Extreme points of Earth

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Extreme points of the world)
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of extreme points of Earth, the points that are farther north or south than, higher or lower in elevation than, or farthest inland or out to sea from, any other locations on the landmasses, continents or countries.

The world[edit]

Latitude and longitude[edit]

1A 1995 realignment of the International Date Line ([1]) moved all of Kiribati to the Asian side of the Date Line, causing Caroline Island to be the easternmost. However, if the previous Date Line were followed, the easternmost point would be Tafahi Niuatoputapu, in the Tonga Islands chain.

Elevation[edit]

Highest point[edit]

  • The point farthest from the Earth's center is the summit of Chimborazo, in Ecuador, at 6,384.4 km (3,967 mi) (the peak's elevation in relation to the sea level is 6,268 m (20,564 ft)). This is due to the Earth being an oblate spheroid rather than a perfect sphere. An oblate spheroid is very much like a sphere except it is wider at the equator and narrower between the poles. This means that Chimborazo, which is near the equator, is farther away from the center of the Earth than the peak of Mount Everest. The summit of Mount Everest is 2,168 m (7,113 ft) closer at 6,382.3 km (3,965.8 mi) to the Earth's center. Peru's Huascarán contends closely with Chimborazo, the difference in the mountains' heights being 23 m (75 ft)[citation needed]

Lowest point (artificial)[edit]

Lowest point (natural)[edit]

Highest attainable by transportation[edit]

Lowest attainable by transportation[edit]

  • Road: Excluding roads in mines, the roads beside the Dead Sea in Israel and Jordan are, at 418 m (1,371 ft) below sea level, the deepest. The deepest undersea road tunnel is the Eiksund Tunnel, Norway, 287 m (942 ft) below sea level.
  • Airfield: Bar Yehuda Airfield (MTZ), near Masada, Israel, 378 m (1,240 ft) below sea level.
  • Commercial airport: Atyrau Airport (GUW), near Atyrau, Kazakhstan, 22 m (72 ft) below sea level.
  • Train: Excluding tracks inside South African gold mines, which can be several thousand metres below sea level, the world's lowest railway is located in Japan's Seikan Tunnel, at 240 m (787 ft) below sea level. By comparison, the Channel Tunnel between Folkestone, England, and Coquelles, France, reaches a depth of 75 m (246 ft). The lowest station is Yoshioka-kaitei, 150 m (492 ft) below sea level. Outside tunnels, the lowest railway is 71 m (233 ft) below sea level, on the line connecting Yuma, Arizona, and Palm Springs, California, in the United States.[6]

Highest geographical features[edit]

Remoteness[edit]

Each continent has its own Continental Pole of Inaccessibility, defined as the place on the continent that is farthest from any ocean. Of these continental points, the most distant from an ocean is the Eurasian Pole of Inaccessibility (or "EPIA") 46°17′N 86°40′E / 46.283°N 86.667°E / 46.283; 86.667 (Continental Pole of Inaccessibility), in China's Xinjiang region near the Kazakhstan border. Calculations have commonly suggested that it is 2,645 km (1,644 mi) from the nearest coastline, located in the Dzoosotoyn Elisen Desert. The nearest settlement to the EPIA is Suluk at 46°15′N 86°50′E / 46.250°N 86.833°E / 46.250; 86.833 (Suluk) about 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) to the east.[16]

A recent study suggests that the historical calculation of the EPIA has failed to recognize the point where the Gulf of Ob joins the Arctic Ocean, and proposes instead that varying definitions of coastline could result in other Eurasian Pole of Inaccessibility results: EPIA1 somewhere between 44°17′N 82°11′E / 44.283°N 82.183°E / 44.283; 82.183 (EPIA1.1) and 44°29′N 82°19′E / 44.483°N 82.317°E / 44.483; 82.317 (EPIA1.2), about 2510±10 km from the nearest ocean, or EPIA2 somewhere between 45°17′N 88°08′E / 45.283°N 88.133°E / 45.283; 88.133 (EPIA2.1) and 45°28′N 88°14′E / 45.467°N 88.233°E / 45.467; 88.233 (EPIA2.2), about 2514±7 km from the nearest ocean.[17] If adopted, this would place the final EPIA roughly 130 km (81 mi) closer to ocean than currently agreed upon.[17]

Coincidentally, EPIA1 (or EPIA2) and the most remote of the Oceanic Poles of Inaccessibility (specifically, the point in the South Pacific Ocean that is farthest from land) are similarly remote; EPIA1 is less than 200 km (120 mi) closer to the ocean than the Oceanic Pole of Inaccessibility is to land.

