Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor
|An F-22 flies over Andrews Air Force Base (AFB)|
|Role||Stealth air superiority fighter|
|National origin||United States|
|Manufacturer||Lockheed Martin Aeronautics
Boeing Defense, Space & Security
|First flight||7 September 1997|
|Introduction||15 December 2005|
|Primary user||United States Air Force|
|Number built||195 (8 test and 187 operational aircraft)|
|Program cost||US$66.7 billion|
|Developed from||Lockheed YF-22|
|Developed into||Lockheed Martin X-44 MANTA
Lockheed Martin FB-22
The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor is a single-seat, twin-engine, all weather stealth tactical fighter aircraft developed for the United States Air Force (USAF). The result of the USAF's Advanced Tactical Fighter program, the aircraft was designed primarily as an air superiority fighter, but has additional capabilities including ground attack, electronic warfare, and signals intelligence roles. Lockheed Martin is the prime contractor and is responsible for the majority of the airframe, weapon systems, and final assembly of the F-22. Program partner Boeing provides the wings, aft fuselage, avionics integration, and training systems.
The aircraft was variously designated F-22 and F/A-22 prior to formally entering service in December 2005 as the F-22A. Despite a protracted development and operational issues, the USAF considers the F-22 a critical component of its tactical air power, and claims that the aircraft is unmatched by any known or projected fighter. The Raptor's combination of stealth, aerodynamic performance, and situational awareness gives the aircraft unprecedented air-to-air capabilities. Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston, former Chief of the Australian Defence Force, said in 2004 that the "F-22 will be the most outstanding fighter plane ever built."
The high cost of the aircraft, a lack of clear air-to-air missions due to delays in Russian and Chinese fighter programs, a ban on exports, and development of the more versatile and lower cost F-35 led to the end of F-22 production.[N 1] A final procurement tally of 187 operational production aircraft was established in 2009 and the last F-22 was delivered to the USAF in 2012.
- 1 Development
- 2 Design
- 3 Operational history
- 4 Variants
- 5 Operators
- 6 Accidents
- 7 Aircraft on display
- 8 Specifications (F-22A)
- 9 Notable appearances in media
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
In 1981 the U.S. Air Force developed a requirement for an Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) as a new air superiority fighter to replace the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon. Code named "Senior Sky", this program was influenced by the emerging worldwide threats, including development and proliferation of Soviet Su-27 "Flanker"- and MiG-29 "Fulcrum"-class fighter aircraft. It would take advantage of the new technologies in fighter design on the horizon, including composite materials, lightweight alloys, advanced flight-control systems, more powerful propulsion systems, and stealth technology. A request for proposals (RFP) was issued in July 1986 and two contractor teams, Lockheed/Boeing/General Dynamics and Northrop/McDonnell Douglas, were selected on 31 October 1986 to undertake a 50-month demonstration phase, culminating in the flight test of two technology demonstrator prototypes, the YF-22 and the YF-23.
Each design team produced two prototype air vehicles, one for each of the two engine options. The Lockheed-led team employed thrust vectoring nozzles on YF-22 for enhanced maneuverability in dogfights. The ATF's increasing weight and cost drove out some features during development. A dedicated infra-red search and track (IRST) system was downgraded from multi-color to single color and then deleted, the side-looking radars were deleted and the ejection seat requirement was downgraded from a fresh design to the existing McDonnell Douglas ACES II.
After a 90-day flight test validation of the prototypes, on 23 April 1991, Secretary of the USAF Donald Rice announced the YF-22 as the winner of the ATF competition. The YF-23 design was considered stealthier and faster while the YF-22 was more maneuverable. The aviation press speculated that the YF-22 was also more adaptable to the U.S. Navy's Navalized Advanced Tactical Fighter (NATF), but by 1992, the Navy had abandoned NATF. In 1991, the USAF planned to buy 650 aircraft.
Production and procurement
Primary contractor Lockheed Martin Aeronautics manufactures the majority of the airframe and performs final assembly at Dobbins Air Reserve Base in Marietta, Georgia; program partner Boeing Defense, Space & Security provides additional airframe components as well as avionics integration and training systems. F-22 production was split up over many subcontractors across 46 states to increase Congressional support, though this production split may have contributed to increased costs and delays. Many capabilities were deferred to post-service upgrades, reducing the initial cost but increasing total program cost. Each aircraft built required "1,000 subcontractors and suppliers and 95,000 workers".
The F-22 had several design changes from the YF-22. The swept-back angle on the wing's leading edge was decreased from 48° to 42°, while the vertical stabilizers were shifted rearward and their area decreased by 20%. To improve pilot visibility, the canopy was moved forward 7 inches (18 cm), and the engine intakes moved rearward 14 inches (36 cm). The shapes of the wing and stabilator trailing edges were refined to improve aerodynamics, strength, and stealth characteristics. Due to increasing weight during development, range and aerodynamic performance were slightly reduced.
The first F-22, an engineering and manufacturing development (EMD) aircraft named Raptor 4001, was unveiled at Marietta, Georgia on 9 April 1997, and first flew on 7 September 1997. In 2006, the Raptor's development team, composed of over 1,000 contractors and the USAF, won the Collier Trophy, American aviation's most prestigious award. The F-22 was in production for 15 years, at a rate of roughly two per month during peak production.
The USAF had originally envisioned ordering 750 ATFs at a cost of $26.2 billion, with production beginning in 1994; however, the 1990 Major Aircraft Review led by Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney altered the plan to 648 aircraft beginning in 1996. In 1994, the number was cut to 438 aircraft that would enter service by 2004, and in 1997 the number was further cut to 339. By 2003, the existing funding limited the purchase to 277 fighters, and in 2004, the Department of Defense (DoD) further reduced the number to 183 operational production aircraft. In 2006, a multi-year procurement plan was implemented that would save $15 billion but raise the cost of each aircraft. The total cost of the program by 2006 was $62 billion, at which point the USAF still sought to acquire 381 F-22s divided among seven active duty combat squadrons and three integrated Air Force Reserve Command and Air National Guard squadrons. In 2007, Lockheed Martin received a $7.3 billion contract that raised the order number of production F-22s to 183 and extended manufacturing through 2011.
In April 2006, the cost of the F-22 was assessed by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to be $361 million per aircraft, with $28 billion invested in F-22 development and testing; the Unit Procurement Cost was estimated at $178 million in 2006, based on a production run of 181 aircraft. It was estimated by the end of production, $34 billion will have been spent on procurement, resulting in a total program cost of $62 billion, around $339 million per aircraft. The incremental cost for an additional F-22 was estimated at about $138 million in 2009. In March 2012, the GAO increased the estimated cost to $412 million per aircraft.
Ban on exports
The F-22 cannot be exported under American federal law. Customers for U.S. fighters are either acquiring earlier designs such as the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon or shall acquire the F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter, which contains technology from the F-22 but is designed to be cheaper, more flexible, and available for export. In September 2006, Congress upheld the ban on foreign F-22 sales. Despite the ban, the 2010 defense authorization bill included provisions requiring the DoD to prepare a report on the costs and feasibility for an F-22 export variant, and another report on the impact of F-22 export sales on U.S. aerospace industry.
Some Australian politicians and defense commentators proposed that Australia should attempt to purchase F-22s instead of the planned F-35s, citing the F-22's known capabilities and F-35's delays and developmental uncertainties. However, the RAAF determined that the F-22 was unable to perform the F-35's strike and close air support roles. The Japanese government also showed interest in the F-22 for its Replacement-Fighter program. The Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) would reportedly require fewer fighters for its mission if it obtained the F-22, thus reducing engineering and staffing costs. However, in 2009 it was reported that the F-22 would require increases to the defense budget beyond the historical 1 percent of GDP. With the ending of F-22 production, Japan chose the F-35 in December 2011. Israel had also expressed interest in the Raptor, but eventually chose the F-35 because of the F-22's price and unavailability.
Throughout the 2000s, the need for F-22s was debated due to rising costs and the lack of relevant adversaries. In 2006, Comptroller General of the United States David Walker found that "the DoD has not demonstrated the need" for more investment in the F-22, and further opposition to the program was expressed by Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, Deputy Secretary of Defense Gordon R. England, Senator John McCain, and Chairman of U.S. Senate Committee on Armed Services Senator John Warner. The F-22 program lost influential supporters in 2008 after resignation of Secretary of the USAF Michael Wynne and General T. Michael Moseley. Nevertheless, in 2008, Congress passed a defense spending bill funding the continued production of the Raptor and the Pentagon released $50 million of the $140 million approved by Congress for four additional aircraft. This raised the operational production aircraft order number to 187 and left the F-22 program in the hands of the next executive administration.
