This is a list of extreme points of Earth, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than, higher or lower in altitude than, or farthest inland or out to sea from, any other locations on the landmasses, continents or countries.
The westernmost and easternmost points of the world, based on the normal practice of using longitude, can be found anywhere along the 180th meridian in Siberia (including Wrangel Island), Antarctica, or the three islands of Fiji through which the 180th meridian passes (Vanua Levu's eastern peninsula, the middle of Taveuni, and the western part of Rabi)
1A 1995 realignment of the International Date Line () moved all of Kiribati to the Asian side of the Date Line, causing Caroline Island to be the easternmost. However, if the previous Date Line were followed, the easternmost point would be Tafahi Niuatoputapu, in the Tonga Islands chain.
The point farthest from the Earth's center is the summit of Chimborazo, in Ecuador, at 6,384.4 km (3,967.1 mi). This is due to the Earth being an oblate spheroid rather than a perfect sphere. An oblate spheroid is very much like a sphere except it is wider at the equator and narrower between the poles. This means that Chimborazo, which is near the equator, is farther away from the center of the Earth than is the peak of Mount Everest. The summit of Mount Everest is 2,168 m (7,113 ft) shorter at 6,382.3 km (3,965.8 mi) from Earth's center. Peru's Huascarán contends closely with Chimborazo, the difference in the mountains' heights being 23 m (75 ft)
The lowest point underground is more than 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) under surface. For example the altitude difference in the Voronya Cave between the entrance and the deepest explored point (its depth) is 2,191 ± 20 metres (7,188 ± 66 ft). The lowest point underground has not been explored.
The point closest to the Earth's centre (~6,353 km (3,948 mi)) is probably at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean (greatest depth 5,450 m (17,881 ft)) near the Geographic North Pole (the bottom of the Mariana Trench is near 6,370 km (3,958 mi) from the centre of the Earth).
Road (mountain pass):Mana Pass on the India-Tibet border contains a well-graded military road built in the 2005-2010 period that reaches 5,610 metres (18,406 ft) 250m west of the low point of the pass at 5,545 metres (18,192 ft). Semo La in Tibet 5,565 m (18,258 ft) or Marsimik La in India, 5,582 m (18,314 ft), are other contenders, depending on the definition of "attainable by transportation". There may be higher motorable passes in Tibet in areas affected by lack of information and restricted access. See Khardung La, India 5,359 metres (17,582 ft), for more information.
Commercial airport:Atyrau Airport (GUW), near Atyrau, Kazakhstan, 22 m (72 ft) below sea level.
Train: Excluding tracks inside South African gold mines, which can be several thousand metres below sea level, the world's lowest railway is located in Japan's Seikan Tunnel, at 240 m (787 ft) below sea level. By comparison, the Channel Tunnel between Folkestone, England, and Coquelles, France, reaches a depth of 75 m (246 ft). The lowest station is Yoshioka-kaitei, 150 m (492 ft) below sea level. Outside tunnels, the lowest railway is 71 m (233 ft) below sea level, on the line connecting Yuma, Arizona, and Palm Springs, California, in the United States.
Lake: There is an unnamed crater lake on Ojos del Salado (which itself is the world's highest volcano) at 6,390 m (20,965 ft), on the Argentina–Chile border (the lake is in Argentina). Another candidate is Lhagba Pool on the northeast slopes of Mount Everest, Tibet, China at an altitude of 6,368 m (20,892 ft).
Navigable Lake:Lake Titicaca, on the border of Peru and Bolivia in the Andes, 3,812 m (12,507 ft)
Glacier: The Khumbu Glacier on the southwest slopes of Mount Everest in Nepal is the world's highest glacier, beginning on the west side of Lhotse at an altitude of 7,600 m (24,934 ft) to 8,000 m (26,247 ft).
Coincidentally, EPIA1 (or EPIA2) and the most remote of the Oceanic Poles of Inaccessibility (specifically, the point in the South Pacific Ocean that is farthest from land) are similarly remote; EPIA1 is less than 200 km (120 mi) closer to the ocean than the Oceanic Pole of Inaccessibility is to land.
Other continents' poles of inaccessibility are as follows:
The most remote city with a population in excess of one million is Auckland, New Zealand. The nearest city of comparable size or greater is Sydney, Australia, 2,168.9 kilometres (1,347.7 mi) away. Coming in a close second at 2,139 kilometres (air travel distance) is Perth, Australia. Its nearest city of at least one million population is Adelaide, Australia.
