|Full name||Futebol Clube do Porto|
Azuis e Brancos (Blue and White)
|Founded||28 September 1893 (121 years ago)
as Foot-Ball Club do Porto
|Ground||Estádio do Dragão|
|President||Jorge Nuno Pinto da Costa|
|Head coach||Julen Lopetegui|
|Website||Club home page|
Futebol Clube do Porto, MHIH, OM (Portuguese pronunciation: [futeˈβɔɫ ˈkluβ(ɨ) ðu ˈpoɾtu]), also known as FC Porto or simply Porto, is a Portuguese sports club based in Porto. It is best known for its professional football team, which plays in the Primeira Liga, the top tier of the Portuguese football league system.
Founded on 28 September 1893, it is one of the "Big Three" (Portuguese: Três Grandes) teams in Portugal, together with Lisbon-based rivals Benfica and Sporting CP, which have competed in every season of the Primeira Liga since its establishment in 1934. The team is nicknamed Dragões (Dragons), for the mythological creature standing atop the club's crest, or Azuis e brancos (Blue and white), for the kit colours; their supporters are called Portistas. Since 2003, Porto have played its home games at the Estádio do Dragão, which replaced the previous 52-year-old ground, the Estádio das Antas.
Porto is one of the most successful Portuguese clubs in terms of overall titles, having won a total of 74 official titles. Domestically, Porto has won 27 Primeira Liga titles, five of which consecutively (between 1994–95 and 1998–99), a record in Portuguese football. Other national honours achieved by the club include the Taça de Portugal (16 times), the defunct Campeonato de Portugal (a record four times, along with Sporting CP) and the Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira (a record 20 times). Porto became the second team in Portuguese league history, after Benfica, to complete two 30-game seasons without defeats, namely in the 2010–11 and 2012–13 seasons. In the former, Porto achieved the largest difference of points ever between champion and runner-up (21 points) in a three-points-per-win system, on its way to a second quadruple.
Internationally, Porto won seven major titles: the European Cup/UEFA Champions League in 1987 and 2004, the UEFA Cup/Europa League in 2003 and 2011, the UEFA Super Cup in 1987, and the Intercontinental Cup in 1987 and 2004. It is the only Portuguese club to have won any of the last three competitions, and to have achieved a continental treble of domestic league, cup and European titles (2002–03 and 2010–11). In addition, Porto finished as runners-up at the 1983–84 European Cup Winners' Cup and the 2003, 2004 and 2011 editions of the UEFA Super Cup.
- 1 History
- 2 Crest and kit
- 3 Grounds
- 4 Rivalries
- 5 Records and statistics
- 6 Honours
- 7 Players
- 8 Personnel
- 9 Organisation
- 10 Media
- 11 Other sports
- 12 Footnotes
- 13 References
- 14 Bibliography
- 15 External links
Early years (1893–1921)
The club was founded on 28 September 1893 as Foot-Ball Club do Porto by António Nicolau de Almeida, a local port wine merchant and avid sportsman, who became fascinated with football during his trips to England. Porto played its first matches with other Portuguese clubs, including one against Lisbon's Foot-Ball Club Lisbonense on 2 March 1894. This match had the patronage of King Carlos I and Queen Amélie of Orléans, who traveled to Porto to witness the event and present a trophy to the winners.
Almeida's enthusiasm and involvement with the club waned due to family pressure, and by the turn of the century, Porto had entered a period of inactivity. In 1906, José Monteiro da Costa returned to Porto after finishing his studies in England. Like Almeida, thirteen years before, he was also captivated by the English game, and together with some associates, decided to reintroduce the practice of football in the city, outside of the British circles. On 2 August 1906, Porto was revived and Monteiro da Costa appointed its president. Although football was the driving force, the club also promoted other sports, including gymnastics, weightlifting and wrestling, athletics and swimming. Shortly after, Porto rented its first ground and recruited a French coach named Adolphe Cassaigne, who would stay in the club until 1925.
