The club was founded in 1908 as Robur Caserta and became known as Unione Sportiva Casertana from 1928 until 2005, when the team was cancelled by the federation. The club also had two stints in Serie B in 1970–71 and 1991–92.
The club was refounded in 2005 as A.S. Caserta Calcio and later renamed to A.S. Casertana Calcio. During the 2009–10 Serie D season, the side took back its traditional denomination.
Casertana made its return to professionalism at the end of the 2012–13 season, after completing the Serie D season in fourth place and then reaching the promotion playoff final, then lost to Virtus Verona. However, the club was successively admitted into Lega Pro Seconda Divisione as a replacement for a number of teams who went bankrupt by the end of the season.