In November 2008, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates stated that the Raptor was not relevant in post-Cold War conflicts such as the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, and in April 2009, under the new Obama Administration, he called for ending F-22 production in fiscal year (FY) 2011, leaving the USAF with 187 operational production aircraft. In July, General James Cartwright, Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, stated to the Senate Committee on Armed Services his reasons for supporting termination of F-22 production, including shifting resources to the multirole F-35 to allow proliferation of fifth-generation fighters for three service branches and preserving the F/A-18 production line to maintain the military's electronic warfare (EW) capabilities in the EA-18G Growler. Issues with the F-22's reliability and availability also raised concerns. After President Obama threatened to veto further production, the Senate voted in July 2009 in favor of ending production and the House subsequently agreed to abide by the 187 operational production aircraft cap. Gates stated that the decision was taken in light of the F-35's capabilities, and in 2010, he set the F-22 requirement to 187 aircraft by lowering the number of major regional conflict preparations from two to one.
In 2010, USAF initiated a study to determine the costs of retaining F-22 tooling for a future Service Life Extension Program (SLEP). A RAND paper from this study estimated that restarting production and building an additional 75 F-22s would cost $17 billion, resulting in $227 million per aircraft or 54 million higher than the flyaway cost. Lockheed Martin stated that restarting the production line itself would cost about $200 million. Production tooling will be documented in illustrated electronic manuals stored at the Sierra Army Depot. Retained tooling will produce additional components; due to the limited production run there are no reserve aircraft, leading to considerable care during maintenance.
Russian and Chinese fighter developments have fueled concern; in 2009, General John Corley, head of Air Combat Command, stated that a fleet of 187 operational production F-22s would be inadequate, but Secretary Gates dismissed this concern. In 2011, Gates explained that Chinese fifth-generation fighter developments had been accounted when the number of F-22s was set, and that the U.S. would have a considerable advantage in stealth aircraft in 2025, even with F-35 delays. In December 2011, the 195th and final F-22 was completed out of 8 test and 187 operational aircraft produced, and the jet was delivered to the USAF on 2 May 2012.
The first combat-capable Block 3.0 aircraft first flew in 2001. Increment 2, the first F-22 upgrade program, was implemented in 2005 and gave the aircraft the ability to employ Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM). In 2009, testing began for Increment 3.1, which provides improved ground-attack capability through synthetic-aperture radar mapping and radio emitter direction finding, electronic attack and the GBU-39 Small Diameter Bomb (SDB). This upgrade was applied to 149 Raptors, and the first upgraded aircraft was delivered in 2012.
Increment 3.2 is a two-part upgrade process; 3.2A focuses on electronic warfare, communications and identification, while 3.2B will allow the F-22 to better exploit the AIM-9X and AIM-120D missiles. In 2009, three business jets were equipped with the Battlefield Airborne Communications Node (BACN) for communicating between the F-22 and other platforms prior to the Multifunction Advanced Data Link (MADL). Lockheed Martin is developing IRST functionality into the AN/AAR-56 Missile Launch Detector (MLD). The F-22 System Program Office is working with the 422d Test and Evaluation Squadron to integrate the Visionix Scorpion helmet-mounted cueing system (HMCS), capable of off-boresight missile launches, with the aircraft. In March 2010, the USAF accelerated software portions of 3.2 to be completed in FY 2013. Applying the 3.2 upgrade to 183 aircraft was estimated to cost $8 billion, which would be funded via the early retirement of legacy fighters. In February 2013, Lockheed Martin's upgrade contract was modified to include the 3.2B features, bringing the total upgrade cost to $6.9 billion; the upgrade process is expected to be completed by 2023. The subsequent Increment 3.3 may include the adoption of an open avionics platform and air traffic control updates.
In January 2011, the USAF opened the Raptor enhancement, development and integration (REDI) contract to bidders, with a $16 billion budget. In November 2011, Lockheed Martin's upgrade contract was increased by $1.4 billion to a maximum value of $7.4 billion. Of the $11.7 billion allocated for upgrades, almost $2 billion was for structural repairs and to increase the fleet's availability rate from 55.5% to 70.6% by 2015. Some F-35 technology, such as more durable stealth coatings, have been applied to the F-22. Elements such as MADL are delayed until the F-35 program is completed. By 2012, the update schedule had slipped seven years because of "requirements and funding instability". In 2016, the F-22 fleet is planned to have 36 Block 20 training aircraft and 149 Block 30/35 combat aircraft.
While no definitive cause was found for the frequent oxygen deprivation issues responsible for several incidents, including a fatal crash, the F-22 will be upgraded with a backup oxygen system, software upgrades and oxygen sensors to normal operations in spite of the problem. In 2013, the faulty flight vest valves were replaced and altitude restrictions lifted; distance restrictions will be lifted once a backup oxygen system is installed. In April 2014 the USAF confirmed in testimony to the Senate Armed Services Committee that installation of automatic backup oxygen systems on the F-22 fleet would be completed within twelve months.
The F-22 was designed for a lifespan of 30 years and 8,000 flight hours, with a $100 million "structures retrofit program". Investigations are being made for upgrades to extend their useful lives further. In the long term, the F-22 is expected to eventually be replaced by the Next Generation TACAIR.
The F-22 Raptor is a fifth generation fighter that is considered fourth-generation in stealth aircraft technology by the USAF. The aircraft has large trapezoidal wings, fixed-geometry inlets, and a retractable tricycle landing gear. Flight control surfaces include the rudders on the canted vertical stabilizers and the all-moving horizontal tails; these control surfaces also serve as the speed brake. The F-22's dual afterburning Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 turbofan engines are placed close together and incorporate pitch axis thrust vectoring nozzles with a range of ±20 degrees; each engine has a maximum thrust in the 35,000 lbf (156 kN) class. Maximum speed without external stores is estimated to be Mach 1.82 during supercruise and greater than Mach 2 with afterburners.[N 2] The Raptor is the first operational aircraft to combine supercruise, maneuverability, stealth, and sensor fusion into a single platform.
The F-22's structure contains extensive amounts of high-strength materials to withstand stress and heat. Respectively, titanium alloys and composites comprise 39 and 24% of the aircraft's structural weight. The use of internal weapons bays allows the aircraft to maintain a comparatively higher performance while carrying a heavy payload over most other aircraft due to a lack of drag from external stores. It is one of only a few aircraft that can supercruise or sustain supersonic flight without the use of fuel-inefficient afterburners; targets can be intercepted which subsonic aircraft would lack the speed to pursuit and an afterburner-dependent aircraft lack the fuel to reach.
The F-22 is highly maneuverable at both supersonic and subsonic speeds. Computerized fly-by-wire control system and full authority digital engine control (FADEC) make the aircraft highly departure resistant and enable it to remain controllable at aggressive pilot inputs. The Raptor's relaxed stability and thrust vectoring allow the aircraft to turn tightly, and perform very high alpha (angle of attack) maneuvers such as the Herbst maneuver (J-turn) and Pugachev's Cobra. The F-22 is also capable of maintaining over 60° angle of attack while having some roll control, and the jet's high operating altitude is also a significant tactical advantage over legacy fighters.
The F-22's combination of aerodynamic performance, sensor fusion, and stealth work together for increased effectiveness. Altitude, speed, and advanced active and passive sensors allow targets to be spotted at considerable ranges and increase weapons range. Altitude and speed also complement stealth's effectiveness by increasing distance between the aircraft and ground defenses and giving defensive systems less time to react.
Key avionics include BAE Systems EI&S AN/ALR-94 radar warning receiver (RWR), Lockheed Martin AN/AAR-56 Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet MAWS (Missile Approach Warning System) and Northrop Grumman AN/APG-77 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar. The RWR is a passive radar detector with more than 30 antennas are blended into the wings and fuselage for all-round coverage. Tom Burbage, former F-22 program head at Lockheed Martin, described it as "the most technically complex piece of equipment on the aircraft." The range of the RWR (250+ nmi) exceeds the radar's, allowing radar usage to be limited to increase stealth. The RWR can cue the radar to track approaching targets with a narrow beam (down to 2° by 2° in azimuth and elevation).
The AN/APG-77 radar, designed for air superiority and strike operations, features a low-observable, active-aperture, electronically scanned array that can track multiple targets in any weather. Additionally, the radar emissions can be focused in an electronic-attack capability to overload enemy sensors. It changes frequencies more than 1,000 times per second to lower interception probability. The radar has an estimated range of 125–150 miles, though planned upgrades will allow a range of 250 miles (400 km) or more in narrow beams.
Radar information is processed by two Raytheon Common Integrated Processor (CIP)s, each capable of processing up to 10.5 billion instructions per second. Information from the radar, other sensors, and external systems is filtered by the CIP in a process known as sensor fusion, combining and processing data from multiple systems into a common view to prevent the pilot from being overwhelmed. The F-22's software has some 1.7 million lines of code, the majority involving processing radar data. In 2007, tests by Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, and L-3 Communications used the F-22's radar as a wireless data transceiver, able to transmit data at 548 megabits per second and receive at gigabit speed, far faster than the Link 16 system.
The F-22 has a threat detection and identification capability comparative with the RC-135 Rivet Joint. The Raptor's stealth allows it to safely operate far closer to the battlefield, compensating for the reduced capability. The F-22 is capable of functioning as a "mini-AWACS", though the radar is less powerful than those of dedicated platforms such as the E-3 Sentry. The F-22 allows its pilot to designate targets for cooperating F-15s and F-16s, and determine whether two friendly aircraft are targeting the same aircraft. This radar system can sometimes identify targets "many times quicker than the AWACS". The radar is capable of high-bandwidth data transmission; conventional radio "chatter" can be reduced via these alternative means. The IEEE-1394B data bus developed for the F-22 was derived from the commercial IEEE-1394 "FireWire" bus system.
