Extreme points of Earth
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This is a list of extreme points of Earth, the points that are farther north or south than, higher or lower in elevation than, or farthest inland or out to sea from, any other locations on the landmasses, continents or countries.
- 1 The world
- 1.1 Latitude and longitude
- 1.2 Elevation
- 1.3 Remoteness
- 1.4 Farthest Apart
- 1.5 Center
- 1.6 Along constant latitude (east-west distances)
- 1.7 Along constant longitude (north-south distances)
- 1.8 Along any great circle
- 2 Afro-Eurasia
- 3 The Americas
- 4 Antarctica
- 5 The Arctic
- 6 Oceania
- 7 See also
- 8 References
Latitude and longitude
- The northernmost point of Earth is the geographic North Pole, in the Arctic Ocean
- The northernmost point on land is Kaffeklubben Island, north of Greenland ( ), which lies slightly north of Cape Morris Jesup, Greenland ( ). Various shifting gravel bars lie further north, the most famous being Oodaaq.
- The southernmost point of the world and the southernmost point on land is the geographic South Pole, which is on the continent of Antarctica
- The southernmost point off land is on Pippin Bay of Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf at the coast of Antarctica ( ) about 100 km south to Berkner Island the southernmost island of the world.
- The westernmost and easternmost points of the world, based on the normal practice of using longitude, can be found anywhere along the 180th meridian in Siberia (including Wrangel Island), Antarctica, or the three islands of Fiji through which the 180th meridian passes (Vanua Levu's eastern peninsula, the middle of Taveuni, and the western part of Rabi Island)
- The westernmost point on land, according to the path of the International Date Line, is Attu Island, Alaska
- The easternmost point on land, according to the path of the International Date Line, is Caroline Island, Kiribati1
1A 1995 realignment of the International Date Line () moved all of Kiribati to the Asian side of the Date Line, causing Caroline Island to be the easternmost. However, if the previous Date Line were followed, the easternmost point would be Tafahi Niuatoputapu, in the Tonga Islands chain.
- The highest point measured from sea level is the summit of Mount Everest that borders Nepal and China, and was first reached by Tenzing Norgay Sherpa of Nepal and Sir Edmund Hillary of New Zealand (with speculation that it may have been reached in 1924). While measurements of its height vary slightly, the elevation of its peak is usually given as 8,848 m (29,029 ft) above sea level.
- The point farthest from the Earth's center is the summit of Chimborazo, in Ecuador, at 6,384.4 km (3,967 mi) (the peak's elevation in relation to the sea level is 6,268 m (20,564 ft)). This is due to the Earth being an oblate spheroid rather than a perfect sphere. An oblate spheroid is very much like a sphere except it is wider at the equator and narrower between the poles. This means that Chimborazo, which is near the equator, is farther away from the center of the Earth than the peak of Mount Everest. The summit of Mount Everest is 2,168 m (7,113 ft) closer at 6,382.3 km (3,965.8 mi) to the Earth's center. Peru's Huascarán contends closely with Chimborazo, the difference in the mountains' heights being 23 m (75 ft)
Lowest point (artificial)
- The lowest point underground ever reached was 12,262 metres (40,230 ft) deep (SG-3 at Kola superdeep borehole).
- The lowest human-sized point underground is 3,900 metres (12,800 ft) below ground at the TauTona Mine, Carletonville, South Africa.
- The lowest (from sea level) artificially made point with open sky, might be the Hambach surface mine, Germany, 293 metres (961 ft) below sea level.
- The lowest (from surface) artificially made point with open sky, might be the Bingham Canyon open pit mine, Salt Lake City, United States, 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) below surface level.
- The lowest point underwater was the 10,680 metres (35,040 ft)-deep (as measured from the subsea wellhead) oil and gas well drilled on the Tiber Oil Field located in the Gulf of Mexico. The wellhead of this well was an additional 1,259 metres (4,131 ft) underwater for a total distance of 11,939 metres (39,170 ft) as measured from sea level.
