Zeuner was born in Berlin, Germany, and received his Ph.D. from the University of Breslau in 1927. After working as a Privatdozent at the University of Breslau from 1927-1930 and a lecturer in geology at the University of Freiburg from 1931-34 he emigrated to England where he worked as a research associate at the British Museum (Natural History) from 1934-36. Zeuner was lecturer in geochronology at the University of London's Institute of Archaeology from 1936 to 1945 and received is D. Sc. from the university in 1942. From 1946 to 1963 he was professor and head of environmental archaeology at the University of London's Institute of Archaeology. He was a member of the Geologische Vereinigung in Germany and was admitted to the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina (1952). He was also a member of the Royal Anthropological Institute.