In 2009 former Navy Secretary John Lehman considered the F-22 to be safe from cyberattack, citing the age of its IBM software. Former Secretary of the USAF Michael Wynne blamed the use of the DoD's Ada for cost overruns and delays on many military projects, including the F-22. Cyberattacks on Lockheed Martin's subcontractors have reportedly raised doubts about the security of the F-22's systems and combat-effectiveness.
The F-22 has a glass cockpit with all-digital flight instruments. The monochrome head-up display offers a wide field of view and serves as a primary flight instrument; information is also displayed upon six color liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. The primary flight controls are a force-sensitive side-stick controller and a pair of throttles. The USAF initially wanted to implement direct voice input (DVI) controls, but this was judged to be too technically risky and was abandoned. The canopy's dimensions are approximately 140 inches long, 45 inches wide, and 27 inches tall (355 cm x 115 cm x 69 cm) and weighs 360 pounds.
The F-22 has integrated radio functionality, the signal processing systems are virtualized rather than as a separate hardware module. There has been several reports on the F-22's inability to communicate with other aircraft, and funding cuts have affected the development of the MADL data link. Voice communication is possible, but not data transfer.
The integrated control panel (ICP) is a keypad system for entering communications, navigation, and autopilot data. Two 3 in × 4 in (7.6 cm × 10.2 cm) up-front displays located around the ICP are used to display integrated caution advisory/warning data, communications, navigation and identification (CNI) data and also serve as the stand-by flight instrumentation group and fuel quantity indicator. The stand-by flight group displays an artificial horizon, for basic instrument meteorological conditions. The 8 in × 8 in (20 cm × 20 cm) primary multi-function display (PMFD) is located under the ICP, and is used for navigation and situation assessment. Three 6.25 in × 6.25 in (15.9 cm × 15.9 cm) secondary multi-function displays are located around the PMFD for tactical information and stores management.
The ejection seat is a version of the ACES II (Advanced Concept Ejection Seat) commonly used in USAF aircraft, with a center-mounted ejection control. The F-22 has a complex life support system, which includes the on-board oxygen generation system (OBOGS), protective pilot garments, and a breathing regulator/anti-g (BRAG) valve controlling flow and pressure to the pilot's mask and garments. The protective garments are designed to protect against chemical/biological hazards and cold-water immersion, to counter g-forces and low pressure at high altitudes, and to provide thermal relief. It was developed under the Advanced Technology Anti-G Suit (ATAGS) project. Suspicions regarding the performance of the OBOGS and life support equipment have been raised by several mishaps, including a fatal crash.
The Raptor has three internal weapons bays: a large bay on the bottom of the fuselage, and two smaller bays on the sides of the fuselage, aft of the engine intakes. It can carry six medium range missiles in the center bay and one short–range missile in each side bay; Four of the medium range missiles can be replaced with two bomb racks that can each carry one medium-size or four smaller bombs. Carrying armaments internally maintains the aircraft's stealth and minimizes additional drag. Missile launches require the bay doors to be open for less than a second, during which hydraulic arms push missiles clear of the aircraft; this is to reduce vulnerability to detection and to deploy missiles during high speed flight.
The F-22 can also carry air-to-surface weapons such as bombs with Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) guidance and the Small-Diameter Bomb, but cannot self-designate for laser-guided weapons. Internal air-to-surface ordnance is limited to 2,000 lb. An internally mounted M61A2 Vulcan 20 mm cannon is embedded in the right wing root and its muzzle is covered by a door to maintain stealth. The aircraft's radar can track cannon fire and display it on the pilot's heads up display.
The Raptor's very high cruise speed and altitude increase the effective ranges of its munitions. The F-22 has 50% greater employment range for the AIM-120 AMRAAM than prior platforms, and range will be further extended with the eventual introduction of the AIM-120D. While specifics are classified, it is expected that JDAMs employed by F-22s will have twice or more the effective range of legacy platforms. In testing, a Raptor dropped a 1,000 lb (450 kg) JDAM from 50,000 feet (15,000 m), while cruising at Mach 1.5, striking a moving target 24 miles (39 km) away.
While the F-22 typically carries weapons internally, the wings include four hardpoints, each rated to handle 5,000 lb (2,300 kg). Each hardpoint has a pylon that can carry a detachable 600 gallon fuel tank or a launcher holding two air-air missiles. However, the use of external stores degrades the F-22's stealth, maneuverability and speed. The two inner hardpoints are "plumbed" for external fuel tanks; the hardpoints can be jettisoned in flight so the fighter can maximize its stealth after exhausting external stores. A stealth ordnance pod and pylon is being developed to carry additional weapons internally.
The F-22 was designed to be highly stealthy to radar. Radar signature reduction measures include airframe shaping such as planform alignment of edges, fixed-geometry serpentine inlets that prevent line-of-sight of the engine faces from any exterior view, the use of radar absorbent material (RAM), and attention to detail such as hinges and pilot helmets that could provide a radar return. The Raptor was also designed to have decreased radio, heat and noise emissions as well as reduced visibility to the naked eye. The aircraft's flat thrust vectoring nozzle reduces its infrared emissions to mitigate the threat of infrared homing ("heat seeking") surface-to-air or air-to-air missiles. Further reduction in infrared signature includes special paint and active cooling of leading edges to deal with the heat buildup encountered during supersonic flight.
Compared to previous stealth designs like the F-117, the F-22 is less reliant on RAM, which are maintenance-intensive and susceptible to adverse weather conditions. Unlike the B-2, which requires climate-controlled hangars, the F-22 can undergo repairs on the flight line or in a normal hangar. The F-22 features a Signature Assessment System which delivers warnings when the radar signature is degraded and necessitates repair. The exact radar cross-section (RCS) is classified; however, in 2009 Lockheed Martin released information indicating it has an RCS (from certain angles) of −40 dBsm – equivalent to the radar reflection of a "steel marble". Effectively maintaining the stealth features can decrease the F-22's mission capable rate to 62–70%.[N 3]
The effectiveness of the stealth characteristics is difficult to gauge. The RCS value is a restrictive measurement of the aircraft's frontal or side area from the perspective of a static radar. When an aircraft maneuvers it exposes a completely different set of angles and surface area, potentially increasing radar observability. Furthermore, stealth contouring and radar absorbent materials are chiefly effective against high-frequency radars, usually found on other aircraft. Low-frequency radars, employed by weather radars and ground warning stations, are alleged to be less affected by stealth technologies and are thus more capable as detection platforms. While faint or fleeting radar contacts make defenders aware that a stealth aircraft is present, reliably vectoring interception to attack the aircraft is much more challenging.
Designation and testing
The YF-22 was originally given the unofficial name "Lightning II", after the World War II fighter P-38, by Lockheed, which persisted until the mid-1990s when the USAF officially named the aircraft "Raptor". The aircraft was also briefly dubbed "SuperStar" and "Rapier". In September 2002, USAF changed the Raptor's designation to F/A-22, mimicking the Navy's McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet and intended to highlight a planned ground-attack capability amid debate over the aircraft's role and relevance. The F-22 designation was reinstated in December 2005, when the aircraft entered service.
Flight testing of the F-22 began in 1997 with Raptor 4001, the first EMD jet, and eight more F-22s would participate in the EMD and flight test program. Raptor 4001 was retired from flight testing in 2000 and subsequently sent to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (AFB) for survivability testing, including live fire testing and battle damage repair training. EMD F-22s have been used for testing upgrades, and also as maintenance trainers. The first production F-22 was delivered to Nellis AFB, Nevada, in January 2003.
In May 2006, a released report documented a problem with the F-22's forward titanium boom, caused by defective heat-treating. This made the boom on roughly the first 80 F-22s less ductile than specified and potentially shortened the part's life. Modifications and inspections were implemented to the booms to restore life expectancy.
In August 2008, an unmodified F-22 of the 411th Flight Test Squadron performed in the first ever air-to-air refueling of an aircraft using synthetic jet fuel as part of a wider USAF effort to qualify aircraft to use the fuel, a 50/50 mix of JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch process-produced, natural gas-based fuel. In 2011, an F-22 flew supersonic on a 50% mixture of biofuel derived from camelina.
Introduction into service
In December 2005, the USAF announced that the F-22 had achieved Initial Operational Capability (IOC). During Exercise Northern Edge in Alaska in June 2006, in simulated combat exercises 12 F-22s of the 94th FS downed 108 adversaries with no losses. In the exercises, the Raptor-led Blue Force amassed 241 kills against two losses in air-to-air combat; neither Blue Force loss was an F-22. During Red Flag 07-1 in February 2007, 14 F-22s of the 94th FS supported Blue Force strikes and undertook close air support sorties. Against superior numbers of Red Force Aggressor F-15s and F-16s, 6–8 F-22s maintained air dominance throughout. No sorties were missed because of maintenance or other failures, a single F-22 was judged lost against the defeated opposing force.[N 4] F-22s also provided airborne electronic surveillance.