Lowest point (natural)
- The lowest known point is Challenger Deep, at the bottom of the Mariana Trench: 11,034 m (36,201 ft) below sea level. Only three humans have reached the bottom of the trench: Jacques Piccard and US Navy Lieutenant Don Walsh in 1960 aboard Bathyscaphe Trieste and filmmaker James Cameron in 2012 aboard Deepsea Challenger.
- The lowest point underground is more than 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) under surface. For example the altitude difference in the Voronya Cave between the entrance and the deepest explored point (its depth) is 2,191 ± 20 metres (7,188 ± 66 ft). In 2012, Ukrainian cave diver Gennadiy Samokhin had reached the lowest point, breaking the world record.
- The lowest point on land not covered by liquid water is the valley under Byrd Glacier, which reaches 9,120 feet (2,780 metres) below sea level. It is, however, covered by a thick layer of ice. See the extremes on Earth page. See list of places on land with elevations below sea level
- The lowest point on dry land is the shore of the Dead Sea, shared by Israel, State of Palestine, and Jordan, 418 m (1,371 ft) below sea level. See List of places on land with elevations below sea level
- The point closest to the Earth's centre (~6,353 km (3,948 mi)) is probably at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean (greatest depth 5,450 m (17,881 ft)) near the Geographic North Pole (the bottom of the Mariana Trench is near 6,370 km (3,958 mi) from the centre of the Earth).
Highest attainable by transportation
- Road (dead end): Aucanquilcha, Chile, 6,176 m (20,262 ft), mining road to summit of volcano, once usable by 20-ton mining trucks. The road is no longer usable.
- Road (mountain pass): Mana Pass on the India-China border contains a well-graded military road built in the 2005-2010 period that reaches 5,610 metres (18,406 ft) 250m west of the low point of the pass at 5,545 metres (18,192 ft). Semo La in Tibet 5,565 m (18,258 ft) or Marsimik La in India, 5,582 m (18,314 ft), are other contenders, depending on the definition of "attainable by transportation". There may be higher motorable passes in Tibet in areas affected by lack of information and restricted access. See Khardung La, India 5,359 metres (17,582 ft), for more information.
- Road (asphalted): The Ticlio pass, on the Central Road of Peru, at an elevation of 4,818 metres (15,807 ft).
- Train: Tanggula Pass, in the Tanggula Mountains, Qinghai/Tibet, China, 5,072 m (16,640 ft), located on the Qinghai–Tibet (Qingzang) Railway. Tanggula also has the world's highest railway station at 5,068 m (16,627 ft). Before the Qingzang Railway was built, the highest railway ran between Lima and Huancayo in Peru, reaching 4,829 m (15,843 ft) at Ticlio.
- Oceangoing vessel: Whitehorse, Yukon Territory is the highest point that can be reached by watercraft from the sea at 640 m (2,100 ft). The Rhine–Main–Danube Canal between the Hilpoltstein and Bachhausen locks in Bavaria, Germany is the highest point modernly reached by watercraft from the sea at 406 m (1,332 ft).
- Commercial airport: Daocheng Yading Airport, Sichuan, China, 4,411 m (14,472 ft). The proposed Nagqu Dagring Airport in Tibet, 4,436 m (14,554 ft), if built, will be higher.
- Helipad: Sonam, Siachen Glacier, India at a height of 6,400 m (20,997 ft) above sea level.
- Permanent settlement: La Rinconada, Peru, 5,100 m (16,732 ft), in the Peruvian Andes. It is located near a gold mine.
- Farthest road from the centre of Earth Road to Carrel Hut, Equador, 4,850 m (15,912 ft), in the Equadorian Andes. 6,382.9 km (3,966 mi) from the centre of Earth.
Lowest attainable by transportation
- Road: Excluding roads in mines, the roads beside the Dead Sea in Israel and Jordan are, at 418 m (1,371 ft) below sea level, the deepest. The deepest undersea road tunnel is the Eiksund Tunnel, Norway, 287 m (942 ft) below sea level.
- Airfield: Bar Yehuda Airfield (MTZ), near Masada, Israel, 378 m (1,240 ft) below sea level.