  • The most remote city with a population in excess of one million is Auckland, New Zealand. The nearest city of comparable size or greater is Sydney, Australia, 2,168.9 kilometres (1,347.7 mi) away.[19] Coming in a close second at 2,139 kilometres (air travel distance) is Perth, Australia. Its nearest city of at least one million population is Adelaide, Australia.
  • The most remote city with a population in excess of 500,000 is Honolulu, United States. The nearest city of comparable size or greater is San Francisco, 3,841 km (2,387 mi) away.
  • The most remote capital city in the world (longest distance from one capital of a sovereign country to the one closest to it) is a tie between Wellington, New Zealand, and Canberra, Australia, which are 2,326 km (1,445 mi) apart from each other. Canberra could drop from this tie in the future as it is only 2,217 km (1,378 mi) from Noumea,[21] the capital of New Caledonia, a special territory of France which is scheduled to vote on independence between 2014 and 2018.[22]

Center[edit]

Since the Earth is a spheroid, its center (the core) is thousands of kilometres beneath its crust. On the surface, the point 0°, 0°, located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately 614 km (382 mi) south of Accra, Ghana, in the Gulf of Guinea, at the intersection of the Equator and Prime Meridian, at the coordinates of zero degrees by zero, is the "center" of the standard geographic model, as viewed on a map—but this selection of longitude meridian is culturally and historically dependent. The center of population, the place to which there is the shortest average route for everyone in the world, could be considered a centre of the world, and is located in the north of the Indian subcontinent, although the precise location has never been calculated and is constantly shifting.

Along constant latitude (east-west distances)[edit]

Along constant longitude (north-south distances)[edit]

  • The longest continuous distance on land:
    • 7,590 km (4,720 mi) at 99°1'30E: Russian Federation (76°13'6N), Mongolia, China, Burma, Thailand (7°53'24N).
    • 7,417 km (4,609 mi) at 20°12E: Libya (32°19N), Chad, Central Africa, Congo DR, Angola, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa (34°41'30S). (Longest in Africa).
    • 7,098 km (4,410 mi) at 70°2W: Venezuela (11°30'30N), Colombia, Brazil, Peru, Chile, Argentina (52°33'30S). (Longest in South America).
    • 5,813 km (3,612 mi) at 97°52'30W: Canada (68°21N), United States, Mexico (16°1N). (Longest in North America).
  • The longest land meridian. Still to be determined. It has to be located in the vicinity of 22°E, which is the longest land integer meridian that crosses 13,035 km (8,100 mi) of land and takes more than 65% of the meridian's length. Note: the meridian that crosses Giza Great Pyramid (31°08'3.69"E) is 855 km (532 mi) shorter.
  • The seven longest land integer meridians:
    • 13,035 km (8,100 mi) at 22°E: Europe (3,370 km), Africa (7,458 km), Antarctica (2,207 km). The longest land integer meridian.
    • 12,953 km (8,049 mi) at 23°E: Europe (3,325 km), Africa (7,415 km), Antarctica (2,214 km). The second longest land integer meridian.
    • 12,943 km (8,042 mi) at 27°E: Europe (3,254 km), Asia (246 km), Africa (7,223 km), Antarctica (2,221 km). The third longest land integer meridian.
    • 12,875 km (8,000 mi) at 25°E: Europe (3,344 km), Africa (7,327 km), Antarctica (2,204 km). The fourth longest land integer meridian.
    • 12,858 km (7,990 mi) at 26°E: Europe (3,404 km), Africa (7,258 km), Antarctica (2,196 km). The fifth longest land integer meridian.
    • 12,794 km (7,950 mi) at 24°E: Europe (3,263 km), Africa (7,346 km), Antarctica (2,185 km). The sixth longest land integer meridian.
    • 12,778 km (7,940 mi) at 28°E: Europe (3,039 km), Asia (388 km), Africa (7,117 km), Antarctica (2,233 km). The seventh longest land integer meridian.
  • The longest continuous distance at sea:
    • 15,986 km (9,933 mi) at 34°45'45W: Eastern Greenland (66°23'45N), Atlantic Ocean, Antarctica (Filchner Ice Shelf) (77°37S).
    • 15,883 km (9,869 mi) at 172°8'30W: Russian Federation (Siberia) (64°45N), Pacific Ocean, Antarctica (Ross Ice Shelf) (78°20S). (Longest in the Pacific Ocean).