The Raptor achieved Full Operational Capability (FOC) in December 2007, when General John Corley of Air Combat Command officially declared the F-22s of the integrated active duty 1st Fighter Wing and Virginia Air National Guard 192d Fighter Wing fully operational. This was followed by an Operational Readiness Inspection (ORI) of the integrated wing in April 2008, in which it was rated "excellent" in all categories, with a simulated kill-ratio of 221–0.
In February 2007, while attempting its first overseas deployment to the Kadena Air Base in Okinawa, Japan, six F-22s of 27th Fighter Squadron flying from Hickam AFB, Hawaii, experienced multiple software-related system failures while crossing the International Date Line (180th meridian of longitude). The aircraft returned to Hawaii by following tanker aircraft. Within 48 hours, the error was resolved and the journey resumed. By January 2013, F-22s have been deployed to Kadena Air Base seven times, and in early 2013, F-22s were involved in U.S.-South Korean military drills. In June 2014, F-22s from the 199th Fighter Squadron of the Hawaii Air National Guard were deployed to Malaysia to participate in the Cope Taufan 2014 exercise conducted by the USAF Pacific Air Forces and Royal Malaysian Air Force.
In November 2007, F-22s of 90th Fighter Squadron performed their first NORAD interception of two Russian Tu-95MS "Bear-H" bombers over Alaska. Since then, F-22s have also escorted probing Tu-160 "Blackjack" bombers. The first pair of F-22s assigned to the 49th Fighter Wing became operational at Holloman AFB, New Mexico, in June 2008. In 2014, Holloman Raptors and their support personnel were reassigned to the reactivated 95th Fighter Squadron at Tyndall AFB.
Secretary of Defense Gates initially refused to deploy F-22s to the Middle East in 2007. The aircraft would have its first deployment in the region at Al Dhafra Air Base in the UAE in 2009. In April 2012, F-22s were again deployed to Al Dhafra Air Base, less than 200 miles from Iran; the Iranian defense minister referred to the deployment as a security threat. F-22 units have been rotating in to maintain a continuous presence since. The first publicized engagement of the F-22 with Iranian forces occurred in March 2013; the USAF revealed that an F-22 had chased off an Iranian F-4 Phantom II that had flown within 16 miles of an MQ-1 Predator flying off the Iranian coastline. The Raptor used its stealth to approach close to the underside of the Phantom before flying alongside.
In 2008, two F-22 pilots proposed that USAF form a rapid response airborne package of one C-17 to support four F-22s, able to set up and engage in combat within 24 hours.
Maintenance and training
F-22 had a mission ready rate of 62% in 2004, 70% in 2009, and was predicted to reach 85% as the fleet reached 100,000 flight hours. Early on, the F-22 required more than 30 hours of maintenance per flight hour and a total cost per flight hour of $44,000; by 2008 it was reduced to 18.1, and 10.5 by 2009; lower than the Pentagon's requirement of 12 maintenance hours per flight hour. When introduced, the F-22 had a Mean Time Between Maintenance (MTBM) of 1.7 hours, short of the required 3.0 hours, but the figure was improved to 3.2 hours in 2012. By 2013, the cost per flight hour had grown to $68,362, over three times as much as the F-16.
Each aircraft requires a month-long packaged maintenance plan (PMP) every 300 flight hours. The stealth system, including its radar absorbing metallic skin, account for almost one third of maintenance. The canopy was redesigned after the original design lasted an averaged of 331 hours instead of the required 800 hours. F-22 depot maintenance is performed at Ogden Air Logistics Complex at Hill AFB, Utah.
In January 2007, the F-22 reportedly maintained 97% sortie rate, flying 102 out of 105 tasked sorties while amassing a 144-to-zero kill ratio during "Northern Edge" air-to-air exercises in Alaska. According to Lieutenant Colonel Wade Tolliver, squadron commander of the 27th Fighter Squadron, the stealth coatings of the F-22 are more robust than those used in earlier stealth aircraft, being less sensitive to weather and wear and tear. However, rain caused "shorts and failures in sophisticated electrical components" when F-22s were posted to Guam.
In its 2012 budget request, the USAF cut F-22 flight training hours by one-third to reduce operating costs. DoD budget cuts led to F-22 demonstration flights being halted in 2013; the demonstration flights were resumed in 2014. In 2012, it was reported that the F-22's maintenance demands have increased as the fleet aged; maintaining the stealth coatings is particularly demanding.
Operational issues have been experienced and some have caused fleet-wide groundings. Critically, pilots have experienced a decreased mental status, including losing consciousness. There were reports of instances of pilots found to have a decreased level of alertness and/or memory loss after landing. F-22 pilots have experienced lingering respiratory problems and a chronic cough; other symptoms include irritability, emotional lability and neurologic changes. A number of possible causative factors were investigated, including possible exposure to noxious chemical agents from the respiratory tubing, pressure suit malfunction, side effects from oxygen delivery at greater-than-atmospheric concentrations, and oxygen supply disruptions. Other issues include minor mechanical problems and navigational software failures. The fleet was grounded for four months in 2011 before resuming flight, but reports of oxygen issues persisted.
In 2005, the Raptor Aeromedical Working Group, a USAF expert panel, recommended several changes to deal with the oxygen supply issues. In October 2011, Lockheed Martin was awarded a $24M contract to investigate the breathing difficulties. In July 2012, the Pentagon concluded that a pressure valve on flight vests worn during high-altitude flights and a carbon air filter were likely sources of at least some hypoxia-like symptoms. Long-distance flights were resumed, but were limited to lower altitudes until corrections had been made. The carbon filters were changed to a different model to reduce lung exposure to carbon particulates. The breathing regulator/anti-g (BRAG) valve, used to inflate the pilot's vest during high G maneuvers, was found to be defective, inflating the vest at unintended intervals, causing the pilot to shallow-breathe. The on-board oxygen generating system (OBOGS) also unexpectedly reduced oxygen levels during high-G maneuvers. In late 2012, Lockheed Martin was awarded contracts to install a supplemental automatic oxygen backup system, in addition to the primary and manual backup. Changes recommended by the Raptor Aeromedical Working Group in 2005 received further consideration in 2012; the USAF reportedly considered installing EEG brain wave monitors on the pilot's helmets for inflight monitoring.
New backup oxygen generators and filters have been installed on the aircraft. The coughing symptoms have been attributed to acceleration atelectasis, which may be exacerbated by the F-22's high performance; there is no present solution to the condition. The presence of toxins and particles in some ground crew was deemed to be unrelated. On 4 April 2013, the distance and altitude flight restrictions were lifted after the F-22 Combined Test Force and 412th Aerospace Medicine Squadron determined that breathing restrictions on the pilot were responsible as opposed to an issue with the oxygen provided.
- YF-22A – pre-production technology demonstrator for ATF demonstration/validation phase; two were built.
- F-22A – single-seat production version, was designated F/A-22A in early 2000s.
- F-22B – planned two-seat variant, but was canceled in 1996 to save development costs.
- Naval F-22 variant – a carrier-borne variant of the F-22 with variable-sweep wings for the U.S. Navy's Navy Advanced Tactical Fighter (NATF) program to replace the F-14 Tomcat. Program was canceled in 1993. Former SoAF Donald Rice has called the possibility of the naval variant the deciding factor for his choice of the YF-22 over the YF-23.
The FB-22 was a proposed medium-range bomber for the USAF. The FB-22 was projected to carry up to 30 Small Diameter Bombs to about twice the range of the F-22A, while maintaining the F-22's stealth and supersonic speed. However, the FB-22 in its planned form appears to have been canceled with the 2006 Quadrennial Defense Review and subsequent developments, in lieu of a larger subsonic bomber with a much greater range.
The X-44 MANTA, or multi-axis, no-tail aircraft, was a planned experimental aircraft based on the F-22 with enhanced thrust vectoring controls and no aerodynamic surface backup. The aircraft was to be solely controlled by thrust vectoring, without featuring any rudders, ailerons, or elevators. Funding for this program was halted in 2000.
- Air Combat Command
- 1st Fighter Wing, Langley AFB, Virginia
- 53d Wing, Eglin AFB, Florida
- 57th Wing, Nellis AFB, Nevada
- 325th Fighter Wing, Tyndall AFB, Florida
- Air Force Materiel Command
- Pacific Air Forces
- Air National Guard
- Air Force Reserve Command
In April 1992, the second YF-22 crashed while landing at Edwards AFB. The test pilot, Tom Morgenfeld, escaped without injury. The cause of the crash was found to be a flight control software error that failed to prevent a pilot-induced oscillation.
The first F-22 crash occurred during takeoff at Nellis AFB on 20 December 2004, in which the pilot ejected safely before impact. The crash investigation revealed that a brief interruption in power during an engine shutdown prior to flight caused a malfunction in the flight-control system; consequently the aircraft design was corrected to avoid the problem. All F-22s were grounded after the crash; operations resumed following a review.