- Commercial airport: Atyrau Airport (GUW), near Atyrau, Kazakhstan, 22 m (72 ft) below sea level.
- Train: Excluding tracks inside South African gold mines, which can be several thousand metres below sea level, the world's lowest railway is located in Japan's Seikan Tunnel, at 240 m (787 ft) below sea level. By comparison, the Channel Tunnel between Folkestone, England, and Coquelles, France, reaches a depth of 75 m (246 ft). The lowest station is Yoshioka-kaitei, 150 m (492 ft) below sea level. Outside tunnels, the lowest railway is 71 m (233 ft) below sea level, on the line connecting Yuma, Arizona, and Palm Springs, California, in the United States.
Highest geographical features
- Lake: There is an unnamed crater lake on Ojos del Salado (which itself is the world's highest volcano) at 6,390 m (20,965 ft), on the Argentina–Chile border (the lake is in Argentina). Another candidate is Lhagba Pool on the northeast slopes of Mount Everest, Tibet, China at an elevation of 6,368 m (20,892 ft).
- Navigable Lake: Lake Titicaca, on the border of Peru and Bolivia in the Andes, 3,812 m (12,507 ft)
- Glacier: The Khumbu Glacier on the southwest slopes of Mount Everest in Nepal is the world's highest glacier, beginning on the west side of Lhotse at an elevation of 7,600 m (24,934 ft) to 8,000 m (26,247 ft).
- River: One candidate from among many possibilities is the Ating Ho (Ho meaning river), which flows into the Aong Tso (Hagung Tso), a large lake in Tibet, China, and is about 6,100 m (20,013 ft) at its source at . A very large high river is the Yarlung Tsangpo or upper Brahmaputra River in Tibet, China, whose main stem, the Maquan River has its source at about 6,020 m (19,751 ft) above sea level at . Above these elevations there are no rivers since the temperature is almost always below freezing.
- Island: There are a number of islands in the Orba Co lake, which is located at an elevation of 5,209 m (17,090 ft) in Tibet, China.
Each continent has its own Continental Pole of Inaccessibility, defined as the place on the continent that is farthest from any ocean. Of these continental points, the most distant from an ocean is the Eurasian Pole of Inaccessibility (or "EPIA") , in China's Xinjiang region near the Kazakhstan border. Calculations have commonly suggested that it is 2,645 km (1,644 mi) from the nearest coastline, located in the Dzoosotoyn Elisen Desert. The nearest settlement to the EPIA is Suluk at about 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) to the east.
A recent study suggests that the historical calculation of the EPIA has failed to recognize the point where the Gulf of Ob joins the Arctic Ocean, and proposes instead that varying definitions of coastline could result in other Eurasian Pole of Inaccessibility results: EPIA1 somewhere between and , about 2510±10 km from the nearest ocean, or EPIA2 somewhere between and , about 2514±7 km from the nearest ocean. If adopted, this would place the final EPIA roughly 130 km (81 mi) closer to ocean than currently agreed upon.
Coincidentally, EPIA1 (or EPIA2) and the most remote of the Oceanic Poles of Inaccessibility (specifically, the point in the South Pacific Ocean that is farthest from land) are similarly remote; EPIA1 is less than 200 km (120 mi) closer to the ocean than the Oceanic Pole of Inaccessibility is to land.
- Other continents' poles of inaccessibility are as follows:
- Africa: , close to the tripoint of Central African Republic, South Sudan and Democratic Republic of the Congo, also close to Obo, Central African Republic
- Australia: either , or ., near Alice Springs, Northern Territory;
- North America: , between Kyle and Allen, South Dakota, United States;
- South America: , near Arenápolis, Mato Grosso, Brazil;
- The Pacific pole of inaccessibility (also called Point Nemo), the point in the ocean farthest from any land, lies in the South Pacific Ocean at , which is approximately 2,688 km (1,670 mi) from the nearest land (equidistant from Ducie Island in the Pitcairn Islands to the north, Maher Island off Siple Island near Marie Byrd Land, Antarctica, to the south and Motu Nui off Rapa Nui in the north east). It is in the middle of an area of 22,405,411 km2 (8,650,778 sq mi) of ocean, larger than the entire former Soviet Union.
