-9.
- Narasimhacharya, R (1988) . History of Kannada Literature. Mysore: Government Press. Reprinted by Asian Educational Services, New Delhi. ISBN 81-206-0303-6.
- Pollock, Sheldon (2003). Literary cultures in history: reconstructions from South Asia. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22821-9.
- Pollock, Sheldon (2006). The Language of the Gods in the World of Men: Sanskrit, Culture, and Power in Premodern India (Philip E. Lilienthal Books). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24500-8.
- Ramanujan, A.K. Speaking of Siva. England: Penguin.
- Rice, B.L. (2001) . Mysore Gazatteer Compiled for Government-vol 1. New Delhi, Madras: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0977-8.
- Rice, E.P. (1982) . A History of Kanarese Literature. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0063-0.
- Lewis, Rice (1985). Nagavarmma’s Karnataka Bhasha Bhushana. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 81-206-0062-2.
- Salomon, Richard (1998). Indian Epigraphy: A Guide to the Study of Inscriptions in Sanskrit, Prakrit, and Other Indo-Aryan Languages. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 378. ISBN 0-19-509984-2.
- Sastri, K.A. Nilakanta (2002) . A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-560686-8.
- Sircar, D. C. (1996) . Indian Epigraphy. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publications. ISBN 81-208-1166-6. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Various (1987) . Encyclopaedia of Indian literature – vol 1. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-1803-8.
- Various (1988) . Encyclopaedia of Indian literature – vol 2. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-1194-7.
- Various (1992) . Encyclopaedia of Indian literature – vol 5. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-1221-8.
- Warder, A.K. (1988) . Indian Kavya Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0450-3.