Ezulwini Consensus

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The Ezulwini Consensus is a position on international relations and reform of the United Nations, agreed by several African governments.[1]

Background[edit]

The consensus is named after Ezulwini, a valley in central Swaziland - with several tourist hotels - where the agreement was made in 2005.[2] The consensus was then adopted at an Extraordinary Session of the Executive Council of the African Union, in March 2005, in Addis Ababa.[1]

Agreement[edit]

The agreement covered several areas, including: EXECUTIVE COUNCIL, 7th Extraordinary Session (7-8 March 2005). THE COMMON AFRICAN POSITION ON THE PROPOSED REFORM OF THE UNITED NATIONS: “THE EZULWINI CONSENSUS” (Report). African Union.

Collective security - preventive measures[edit]

  • Underlining the serious threats posed by HIV/AIDS, poverty, and environmental degradation
  • Encouraging debts of highly-indebted states to be written off
  • Recommending adoption of the Lomé Declaration and Algiers Declaration on Unconstitutional Changes of Governments.
  • Calling for an end to illicit manufacturing, trade, and stockpiling of small arms & light weapons (SALW).
  • Recommending steps toward "complete elimination of nuclear weapons"

Collective security - use of force[edit]

  • A cautious approach to the Responsibility to protect: "It is important to reiterate the obligation of states to protect their citizens, but this should not be used as a pretext to undermine the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of states."
  • Prohibiting any use of force outside Article 51 of the UN Charter (self-defence) and Article 4h of AU (preventing genoicide and serious crimes against humanity).
  • Calling for the UN to fund and support peacekeeping forces provided by regional organisations such as the AU.
  • Proposing a Peacebuilding Commission.

United Nations reform[edit]

  • At least two permanent seats (including veto power), and five non-permanent seats on the Security Council.[3]
  • The African Union would choose which African governments get the seats.[3]
  • Further calls for ECOSOC to be strengthened.

Sirte Declaration[edit]

The Ezulwini Consensus was followed by the Sirte Declaration of July 2005, which required at least two permanent seats and two non-permanent Security Council seats for African states.[3]

Related agreements[edit]

References and citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b "AFRICAN UNION (AU)". Inventory of International Nonproliferation Organizations and Regimes. James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  2. ^ "Walking a tightrope: SA, Africa and the UN". Helen Suzman Foundation. Retrieved 13 October 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c "‘OUT OF DATE AND OUT OF TOUCH’, SECURITY COUNCIL REQUIRES URGENT REFORM, ASSEMBLY PRESIDENT SAYS, URGING DELEGATIONS TO MOVE SWIFTLY TO END IMPASSE". GA/10786. United Nations. Retrieved 13 October 2012.