- The most remote island is Bouvet Island, an uninhabited and small Norwegian island in the South Atlantic Ocean. It lies at coordinates . The nearest land is the uninhabited Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, over 1,600 km (994 mi) away to the south. The nearest inhabited lands are Tristan da Cunha, 2,260 km (1,404 mi) away and South Africa, 2,580 km (1,603 mi) away.
- The most remote archipelago and the most remote inhabited island is Tristan da Cunha in the South Atlantic Ocean, 2,434 km (1,512 mi) from Saint Helena, 2,816 km (1,750 mi) from South Africa, and 3,360 km (2,090 mi) from South America. If Gough Island, which is 399 km (248 mi) away from the main island, is to be considered part of this archipelago, the nearest land from it should be Bouvet Island 1,845 km (1,146 mi) away. The islands are part of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. With a population of c. 270, the main island of Tristan da Cunha is also the remotest inhabited island in the world. Tristan da Cunha has no airport, so all travel will be by boat, making it the most remote inhabited place by transport time. Boat travel to nearest scheduled airport in South Africa takes around 5 days.
- The most remote city
- The most remote city with a population in excess of one million, from another city of at least that population: Auckland, New Zealand. The nearest city of comparable size or greater is Sydney, Australia, 2,168.9 kilometres (1,347.7 mi) away. Coming in a close second at 2,139 kilometres (air travel distance) is Perth, Australia. Its nearest city of at least one million population is Adelaide, Australia.
- The most remote city with a population in excess of one million, from another city with population above 100,000: is Perth, Australia, located 2,138 km away from Adelaide, Australia. Auckland, New Zealand is a notable contender for this title with a distance of 2,155 km to Sydney - however, it is situated quite close to Hamilton, population 153,000, located 114 km (71 mi) away.
- The most remote city with a population in excess of 500,000, from another city of at least that population is Honolulu, United States. The nearest city of comparable size or greater is San Francisco, 3,841 km (2,387 mi) away.
- The most remote capital city in the world (longest distance from one capital of a sovereign country to the one closest to it) is a tie between Wellington, New Zealand, and Canberra, Australia, which are 2,326 km (1,445 mi) apart from each other. Canberra could drop from this tie in the future as it is only 2,217 km (1,378 mi) from Noumea, the capital of New Caledonia, a special territory of France which is scheduled to vote on independence between 2014 and 2018.
- The most remote airport in the world from another airport is Mataveri International Airport (IPC) on Easter Island, which has a single runway for military and public use. It is located 2,603 km (1,617 mi) from Totegegie Airport (GMR; very few flights) in the Gambier Islands, French Polynesia and 3,759 km (2,336 mi) from Santiago, Chile (SCL; a fairly large airport). In comparison, the airport at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (NZSP) is not very remote at all, being located only 1,355 kilometres (842 mi) from Williams Field (NZWD) near Ross Island.
The world farthest city pairs (with a population of over 100,000) are:
- Rosario, Argentina to Xinghua, China - distance apart 19,996 km (12,425 mi).
- Liu'an, China to Río Cuarto, Argentina - distance apart 19,994 km (12,424 mi).
- Cuenca, Ecuador to Subang Jaya, Malaysia - distance apart 19,989 km (12,421 mi).
Since the Earth is a spheroid, its center (the core) is thousands of kilometres beneath its crust. On the surface, the point 0°, 0°, located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 614 km (382 mi) south of Accra, Ghana, in the Gulf of Guinea, at the intersection of the Equator and Prime Meridian, at the coordinates of zero degrees by zero, is the "center" of the standard geographic model, as viewed on a map—but this selection of longitude meridian is culturally and historically dependent. The center of population, the place to which there is the shortest average route for everyone in the world, could be considered a centre of the world, and is located in the north of the Indian subcontinent, although the precise location has never been calculated and is constantly shifting.