The most remote city with a population in excess of 500,000 is Honolulu, United States. The nearest city of comparable size or greater is San Francisco, 3,841 km (2,387 mi) away.
The most remote capital city in the world (longest distance from one capital of a sovereign country to the one closest to it) is a tie between Wellington, New Zealand, and Canberra, Australia, which are 2,326 km (1,445 mi) apart from each other. Canberra could drop from this tie as it is only 2,217 km (1,378 mi) from Noumea, New Caledonia, a special territory of France which is scheduled to vote on independence between 2014 and 2019.
Since the Earth is a spheroid, its center (the core) is thousands of kilometres beneath its crust. On the surface, the point 0°, 0°, located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 614 km (382 mi) south of Accra, Ghana, in the Gulf of Guinea, at the intersection of the Equator and Prime Meridian, at the coordinates of zero degrees by zero, is the "center" of the standard geographic model, as viewed on a map—but this selection of longitude meridian is culturally and historically dependent. The center of population, the place to which there is the shortest average route for everyone in the world, could be considered a centre of the world, and is located in the north of the Indian subcontinent, although the precise location has never been calculated and is constantly shifting.
Along constant latitude (east-west distances)
7,590 km (4,720 mi) at 99°1'30E: Russian Federation (76°13'6N), Mongolia, China, Burma, Thailand (7°53'24N).
7,417 km (4,609 mi) at 20°12E: Libya (32°19N), Chad, Central Africa, Congo DR, Angola, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa (34°41'30S). (Longest in Africa).
7,098 km (4,410 mi) at 70°2W: Venezuela (11°30'30N), Colombia, Brazil, Peru, Chile, Argentina (52°33'30S). (Longest in South America).
5,813 km (3,612 mi) at 97°52'30W: Canada (68°21N), United States, Mexico (16°1N). (Longest in North America).
The longest land meridian. Still to be determined. It has to be located in the vicinity of 22°E, which is the longest land integer meridian that crosses 13,035 km (8,100 mi) of land and takes more than 65% of the meridian's length. Note: the meridian that crosses Giza Great Pyramid (31°08'3.69"E) is 855 km (532 mi) shorter.
The seven longest land integer meridians:
13,035 km (8,100 mi) at 22°E: Europe (3,370 km), Africa (7,458 km), Antarctica (2,207 km). The longest land integer meridian.
12,953 km (8,049 mi) at 23°E: Europe (3,325 km), Africa (7,415 km), Antarctica (2,214 km). The second longest land integer meridian.
12,943 km (8,042 mi) at 27°E: Europe (3,254 km), Asia (246 km), Africa (7,223 km), Antarctica (2,221 km). The third longest land integer meridian.
12,875 km (8,000 mi) at 25°E: Europe (3,344 km), Africa (7,327 km), Antarctica (2,204 km). The fourth longest land integer meridian.
12,858 km (7,990 mi) at 26°E: Europe (3,404 km), Africa (7,258 km), Antarctica (2,196 km). The fifth longest land integer meridian.
12,794 km (7,950 mi) at 24°E: Europe (3,263 km), Africa (7,346 km), Antarctica (2,185 km). The sixth longest land integer meridian.
12,778 km (7,940 mi) at 28°E: Europe (3,039 km), Asia (388 km), Africa (7,117 km), Antarctica (2,233 km). The seventh longest land integer meridian.
The longest continuous distance at sea:
15,986 km (9,933 mi) at 34°45'45W: Eastern Greenland (66°23'45N), Atlantic Ocean, Antarctica (Filchner Ice Shelf) (77°37S).
15,883 km (9,869 mi) at 172°8'30W: Russian Federation (Siberia) (64°45N), Pacific Ocean, Antarctica (Ross Ice Shelf) (78°20S). (Longest in the Pacific Ocean).
Longest continuous distance at sea: There are several possible ways to travel along a great circle for more than the antipodic length of 19,840 km (12,330 mi). Some good examples of such routes would be:
^McIntyre, Loren (April 1987). "The High Andes". National Geographic (National Geographic Society) 171 (4): 422–460.Unknown parameter |abbr= ignored (help) (includes description and photos of Aucanquilcha summit road and mine)