On 25 March 2009, an EMD F-22 crashed 35 miles (56 km) northeast of Edwards AFB during a test flight, resulting in the death of Lockheed Martin test pilot David P. Cooley. An Air Force Materiel Command investigation found that Cooley momentarily lost consciousness during a high-G maneuver, then ejected when he found himself too low to recover. Cooley was killed during ejection by blunt-force trauma from windblast due to the aircraft's speed. The investigation found no design issues.
On 16 November 2010, an F-22 from Elmendorf AFB crashed, killing the pilot, Captain Jeffrey Haney. The F-22 fleet was restricted to flying below 25,000 feet, before being grounded while the accident was investigated. The accident was attributed to a bleed air system malfunction following the detection of an engine overheat condition, which shut down the Environmental Control System (ECS) and OBOGS. The accident review board ruled the pilot was to blame, as he did not react properly and did not engage the emergency oxygen system. The pilot's widow sued, claiming the aircraft has defective equipment; the manufacturers later reached a settlement. In response to the investigation results, the engagement handle for the emergency oxygen system was redesigned; the emergency oxygen system should engage automatically when OBOGS is shut down due to engine failure. On 11 February 2013, the DoD's Inspector General released its report, which stated that the USAF had erred in assigning blame to Haney for the crash and that conclusions were not sufficiently supported by facts; the USAF stated that it stood by its conclusions.
During a training mission, an F-22 crashed to the east of Tyndall AFB, on 15 November 2012. The pilot ejected safely and no injuries were reported on the ground. The investigation determined that a "chafed" electrical wire ignited the fluid in a hydraulic line, causing a fire that damaged the flight controls.
Aircraft on display
- Crew: 1
- Length: 62 ft 1 in (18.90 m)
- Wingspan: 44 ft 6 in (13.56 m)
- Height: 16 ft 8 in (5.08 m)
- Wing area: 840 ft² (78.04 m²)
- Airfoil: NACA 64A?05.92 root, NACA 64A?04.29 tip
- Empty weight: 43,340 lb (19,700 kg)
- Loaded weight: 64,460 lb (29,300 kg[N 5])
- Max. takeoff weight: 83,500 lb (38,000 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 Pitch Thrust vectoring turbofans
- Fuel capacity: 18,000 lb (8,200 kg) internally, or 26,000 lb (11,900 kg) with two external fuel tanks. About 3,050 gal or 20,333 lb JP-8 (without additions) internally.
- Maximum speed:
- Range: >1,600 nmi (1,840 mi, 2,960 km) with 2 external fuel tanks
- Combat radius: 410 nmi (with 100 nmi in supercruise) (470 mi, 760 km)
- Ferry range: 2,000 mi (1,740 nmi, 3,220 km)
- Service ceiling: >65,000 ft (20,000 m)
- Wing loading: 77 lb/ft² (375 kg/m²)
- Thrust/weight: 1.09 (1.26 with loaded weight & 50% fuel)
- Maximum design g-load: −3.0/+9.0 g
- Guns: 1× 20 mm (0.787 in) M61A2 Vulcan 6-barrel Gatling cannon in right wing root, 480 rounds
- Air to air loadout:
- Air to ground loadout:
- Hardpoints: 4× under-wing pylon stations can be fitted to carry 600 U.S. gallon drop tanks or weapons, each with a capacity of 5,000 lb (2,270 kg).
- AN/APG-77 radar: 125–150 miles (200–240 km) against 1 m2 (11 sq ft) targets (estimated range)
- AN/AAR-56 missile approach warning system (MAWS)
- AN/ALR-94 radar warning receiver (RWR): 250 nmi (463 km) or more detection range
- MJU-39/40 flares for protection against IR missiles
Notable appearances in media
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- List of fighter aircraft
- List of Lockheed aircraft
- List of active United States military aircraft
- List of megaprojects, Aerospace
- Referring to statements made by the Secretary of Defense Robert Gates: "The secretary once again highlighted his ambitious next-year request for the more-versatile F-35s."
- This capability was demonstrated in 2005 when General John P. Jumper exceeded Mach 1.7 in the F-22 without afterburners.
- "... noting that Raptors are ready for a mission around 62 percent of the time, if its low-observable requirements are met (DAILY, 20 November). Reliability goes up above 70 percent for missions with lower stealth demands."
- The F-22 was "lost" when a victim exited the area, regenerated and immediately re-engaged; the pilot had erroneously assumed it was still "dead".
- Empty weight + 8,200 kg (fuel) + 1,142 kg (6 AMRAAM + 2 AIM-9X) + 292 kg (munition for the cannon)
- "Chronology of the F-22 Program." F-22 Team website, 4 November 2012. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- Butler, Amy. "Last Raptor Rolls Off Lockheed Martin Line." Aviation Week, 27 December 2011. Retrieved: 10 April 2014.
- Parsons, Gary. "Final F-22 Delivered" Combat Aircraft Monthly, 3 May 2012. Retrieved: 10 April 2014.
- "Analysis of the Fiscal Year 2012 Pentagon Spending Request." COSTOFWAR.COM, 15 February 2011. Retrieved: 31 August 2013.
- "FY 2011 Budget Estimates." U.S. Air Force, February 2010. p. 1-15.
- Reed, John. "Official: Fighters should be used for spying." Air Force Times, 20 December 2009. Retrieved: 9 May 2010.
- "F-22 Raptor fact sheet." U.S. Air Force, March 2009. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- "F-22 Capabilities". Lockheed Martin. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- Houston, A. "Strategic Insight 9 – Is the JSF good enough?" Australian Strategic Policy Institute, 18 August 2004.
- Baron, Kevin (16 September 2009). "Gates outlines Air Force priorities and expectations". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- Jenkins, Dennis R. Lockheed Secret Projects: Inside the Skunk Works. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-0914-0. pp. 70.
- Jenkins and Landis 2008, pp. 233–234.
- Williams 2002, pp. 5–6.
- "Fact sheet: Lockheed-Boeing-General Dynamics YF-22." U.S. Air Force, 11 February 2009. Retrieved: 18 June 2011.
- Aronstein and Hirschberg 1998, p. 108.
- Jenkins and Landis 2008, p. 234.
- Goodall 1992, p. 110.
- Miller 2005, p. 76.
- Pearlstein, Steven and Barton Gellman. "Lockheed wins huge jet contract; Air Force plans to buy 650 stealth planes at $100 million each". The Washington Post, 24 April 1991.
- Aronstein and Hirschberg 1998, p. 118.
- Lobe, Jim. "New, Old Weapons Systems Never Die." Inter Press Service, 17 July 2009. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- Kaplan, Fred "The Air Force tries to save a fighter plane that's never seen battle". Slate, 24 February 2009. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- Younossi, Obaid et al. "Lessons Learned from the F/A–22 and F/A–18E/F Development Programs." RAND, 2005. Retrieved: 27 August 2011.
- Sweetman, Bill. "Rivals Target JSF."[dead link] Aviation Week, 30 November 2010. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- Herman, Arthur. "Don't let O disarm our military." New York Post, 10 January 2011. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- "F-22 Partners."[dead link] NASA. Retrieved: 25 July 2009.
- Pace 1999, pp. 12–13.
- "YF-22/F-22A comparison diagram". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved: 13 June 2010.
- "F-22 weight increase agreed." Flight International, 3 May 1995. Archived from original.
- "F-22 Raptor". Lockheed Martin. Archived from original. Retrieved: 1 July 2014.
- "F-22 Raptor Wins 2006 Collier Trophy." National Aeronautic Association. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- Brumby, Otis, Bill Kinney and Joe Kirby. "Around Town: As the F 35 program revs up the F 22 ramps down." The Marietta Daily Journal, 6 June 2011. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- Williams 2002, p. 22.
- Grant, Rebecca. "Losing Air Dominance." Air Force Magazine, December 2008.
- Lopez, C.T. "F-22 excels at establishing air dominance." Air Force Print News, 23 June 2006. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- "US Department of Defense contracts." U.S. Department of Defense, 31 July 2007. Retrieved: 28 August 2011.
- "Sticker Shock: Estimating the Real Cost of Modern Fighter Aircraft, p. 2." Defense-Aerospace.com, July 2006. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- "Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Major Weapon Programs", p. 59. Government Accountability Office, 31 March 2006. Retrieved: 2 February 2008.
- "FY 2009 Budget Estimates", p. 1–13. U.S. Air Force, February 2008. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- "Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs." United States Government Accountability Office, Report to Congressional Committees, March 2011.
- "HZ00295: Obey amendment overview." Library of Congress. Retrieved: 9 May 2010.
- Smith, R. Jeffrey. "Premier U.S. fighter jet has major shortcomings: F-22's maintenance demands growing." The Washington Post, 10 July 2009. Retrieved: 24 July 2009.
- Bruno, M. "Appropriators Approve F-22A Multiyear, But Not Foreign Sales."[dead link] Aerospace Daily & Defense Report, 27 September 2006. Retrieved: 28 August 2011.
