|Stylistic origins||Heavy metal|
|Cultural origins||Late 1970s to late 1980s, United States and Europe|
|Typical instruments||Electric guitar, bass guitar, drums, vocals, occasionally keyboards|
|Derivative forms||Gothic metal, groove metal|
Extreme metal is a loosely defined umbrella term for a number of related heavy metal music subgenres that have developed since the early 1980s. The term usually refers to a more abrasive, harsher, underground, non-commercialized style or sound associated with the thrash metal, black metal, death metal and doom metal genres. Speed metal is also sometimes included under the term.
Though many extreme sub-styles are not very well known to mainstream music fans, extreme metal has influenced an array of musical performers inside and outside of heavy metal.
- 1 Definitions
- 2 History
- 3 Extreme metal genres
- 3.1 Primary genres
- 3.2 Subgenres of primary genres
- 3.3 Fusion genres
- 3.4 Derivatives
- 4 References
"Extreme" can be meant to describe any of the following musical elements: instrumentation (whether it is intended to be faster, more aggressive, abrasive or "heavier" than other metal styles), lyrics (dealing with darker, more sensational topics and themes), vocals (which often use guttural, harsh or abrasive singing), or appearance and stage demeanor (using corpse paint, Satanic or occult imagery). The "extreme" label is most commonly applied to bands whose music is extreme; for example, few would consider Kiss or Alice Cooper to be extreme metal, though they could be considered to employ "extreme" elements in their appearance and stage demeanor for their time.
According to ethnographer Keith Kahn-Harris, the defining characteristics of extreme metal can all be regarded as clearly transgressive: the "extreme" traits noted above are all intended to violate or transgress given cultural, artistic, social or aesthetic boundaries.
Given the vagueness of existing definitions and considering the limitations such definitions have, there are many artists for whom the usage of the term "extreme metal" is a subject of debate. However, Kahn-Harris also notes that many musicians and fans see such debates over style and genre as useless and unnecessary, or at least as given undue attention.
Below is a basic summary explaining how the primary extreme metal genres evolved:
- Traditional heavy metal (late 1960s/early 1970s)
Extreme metal genres
Subgenres of primary genres
- Subgenres of black metal
- Subgenres of death metal
- Subgenres of doom metal
Fusions between primary genres
Fusions with other metal styles
Fusions with hardcore punk and punk rock styles
- Crossover thrash
- Crust punk
- Sludge metal
Fusion with southern rock
Fusion with hard rock
Fusions with various other musical styles
Although the following derivatives have extreme influences, they are usually not considered extreme themselves:
- Gothic metal, influenced by death-doom and doom metal
- Groove metal, influenced by thrash metal and death metal
- K. Kahn-Harris, Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge (Berg Publishers, 2007), ISBN 1-84520-399-2, p. 31.
- Kahn-Harris, Keith, Extreme Metal: Music and Culture on the Edge, Oxford: Berg, 2007, ISBN 1-84520-399-2.
- Doom metal at Allmusic
- Wolf-Rüdiger Mühlmann: War Black Metal: Die Extremsten der Extremen. Was bleibt, ist Schutt und Asche. In: Rock Hard, no. 279, p. 71-73.
- Hayes, Craig. "Pallbearer - Sorrow And Extinction Review". About.com. Retrieved 15 March 2012.
- Newshound, Terrorizer. "ITALIAN BLACKENED DOOMSTERS FORGOTTEN TOMB PLAN RELEASE review". Terrorizer Online. Retrieved 29 January 2009.
- Marsicano, Dan. "Ordo Obsidium - Orbis Tertius Review review". About.com. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
- Mason, Stewart. "Glass Casket". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
- Brown, Jonathon (2007-09-06). "Everything you ever wanted to know about pop (but were too old to ask)". London: The Independent. Retrieved 2009-06-16.
- Purcell, Natalie J. (2003). Death Metal Music: The Passion and Politics of a Subculture. McFarland. p. 24. ISBN 0-7864-1585-1. Retrieved 2007-11-28.
- Lee, Cosmo; Voegtlin, Stewart. "Into the void: Stylus Magazine's Beginner's Guide to Metal - Article - Stylus Magazine". Stylus Magazine. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
- Huey, Steve. "Eyehategod". Allmusic. Retrieved 2012-03-14.
- Cosmo Lee. "Stylus magazine review". www.stylusmagazine.com. Retrieved 2008-07-18.
“Death ’n’ roll” arose with Entombed’s 1993 album Wolverine Blues ... Wolverine Blues was like ’70s hard rock tuned down and run through massive distortion and death growls.
- Crocker, Chris (1993). Metallica: The Frayed Ends of Metal. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-08635-0.