Along constant latitude (east-west distances)
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- Longest continuous distance on land:
- Longest continuous distance at sea (between continents):
- Longest continuous latitude on land (incl. permanent ice shelf):
- Longest continuous latitude at sea:
Along constant longitude (north-south distances)
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- The longest continuous distance on land:
- 7,590 km (4,720 mi) at 99°1'30E: Russian Federation (76°13'6N), Mongolia, China, Burma, Thailand (7°53'24N).
- 7,417 km (4,609 mi) at 20°12E: Libya (32°19N), Chad, Central Africa, Congo DR, Angola, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa (34°41'30S). (Longest in Africa).
- 7,098 km (4,410 mi) at 70°2W: Venezuela (11°30'30N), Colombia, Brazil, Peru, Chile, Argentina (52°33'30S). (Longest in South America).
- 5,813 km (3,612 mi) at 97°52'30W: Canada (68°21N), United States, Mexico (16°1N). (Longest in North America).
- The longest land meridian. Still to be determined. It has to be located in the vicinity of 22°E, which is the longest land integer meridian that crosses 13,035 km (8,100 mi) of land and takes more than 65% of the meridian's length. Note: the meridian that crosses Giza Great Pyramid (31°08'3.69"E) is 855 km (532 mi) shorter.
- The seven longest land integer meridians:
- 13,035 km (8,100 mi) at 22°E: Europe (3,370 km), Africa (7,458 km), Antarctica (2,207 km). The longest land integer meridian.
- 12,953 km (8,049 mi) at 23°E: Europe (3,325 km), Africa (7,415 km), Antarctica (2,214 km). The second longest land integer meridian.
- 12,943 km (8,042 mi) at 27°E: Europe (3,254 km), Asia (246 km), Africa (7,223 km), Antarctica (2,221 km). The third longest land integer meridian.
- 12,875 km (8,000 mi) at 25°E: Europe (3,344 km), Africa (7,327 km), Antarctica (2,204 km). The fourth longest land integer meridian.
- 12,858 km (7,990 mi) at 26°E: Europe (3,404 km), Africa (7,258 km), Antarctica (2,196 km). The fifth longest land integer meridian.
- 12,794 km (7,950 mi) at 24°E: Europe (3,263 km), Africa (7,346 km), Antarctica (2,185 km). The sixth longest land integer meridian.
- 12,778 km (7,940 mi) at 28°E: Europe (3,039 km), Asia (388 km), Africa (7,117 km), Antarctica (2,233 km). The seventh longest land integer meridian.
- The longest continuous distance at sea:
- 15,986 km (9,933 mi) at 34°45'45W: Eastern Greenland (66°23'45N), Atlantic Ocean, Antarctica (Filchner Ice Shelf) (77°37S).
- 15,883 km (9,869 mi) at 172°8'30W: Russian Federation (Siberia) (64°45N), Pacific Ocean, Antarctica (Ross Ice Shelf) (78°20S). (Longest in the Pacific Ocean).
Along any great circle
- Longest continuous distance on land[clarification needed]: 13,573 km (8,434 mi). It begins on the coastline near Greenville, Liberia ( ), goes across the Suez Canal and ends at the top of a peninsula approximately 100 km (62 mi) northeast of Wenzhou, China . (Map from gcmap)
- Longest continuous land distance on continental Africa: 8,402 km (5,221 mi) It begins just east of Tangier, Morocco and ends 100 km (62 mi) east of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. It passes through the countries of Morocco, Algeria, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Namibia, Botswana and South Africa.
- Longest continuous land distance on continental Asia: 10,152 km (6,308 mi) It begins on the Indian coastline near the town of Thiruvananthapuran, ending at the Bering Sea coast of the Chukchi Peninsula, Russia. It passes through the countries of India, Nepal, China, Mongolia and Russia.
- Longest continuous land distance on continental Australia: 4,053 km (2,518 mi) It begins at the southern end of Cape Range National Park, WA and ends at the town of Byron Bay, NSW. Being the sole country on the continent, Australia is all that it passes through.