- "H.R. 2647: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (overview)." U.S. House of Representatives via Opencongress.org. Retrieved: 27 April 2012.
- "H.R.2647 National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (see Sections 1250 & 8056.)" Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved: 26 September 2010.
- "Israeli Plans to Buy F-35s Hitting Obstacles." Defense Industry Daily, 27 June 2006. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- Carmen, G. "Rapped in the Raptor: why Australia must have the best." The Age, 2 October 2006. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- Kopp, Dr. Carlo. "Is The Joint Strike Fighter Right For Australia?"[dead link] Air Power Australia. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- "Australia and the F22 Raptor." kuro5hin.org, 26 June 2006. Retrieved: 3 July 2006.
- "RAAF JSF tech spec." U.S. Air Force. Retrieved: 27 April 2012.
- Bennet, J.T. "Air Force Plans to Sell F-22As to Allies." InsideDefense.com, 18 February 2006. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- Konishi, Weston S. and Robert Dujarric. "Hurdles to a Japanese F-22." Japan Times, 16 May 2009. Retrieved: 3 August 2009.
- "JASDF's Next Generation Fighter". Lockheed Martin. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- Egozi, Arie. "Israel in talks with USA over F-22 orders". Flight Global, 20 April 2007. Retrieved: 30 June 2014.
- GAO-06-455R "Tactical Aircraft: DOD Should Present a New F-22A Business Case before Making Further Investments." Government Accountability Office. Retrieved: 9 May 2010.
- Wayne, Leslie. "Air Force Jet Wins Battle in Congress". The New York Times, 28 September 2006. Archived from original. Retrieved: 29 June 2014.
- Carroll, Ward. "Dogfight Over F-22 Reveals DoD Schisms". Defense Tech, 19 November 2008. Retrieved: 29 June 2014.
- Wolf, Jim (18 June 2009). "Top general warns against ending F-22 fighter". Reuters. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Trimble, Stephen. "US Congress passes $487.7 defence spending bill, slashes aircraft." Flightglobal.com, 24 September 2008. Retrieved: 10 November 2012.
- Wolf, Jim (12 November 2008). "Pentagon OKs funds to preserve F-22 line". Reuters. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
- Cole, August. "Lawmakers Pressure Pentagon to Release Funds for Controversial F-22 Fighter Jet". The Wall Street Journal, 5 November 2008. Archived from original. Retrieved: 29 June 2014.
- Levine, Adam, Mike Mount and Alan Silverleib. "Gates Announces Major Pentagon Priority Shifts." CNN, 9 April 2009. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- "Transcripts."[dead link] U.S. Senate, Committee on Armed Services, 9 July 2009.
- "Assertion and Facts." senate.gov. Retrieved: 17 January 2012.
- Matthews, William. "House Reverses Itself, Votes To Kill F-22 Buy." Defense News, 31 July 2009.
- Thomas "S.AMDT.1469 to cut F-22 funding." Thomas.loc.gov. Retrieved: 13 June 2010.
- Gates, Robert (16 July 2009). Economic Club of Chicago (Speech). Economic Club of Chicago. Chicago, Illinois: US Department of Defense. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "CRS RL31673 Air Force F-22 Fighter Program: Background and Issues for Congress, p. 15." Assets.opencrs.com. Retrieved: 26 September 2010.
- Rosenwald, Michael S. "Senate votes to stop making more F-22 Raptor fighter jets." The Los Angeles Times, 22 July 2009. Retrieved: 28 August 2011.
- Trimble, Stephen (5 March 2010). "USAF considers options to preserve F-22 production tooling". Flightglobal. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- "RAND: Ending F-22A Production: Costs and Industrial Base Implications of Alternative Options." rand.org. Retrieved: 26 September 2010.
- Wolf, Jim (12 December 2011). "U.S. to mothball gear to build top F-22 fighter". Reuters. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- Trimble, Stephen. "For posterity, Lockheed creates F-22 'how-to' manual." The DEW Line, 3 November 2010.
- Axe, David. "Fixing Worn-Out Raptors at Hill Air Force Base." offiziere.ch, 4 August 2012.
- Gertz, Bill. "China's stealth jet coming on, Gates confirms." The Washington Times, 9 January 2011. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- Majumdar, Dave (3 May 2012). "USAF receives last F-22 Raptor". Flight Global. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- "F-22 aircraft No. 4005 completes successful first flight." Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- Majumdar, Dave (30 May 2011). "F-22 Getting New Brain". Defense News. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- "DOT&E FY2013 Annual Report – F-22A Advanced Tactical Fighter"
- Reyes, Delos Julius (6 October 2009). "F-22 Raptor team receives AFMC award". U.S. Air Force. Retrieved 23 July 2009.
- "GAO-10-388SP, Defense Acquisitions: Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs." Government Accountability Office, 30 March 2010. Retrieved: 26 September 2010.
- Majumdar, Dave (23 March 2012). "USAF fields first upgraded F-22 Raptors". Flightglobal. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Majumdar, Dave (16 May 2014). "Air Force Evaluating New Targeting Monocle for F-22 Raptor". news.usni.org (U.S. NAVAL INSTITUTE). Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- Trimble, Stephen (1 January 2009). "USAF deploys Global Express jet with new Northrop relay suite". Flightglobal. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "Missile Launch Detector (MLD)". Lockheed Martin. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
- Sirak, Michael C. "Daily Report Friday 26 March 2010." Air Force magazine. Retrieved: 5 April 2010.
- Young, John J. Jr. "Defense Writers Group transcript, p. 15." Air Force magazine, 20 November 2008. Retrieved: 26 September 2010.
- Tirpak, John A. "Fighter of The Future." Air Force magazine. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- Majumdar, Dave."Lockheed awarded $6.9 billion F-22 upgrade contract." FlightGlobal.com, 21 February 2013.
- Trimble, Stephen (2 February 2011). "USAF invites rivals to break Lockheed's grip on F-22 upgrade work". Flightglobal. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "Department of Defense contracts."
- Burnett, Richard. "Lockheed defense deals prevail despite budget crunch." Orlando Sentinel, 12 December 2011.
- Sullivan, Michael J. "GAO-12-447, F-22A Modernization Program Faces Cost, Technical, and Sustainment Risks." GAO, 2 May 2012.
- Trimble, Stephen. "Lockheed proposes F-35'ing the F-22." The DEW Line, 29 October 2010. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- Majumdar, Dave. "Raptor to use F-35 radar absorbent coatings." Air Force Times, 6 April 2011. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- Majumdar, Dave. "Cost, risk scuttle planned Raptor data upgrade." Air Force Times, 31 March 2011. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- Stein, Keith. "Cost concerns over F-22 Raptor modernization plan." The Examiner, 27 April 2012.
- Rector, Gene. "Officials: No 'smoking gun' uncovered but changes will make F-22 safe to fly." The Warner Robins Patriot, 24 February 2012.
- Majumdar, Dave (8 January 2013). "USAF to field F-22 life support mods this January". Flightglobal. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
- Everstine, Brian. All F-22s To Have Backup Oxygen Systems Within 12 Months Defense News, 9 April 2014, Retrieved: 10 April 2014.
- Gertler, Jeremiah. "Air Force F-22 Fighter Program." CRS RL31673, 25 October 2012.
- Rolfsen, Bruce. "F-22 design problems force expensive fixes." Air Force Times, 12 November 2007.
- Sherman, Jason. "Air Force Sets Plan To Launch Sixth-Gen Fighter Program In 2018". InsideDefense.com, 11 March 2014. Retrieved: 30 June 2014.
- Carlson, Maj. Gen. Bruce. "Subject: Stealth Fighters." U.S. Department of Defense Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs) News Transcript. Retrieved: 28 August 2011.
- Kohn, Lt. Col. Allen E. and Lt. Col. Steven M. Rainey. "F-22 Flight Test Program Update." 9 April 1999. Archived from original.
- Boettcher, Daniel. "US shows off new Raptor jet." BBC, 11 July 2008. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- Ayton, Mark. "F-22 Raptor". AirForces Monthly, August 2008, p. 75. Retrieved: 19 July 2008.
- Powell, 2nd Lt. William. "General Jumper qualifies in F/A-22 Raptor." Air Force Link, 13 January 2005. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- Pike, John. "F-22 Materials and Processes". "GlobalSecurity.org".
- Tirpak, John A. "Airpower, led by the F-22, can 'kick the door down' for the other forces." Air Force Magazine, March 2001.
- "F119 Engine". Pratt & Whitney. Archived from original.
- "F-22 Pilot Perspective". Code One Magazine, October 2000
- Fulghum, D.A. and M.J. Fabey. "F-22 Combat Ready." Aviation Week, 8 January 2007. Archived from original. Retrieved: 7 November 2009.
- Peron, L. R. "F-22 Initial High Angle-of-Attack Flight Results."(Abstract)." Air Force Flight Test Center. Retrieved: 7 November 2009.
- Bedard, David. "Bulldogs accept delivery of last Raptor." Joint Base Elmendorf-Richardson Public Affairs, 11 May 2012.