Along any great circle[edit]


Afro-Eurasia[edit]

The Americas[edit]

Antarctica[edit]

The Arctic[edit]

Oceania[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "TauTona, Anglo Gold – Mining Technology". SPG Media Group PLC. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2009. 
  2. ^ "Transocean's Ultra-Deepwater Semisubmersible Rig Deepwater Horizon Drills World's Deepest Oil and Gas Well". Transocean. Retrieved 7 June 2010. 
  3. ^ "Challenger Deep - the Mariana Trench". Retrieved 2012-07-30. 
  4. ^ Klimchouck, Alexander. "The deepest cave in the world (Krubera Cave) became 6 m deeper". speleogenesis.info. Retrieved 10 August 2013. 
  5. ^ McIntyre, Loren (April 1987). "The High Andes". National Geographic (National Geographic Society) 171 (4): 422–460.  (includes description and photos of Aucanquilcha summit road and mine)
  6. ^ a b Bennett, Suzy (October 2003). "Destination Guides – World's highest railway, Peru – Wanderlust Travel Magazine". Wanderlust Magazine. Retrieved 10 October 2008. 
  7. ^ http://yukondigitallibrary.ca/Publications/AlaskaYT/1916,%20Alaska%20and%20the%20YT.pdf, at p.3
  8. ^ Ben Blanchard (16 September 2013). "China opens world's highest civilian airport". Reuters. Retrieved 16 September 2013. 
  9. ^ "Siachen: The world's highest cold war". CNN. 20 May 2002. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  10. ^ http://www.summitpost.org/carrel-refuge/578539
  11. ^ "Andes Website – Information about Ojos del Salado volcano, a high mountain in South America and the world's highest volcano". Retrieved 18 January 2013. 
  12. ^ "The Highest Lake in the World". Retrieved 7 September 2007. 
  13. ^ "ASTER measurement of supraglacial lakes in the Mount Everest region of the Himalaya: The main Khumbu Glacier is about 17 km long with elevations ranging from 4900m at the terminus to 7600m at the source....The 7600m to 8000m elevations are also depicted on numerous detailed topographic maps". Retrieved 24 November 2008. 
  14. ^ "The Mystery of World's highest river and largest Canyon". Retrieved 7 September 2007. 
  15. ^ "Island Superlatives". Retrieved 7 September 2007. 
  16. ^ "Map of the region around the Continental Pole of Inaccessibility, showing relative locations of Hoxtolgay, Xazgat and Suluk". MSN Maps. Retrieved 2012-07-30. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f Garcia-Castellanos, D.; U. Lombardo (2007). "Poles of Inaccessibility: A Calculation Algorithm for the Remotest Places on Earth". Scottish Geographical Journal 123 (3): 227–233. doi:10.1080/14702540801897809. Retrieved 2008. 
  18. ^ Centre of Australia, States and Territories, Geoscience Australia
  19. ^ Draft Logic – Google Maps Distance Calculator, accessed 4 September 2011
  20. ^ Great Circle Mapper
  21. ^ "World Distance Calculator". Retrieved 2012-07-30. 
  22. ^ "Regions and territories: New Caledonia". BBC News. 16 June 2011.