- Longest continuous land distance on continental Europe: 5,325 km (3,309 mi) (Considering the Ural's being the border between Europe and Asia) It begins at Cape St. Vincent, Portugal and ends at the Urals, near the town of Perm, Russia. It passes through Portugal, Spain, France, Germany, Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Russia.
- Longest continuous distance at sea: There are several possible ways to travel along a great circle for more than the antipodic length of 19,840 km (12,330 mi). Some good examples of such routes would be:
- From the south coast of Balochistan province somewhere near Port of Karachi, Pakistan ( ) across the Arabian Sea, south-west through Indian Ocean, near Comoros, passing Namaete Canyon, near the South Africa coastline, across the South Atlantic Ocean, then west across Cape Horn, then north-west across the Pacific Ocean, near Easter Island, passing the antipodal point, near Amlia island, through the South Bering Sea and ending somewhere on the east-north coast of Kamchatka, near Ossora ( ). This route is 32,040 km (19,910 mi) long. (Map from gcmap)
- From the south coast of Hormozgan province, Iran ( ) across the Gulf of Oman, south-east across the Arabian sea, passing south of Australia and New Zealand, near the Antarctic coastline, then north-east across the South Pacific Ocean, passing the antipodal point and ending on the Mexican south-west coast somewhere near Ciudad Lázaro Cárdenas ( ). This route is 25,267 km (15,700 mi) long. (Map from gcmap)
- From Invercargill ( ), New Zealand, across Cape Horn, then off the coast of Brazil close to Recife, passing north of Cape Verde, passing the antipodal point and ending somewhere on the south-west coast of Ireland ( ). This route is 20,701 km (12,863 mi) long (Map from gcmap)
- Extreme points of Algeria
- Extreme points of Angola
- Extreme points of Benin
- Extreme points of Botswana
- Extreme points of Burkina Faso
- Extreme points of Burundi
- Extreme points of Cameroon
- Extreme points of Cape Verde
- Extreme points of Central African Republic
- Extreme points of Chad
- Extreme points of Comoros
- Extreme points of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Extreme points of the Republic of Congo
- Extreme points of Côte d'Ivoire
- Extreme points of Djibouti
- Extreme points of Egypt
- Extreme points of Equatorial Guinea
- Extreme points of Eritrea
- Extreme points of Ethiopia
- Extreme points of Gabon
- Extreme points of the Gambia
- Extreme points of Ghana
- Extreme points of Guinea
- Extreme points of Guinea-Bissau
- Extreme points of Kenya
- Extreme points of Lesotho
- Extreme points of Liberia
- Extreme points of Libya
- Extreme points of Madagascar
- Extreme points of Malawi
- Extreme points of Mali
- Extreme points of Mauritania
- Extreme points of Mauritius
- Extreme points of Morocco
- Extreme points of Mozambique
- Extreme points of Namibia
- Extreme points of Niger
- Extreme points of Nigeria
- Extreme points of Rwanda
- Extreme points of São Tomé and Príncipe
- Extreme points of Senegal
- Extreme points of Seychelles
- Extreme points of Sierra Leone
- Extreme points of Somalia
- Extreme points of South Africa
- Extreme points of Sudan
- Extreme points of Swaziland
- Extreme points of Tanzania
- Extreme points of Togo
- Extreme points of Tunisia
- Extreme points of Uganda
- Extreme points of Western Sahara
- Extreme points of Zambia
- Extreme points of Zimbabwe
- Extreme points of Eurasia
- Extreme points of Asia
- Extreme points of Europe
- Extreme points of the European Union
- Extreme points of Andorra
- Extreme points of Austria
- Extreme points of Belgium
- Extreme points of Bulgaria
- Extreme points of Croatia
- Extreme points of the Czech Republic
- Extreme points of Denmark
- Extreme points of Estonia
- Extreme points of Finland
- Extreme points of France
- Extreme points of Germany
- Extreme points of Greece
- Extreme points of Hungary
- Extreme points of Iceland
- Extreme points of Ireland
- Extreme points of Italy
- Extreme points of Latvia
- Extreme points of Liechtenstein