- Grant, Rebecca. "Why The F-22 Is Vital Part 13." UPI, 31 March 2009.
- Klass, Philip J. "Sanders Will Give BAE Systems Dominant Role in Airborne EW." Aviation Week, Volume 153, issue 5, 31 July 2000, p. 74.
- Sweetman 2000, pp. 41–47.
- "JSF-Raptor Radar Can Fry Enemy Sensors." defensenews.com. Retrieved: 7 November 2009.Retrieved: 7 November 2009.
- "F-22 Raptor". Lockheed Martin. Retrieved 10 November 2012.
- "Defense Science Board report on Concurrency and risk of the F-22 program." Dtic.mil, April 1995. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- Pace 1999, p. 58.
- Page, Lewis. "F-22 superjets could act as flying Wi-Fi hotspots." The Register, 19 June 2007. Retrieved: 7 November 2009.
- Philips, E.H. "The Electric Jet." Aviation Week, 5 February 2007.
- Thompson, Mark. "Defense Secretary Gates Downs the F-22." Time, 22 July 2009. Retrieved: 27 March 2010.
- Wynne, Michael. "Michael Wynne on: The Industrial Impact of the Decision to Terminate the F-22 Program." Second Line of Defense. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- Riley, Michael; Elgin, Ben (2 May 2013). "Business Week: China Cyberspies Outwit U.S. Stealing Military Secrets". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 3 May 2013.
- Williams 2002, p. 10.
- Goebel, Greg. "The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor." airvectors.net, 1 July 2011. Retrieved: 10 November 2012.
- "Lockheed Martin’s Affordable Stealth". Lockheed Martin. 15 November 2000. p. 2.
- Kopp, Carlo. "~Just How Good Is The F-22 Raptor?" "Australian Air Power", September 1998.
- "F-22s Won’t Get F-35 Datalinks,Yet" DoDBuzz, 31 March 2011
- AirForces Monthly, August 2010, p. 56.
- "Military Avionics Systems", Ian Moir and Allan Seabridge, Wiley, pp. 360
- Williams 2002, p. 11.
- "ACES ll® Ejection Seat Programs"[dead link] Goodrich.
- "A preliminary investigation of a fluid-filled ECG-triggered anti-g suit", February 1994
- Majumdar, Dave. "Sources: Bleed-air issue led to Raptor crash." Air Force Times, 8 September 2011.
- Pace 1999, pp. 65–66.
- "Technologies for Future Precision Strike Missile Systems – Missile/Aircraft Integration." Handle.dtic.mil. Retrieved: 26 September 2010.
- "LAU-142/A AMRAAM Vertical Eject Launcher AVEL."[dead link] es.is.itt.com. Retrieved: 7 November 2009.
- Staff (13 October 2013). "The F-22 Raptor: Program & Events". Defense Industry Daily. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Polmar 2005, p. 397.
- Miller 2005, p. 94.
- DeMarban, Alex. "Target-towing Cessna pilot unconcerned about live-fire practice with F-22s." Alaska Dispatch, 3 May 2012.
- "USAF Almanac." Air Force magazine, May 2006.
- "U.S. orders two dozen raptors for 2010". United Press International. 22 November 2006. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
- Pace 1999, pp. 71–72.
- Tirpak, John A. "The Raptor as Bomber." Air Force magazine, January 2005. Retrieved: 25 July 2009.
- Pike, John. "F-22 Stealth". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved: 21 February 2007.
- Trimble, Stephen (16 July 2008). "Russia's views about the new F-22 flying display". Flightglobal. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "Analogues of Stealth." Northrop Grumman. Retrieved: 27 April 2012.
- Fulghum, David A. "F-22 Raptor To Make Paris Air Show Debut"[dead link] Aviation Week, 4 February 2009. Retrieved: 15 February 2009.
- Butler, Amy. "USAF Chief Defends F-22 Need, Capabilities."[dead link] Aviation Week, 17 February 2009. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- Sprey, Pierre. "Interview," 22 June 2008.
- Weiner, Tim. Blank Check: The Pentagon's Black Budget. New York: Warner Books, 1990. ISBN 978-0-44639-275-4.
- Grant, Rebecca. "The Radar Game."[dead link] Mitchell Institute, 2010. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- "Military Aircraft Names." Aerospaceweb.org. Retrieved: 26 September 2010.
- "U.S. to Declare F-22 Fighter Operational." Agence France-Presse, 15 December 2005.
- Pike, John. "F-22 Raptor Flight Test". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- "F-22 Milestones – Part 2". Code One Magazine. Retrieved 2013-11-16.
- Majumdar, Dave (7 May 2013). "Raptor 4007 starts testing Inc 3.2A upgrade on its 1000th sortie". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- Miller 2005, p. 65.
- Offley, Ed. "Flaw Could Shorten Raptors' Lives." News Herald (Panama City, FL), 4 May 2006. Retrieved: 12 February 2014.
- Delos Reyes, Julius. "Edwards F-22 Raptor performs aerial refueling using synthetic fuel." Desert Eagle, 3 September 2008, via F-16.net. Retrieved: 14 September 2011.
- Quick, Darren. "F-22 Raptor hits Mach 1.5 on camelina-based biofuel." Gizmag, 23 March 2011.
- "F-22A Raptor goes operational". U.S. Air Force. 15 December 2005. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Schanz, Marc V. "Aerospace World: Red Flag Raptors." Air Force magazine, May 2007. Retrieved: 9 February 2008.
- Hopper, David (12 December 2007). "F-22s at Langley receive FOC status". U.S. Air Force. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Schultz, 2nd Lt. Georganne E. "Langley earns 'excellent' in ORI." F-16.net, 22 April 20078. Retrieved: 9 May 2010.
- "F-22 Squadron Shot Down by the International Date Line." Defense Industry Daily, 1 March 2007. Retrieved: 5 February 2014.
- Johnson, Maj. Dani (19 February 2007). "Raptors arrive at Kadena". U.S. Air Force. Archived from the original on 25 May 2012. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "12 F-22 Raptors deployed to Japan." Airrecognition.com, 14 January 2013.
- "US sends F-22 jets to join South Korea drills". Fox News. 1 April 2013. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
- Mahadzir, Dzirhan and Lumpur, Kuala. "F-22s land in Malaysia for first Southeast Asian exercise". IHS Jane's 360, 4 June 2014. Retrieved: 29 June 2014
- "Raptors Perform First Intercept of Russian Bombers." Air Force magazine, Daily Report, 14 December 2007. Retrieved: 9 May 2010.
- "Russian Air Force denies it violated British airspace". RIA Novosti. 25 March 2010. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- "Air Force World." Air Force magazine, July 2008, Vol. 91, No. 7, p. 20.
- Wright, Ashley M. (April 21, 2014). "IOC declared for 95th Fighter Squadron". 325th Fighter Wing Public Affairs. Retrieved June 13, 2014.
- Clark, Colin. "Gates Opposed AF Plans to Deploy F-22 to Iraq." DOD Buzz, 30 June 2008. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- Butler, Amy (12 April 2012). "UAE-based F-22s a Signal to Iran". Aviation Week. Retrieved 3 June 2014.
- "Iran: US stealth fighter deployment to UAE harmful". Fox News. 30 April 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2013.
- Cenciotti, David (1 April 2014). "Don’t Believe the Rumors—F-22s Are Not Deploying to Ukraine". medium.com. War is Boring. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- F-22 Flew to Drone's Rescue off Iran Coast – Military.com, 17 September 2013
- Schanz, Marc (28 September 2013). "Rapid Raptor Package". www.airforcemag.com. Air Force Association. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "USAF Weighs Future Priority Needs."[dead link] Aviation Week, 21 November 2011.
- Thompson, Mark (2 April 2013). "Costly Flight Hours". Time. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "USAF Performs First Long-Term F-22 Raptor Maintenance." Strategicdefenceintelligence.com. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- "Air Force to consolidate F-22 depot maintenance at Hill". U.S. Air Force, 29 May 2013. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- Holmes, Erik. "F-22 problems linked to rain in Guam." Air Force Times, 5 October 2009. Retrieved: 9 May 2010.
- Rolfsen, Bruce. "USAF looks at scaling back flight training to cut costs."[dead link] Janes, 25 February 2011. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- "F-22 Raptor Team Won't Fly at Water Follies."
- F-22A Demo Team
- Axe, David (6 November 2012). "Lockheed’s Dubious Claim: Stealth Fighter Will Get Stealthier With Age". Wired. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- King, Senior Airman Joan. "F-22's success more than 'skin deep'". globalsecurity.org. Retrieved: 3 December 2012.
- Cox, Bob. "Despite investigation, safety concerns linger on F-22." Star Telegram, 25 August 2012.
- Wastnage, Justin (14 February 2007). "Navigational software glitch forces Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptors back to Hawaii, abandoning first foreign deployment to Japan". Flightglobal. Retrieved 11 May 2012.
- Sughrue, Karen (producer) and Lesley Stahl. "Is the Air Force's F-22 fighter jet making pilots sick?" 60 Minutes: CBC News, 6 May 2012. Retrieved: 7 May 2012.
- Talmadge, Eric. "AP Impact: Air Force insiders foresaw F-22 woes."[dead link] AP, 27 September 2012.
- Majumdar, Dave. "$24M Awarded to Find Cause of F-22 Oxygen Problem." Defense News, 26 October 2011.
- Ackerman, Spencer (24 July 2012). "Pentagon: Blame Tight Vests, Not Stealth Jets, for Choking Pilots". Wired. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Everstine, Brian. "Panetta approves plan to lift F-22 limits." Military Times, 24 July 2012.
- Military.com: Air Force Confident F-22 Oxygen Riddle Solved by Michael Hoffman, staff, 1 August 2012
- Fabey, Michael. "USAF Still Reviewing Oxygen Concentration Levels For F-22 Cockpit." Aerospace Daily & Defense Report, 12 October 2012.
- Yakey, Randal."Lockheed Martin gets additional $11.9 million for F-22 fixes." News Herald, 8 November 2012.
- Cox, Bob. "Air Force: We understand F-22 problems and fixing them." Star Telegram, 13 September 2012.
- Lessig, Hugh. "Taking a closer look at F-22 pilots." "HRmilitary.com, 3 December 2012. Retrieved: 3 December 2012.
- Axe, David (13 September 2012). "Stealth Fighter's Oxygen Woes Still A Mystery, Air Force Admits". Wired. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "H.A.S.C. No. 112-154] F-22 pilot physiological issues." Gpo.gov. Retrieved: 16 August 2013.
- Everstone, Brian (4 April 2013). "Flight Restrictions Lifted for F-22s with Auto Oxygen System". Defense News. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Air Combat Command Public Affairs (4 April 2013). "Air Force F-22 resumes normal flight operations". U.S. Air Force. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- Mowry, Laura (17 April 2013). "Edwards Airmen vital to Raptor's return". U.S. Air Force. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- Pace 1999, p. 28.
- Vartabedian, Ralph; Hennigan, W.J. (16 June 2013). "F-22 program produces few planes, soaring costs". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Tirpak, John A. "Long Arm of the Air Force." Air Force magazine, October 2002. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- Bolkcom, Christopher. "Air Force FB-22 Bomber Concept." Digital.library.unt.edu. Retrieved: 28 August 2011.
- "Quadrennial Defense Review Report". US Department of Defense, 6 February 2006. Retrieved: 28 August 2011.
- Hebert, Adam J. "The 2018 Bomber and Its Friends." Air Force magazine, October 2006. Retrieved: 31 August 2011.
- Jenkins, Dennis R., Tony Landis and Jay Miller. "Monographs in Aerospace History, No. 31: American X-Vehicles: An Inventory, X-1 to X-50." NASA, June 2003. Retrieved: 13 June 2010.
- "X-Planes Explained." at the Wayback Machine (archived October 15, 2007) NASAExplores.com, 9 October 2003. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- Dave Majumdar, Dave (30 November 2012). "How many Raptors does the USAF have left?". Flightglobal blogs. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
- DeMayo, Airman 1st Class Chase S. "Langley receives last Raptor, completes fleet." U.S. Air Force, 19 January 2007. Retrieved: 25 March 2008.
- "F-22A Raptor goes operational". U.S. Air Force. 15 December 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2008.
- "433d Weapons Squadron." U.S. Air Force. Retrieved: 5 April 2010.
- "43RD Fighter Squadron". U.S. Air Force. Retrieved 26 September 2010.
- "95th returns, New F-22 squadron reflects local, military history". U.S. Air Force. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
- Canfield, Tech. Sgt. Mikal (8 August 2007). "Elmendorf welcomes F-22 Raptor". U.S. Air Force. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- "19 FIGHTER SQUADRON (PACAF)". U.S. Air Force. Retrieved: 1 July 2014.
- Cole, William. "First Isle Guard F-22 Fighter Jet Arrives at Hickam." Honolulu Star Advertiser, 8 July 2010. Retrieved: 7 July 2010.
- "F-22 Timeline."[dead link] F-22 Team web site. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- Mount, Mike. "Nevada crash grounds F-22 fighters." CNN, 22 December 2004. Retrieved: 28 August 2011.
- "F-22 crashes in California desert near air base." Associated Press MSNBC, 25 March 2009. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- Perry, Tony. "Fighter jet crashes near Edwards Air Force Base." Los Angeles Times, 26 March 2009. Retrieved: 28 August 2011.
- Ostrower, Jon. "U.S. Air Force F-22 Raptor crashes in California." Flightglobal.com, 25 March 2009. Retrieved: 27 August 2011.
- "F-22 Crash Linked To G-Forces". The Washington Post, 5 August 2009, p. 2.
- USAF AIB Report on 25 March 2009 F-22A mishap. Retrieved: 31 May 2014.
- Shaughnessy, Larry (20 November 2010). "'Conclusive evidence' that F-22 pilot did not survive crash". CNN. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- Fontaine, Scott and Dave Majumdar. "Air Force grounds entire F-22 fleet." Military Times, 5 May 2011.
- USAF AIB Report on 16 November 2010 F-22A mishap. Retrieved: 1 July 2014.
- Bouboushian, Jack. "Pilot's Widow Calls F-22 Raptor Defective." Courthouse News Service, 12 March 2012.
- Majumdar, Dave (13 August 2012). "Settlement reached in Haney F-22 crash lawsuit". Flightglobal. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
- Hennigan, W. J., "Fatal Crash Leads To Change In F-22's Backup Oxygen System", Los Angeles Times, 20 March 2012, p. B1.
- DoD IG report on 16 November 2010 F-22A mishap AIB report.. Retrieved: 11 February 2013.
- "Safety paramount as F-22 investigation continues (press release)". U.S. Air Force. 16 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- Everstine, Brian. "Air Force: Faulty wire brought down F-22." Air Force Times, 19 August 2013. Retrieved: 16 August 2013.
- "Museum adds the world's first stealthy air dominance fighter to collection." National Museum of the U.S. Air Force. Retrieved: 23 July 2009.
- "Flight Test Data." F-22 Raptor team. Retrieved: 18 April 2006.
- "F-22 Raptor Specifications". Lockheed Martin. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "F-22 Technical Specs."[dead link] Boeing. Retrieved: 16 October 2011.
- Miller 2005, p. 108.
- Technical Order 00-105E-9, 1 February 2006, Revision 11, F/A-22. pp. 10–11.
- Miller 2005, pp. 94–100.
- Wild, Lee. "US quick to return for Chemring's flares." Sharecast.com, 26 March 2010. Retrieved: 26 September 2010.
- Aronstein, David C. and Michael J. Hirschberg. Advanced Tactical Fighter to F-22 Raptor: Origins of the 21st Century Air Dominance Fighter. Arlington, Virginia: AIAA (American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronomy), 1998. ISBN 978-1-56347-282-4.
- Crosby, Francis. Fighter Aircraft. London: Lorenz Books, 2002. ISBN 0-7548-0990-0.
- Goodall, James C. "The Lockheed YF-22 and Northrop YF-23 Advanced Tactical Fighters". America's Stealth Fighters and Bombers: B-2, F-117, YF-22 and YF-23. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1992. ISBN 0-87938-609-6.
- Holder, Bill and Mike Wallace. Lockheed-Martin F-22 Raptor: An Illustrated History (Schiffer Military/Aviation History). Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd, 1998. ISBN 978-0-76430-558-0.
- Jenkins, Dennis R. and Tony R. Landis. Experimental & Prototype U.S. Air Force Jet Fighters. North Branch, Minnesota: Specialty Press, 2008. ISBN 978-1-58007-111-6.
- Miller, Jay. Lockheed Martin F/A-22 Raptor, Stealth Fighter. Hinckley, UK: Midland Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-85780-158-X.
- Miller, Jay. Lockheed Martin's Skunk Works: The Official History... (updated edition). Leicester, UK: Midland Publishing, 1995. ISBN 1-85780-037-0.
- Pace, Steve. F-22 Raptor: America's Next Lethal War Machine. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999. ISBN 0 July 134271-0.
- Pace, Steve. X-Fighters: USAF Experimental and Prototype Fighters, XP-59 to YF-23. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1991. ISBN 0-87938-540-5.
- Polmar, Norman. The Naval Institute Guide to the Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2005. ISBN 978-1-59114-685-8
- Richardson, Doug. Stealth Warplanes. New York: Salamander Books Ltd, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1051-3.
- Spick, Mike. The Illustrated Directory of Fighters. London: Salamander, 2002. ISBN 1-84065-384-1.
- Sweetman, Bill. "Fighter EW: The Next Generation". Journal of Electronic Defense, Volume 23, Issue 7, July 2000.
- Williams, Mel (ed.). "Lockheed Martin F-22A Raptor". Superfighters: The Next Generation of Combat Aircraft. London: AIRtime Publishing Inc., 2002. ISBN 1-880588-53-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
- Official website
- F-22 page on GlobalSecurity.org
- F-22 Demo at 2007 Capital Airshow in Sacramento – with narrative by F-22 pilot Paul "Max" Moga