- Extreme points of Lithuania
- Extreme points of Luxembourg
- Extreme points of Malta
- Extreme points of Moldova
- Extreme points of Montenegro
- Extreme points of Monaco
- Extreme points of the Netherlands
- Extreme points of Norway
- Extreme points of Poland
- Extreme points of Portugal
- Extreme points of Romania
- Extreme points of Russia
- Extreme points of San Marino
- Extreme points of Serbia
- Extreme points of Slovakia
- Extreme points of Slovenia
- Extreme points of Spain
- Extreme points of Sweden
- Extreme points of Switzerland
- Extreme points of Ukraine
- Extreme points of the United Kingdom
- Extreme points of Vatican City
- Extreme points of the Americas
- Extreme points of North America
- Extreme points of Canada
- Extreme points of Greenland
- Extreme points of Mexico
- Extreme points of the United States
- Extreme points of Central America
- Extreme points of the Caribbean
- Extreme points of South America
- Extreme points of North America
- Extreme points of Australia
- Extreme points of Fiji
- Extreme points of Guam
- Extreme points of Indonesia
- Extreme points of Kiribati
- Extreme points of the Marshall Islands
- Extreme points of the Federated States of Micronesia
- Extreme points of Nauru
- Extreme points of New Zealand
- Extreme points of Niue
- Extreme points of the Northern Mariana Islands
- Extreme points of Palau
- Extreme points of Papua New Guinea
- Extreme points of Tuvalu
- Extreme points of the Commonwealth of Nations
- Extremes on Earth
- List of countries by northernmost point
- List of countries by southernmost point
- List of highest towns by country
- Lists of extreme points
- Several cultures have marked points as Land's End or the End of the World
- The world's most northern city, capital, island etc.
- The world's most southern city, capital, island etc.
- Highest Mountain in the World
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- McIntyre, Loren (April 1987). "The High Andes". National Geographic (National Geographic Society) 171 (4): 422–460. (includes description and photos of Aucanquilcha summit road and mine)
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- http://yukondigitallibrary.ca/Publications/AlaskaYT/1916,%20Alaska%20and%20the%20YT.pdf, at p.3
- Ben Blanchard (16 September 2013). "China opens world's highest civilian airport". Reuters. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
- "Siachen: The world's highest cold war". CNN. 20 May 2002. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Andes Website – Information about Ojos del Salado volcano, a high mountain in South America and the world's highest volcano". Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "The Highest Lake in the World". Retrieved 7 September 2007.
- "ASTER measurement of supraglacial lakes in the Mount Everest region of the Himalaya: The main Khumbu Glacier is about 17 km long with elevations ranging from 4900m at the terminus to 7600m at the source....The 7600m to 8000m elevations are also depicted on numerous detailed topographic maps". Retrieved 24 November 2008.
- "The Mystery of World's highest river and largest Canyon". Retrieved 7 September 2007.
- "Island Superlatives". Retrieved 7 September 2007.
- "Map of the region around the Continental Pole of Inaccessibility, showing relative locations of Hoxtolgay, Xazgat and Suluk". MSN Maps. Retrieved 2012-07-30.
- Garcia-Castellanos, D.; U. Lombardo (2007). "Poles of Inaccessibility: A Calculation Algorithm for the Remotest Places on Earth". Scottish Geographical Journal 123 (3): 227–233. doi:10.1080/14702540801897809. Retrieved 2008.
- Centre of Australia, States and Territories, Geoscience Australia
- Draft Logic – Google Maps Distance Calculator, accessed 4 September 2011
- "World Distance Calculator". Retrieved 2012-07-30.
- "Regions and territories: New Caledonia". BBC News. 16 June 2011.
- Great Circle Mapper
- Furthest Cities Database of City Distances
- Rosario, Argentina - distance to other cities.
- Liu'an, China - distance to other cities.
- Cuenca, Ecuador - distance to other cities.