On 15 December 1907, Porto played its first match against a foreign team, hosting Spain's Real Fortuna. In the following month, Porto returned the visit and played its first match abroad. Four years later, the club won the inaugural staging of the Taça José Monteiro da Costa, securing its first-ever official title. In 1912, Porto joined efforts with Leixões to establish the Porto Football Association, which began organising the regional championship in the following year. Porto finished the first season as runners-up, behind local rivals Boavista, but in the following season the club won its first championship. By the end of the 1920–21 season, Porto had been regional champions six times in seven years, and outright winners of the Taça José Monteiro da Costa, after claiming a third consecutive victory in 1916.
First national titles and drought years (1921–1977)
The 1921–22 season was marked by the creation of the first nationwide football competition – the Campeonato de Portugal. Organised by the national federation, this knockout tournament gathered the winners of the different regional championships to determine the Portuguese champion. After clinching its fourth consecutive regional title, Porto defeated Sporting CP in the inaugural edition and became the first national champions. While a dominant regional force,[a] the club faced stronger opposition in the national championship, winning it only three more times in a span of sixteen years (1925, 1932 and 1937). In 1933–34, Porto was denied participation in the Campeonato de Portugal by its football association for refusing to release players for a match between the Porto and Lisbon regional teams.
In the following season, a second nationwide competition named "Campeonato da Primeira Liga" (English: Premier League Championship), or simply Primeira Liga, was provisionally established by the national federation to increase the number of matches per season and improve the competitiveness of Portuguese football. As the regional champion, Porto qualified for the first edition of the new round-robin competition, winning it with 10 victories in 14 matches. Due to the success of its format, the Primeira Liga was made an official championship competition for the 1938–39 season – its name changed to "Campeonato Nacional da Primeira Divisão" (English: First Division National Championship) or simply Primeira Divisão – and replaced the Campeonato de Portugal, which in turn was converted into the Taça de Portugal, the main domestic cup competition. Porto won the inaugural edition of the new league championship and successfully defended the title in the next season, despite almost failing to take part.[b] The club failed to secure a third consecutive title, and after nearly missing again a place in the Primeira Divisão in 1941–42,[c] it would only return to a top-three finish in the 1946–47 season. In 1948, Porto defeated English champions Arsenal 3–2 in a friendly match. To commemorate this victory, the associates offered the club a massive trophy made of 250 kg (550 lb) of silver and wood – the Arsenal Cup.
Having endured a 16-year title drought period, Porto returned to winning ways by taking the 1955–56 Primeira Divisão on head-to-head advantage over runners-up Benfica. Later that season, Porto beat Torreense to win its first Taça de Portugal and achieve its first double. As the Portuguese league winner, Porto made its debut in European competitions by qualifying for the 1956–57 European Cup. The club's first participation was short-lived, ending in the preliminary round with two defeats against Spanish champions Athletic Bilbao. A year later, Porto lifted its second Taça de Portugal by beating Benfica 1–0 in the final. The two clubs met again in the following season's final, but this time Benfica took the trophy and denied a second double for Porto, who had won the 1958–59 Primeira Divisão three months before.
Shortly after, the club entered another lacklustre period of its history, the highest point of which was a victory in the 1968 Taça de Portugal final. During this time, Porto achieved its worst-ever league classification, a ninth place in 1969–70, while its best league record consisted of six runner-up finishes (four consecutive between 1961–62 and 1964–65). In European competitions, the club participated for the first time in the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup (and its successor, the UEFA Cup) and in the Cup Winners' Cup, without getting past the third round. One of the club's most tragic moments occurred on 16 December 1973, when during a league match against Vitória de Setúbal, 26-year-old captain Pavão fell unconscious on the pitch and died later at the hospital. The following month, Porto presented Peruvian international Teófilo Cubillas, who became one of the club's most successful players, scoring 65 goals in 108 games.
International affirmation (1977–1988)
The return of José Maria Pedroto – a former Porto player and head coach in the late 1960s – in the 1976–77 season started a new chapter in the club's history. Responsible for the previous cup triumph in 1968, Pedroto guided Porto to its fourth title in the competition. In the following season, he put an end to Porto's league title drought, winning the championship 19 years after having played in the team that took the last title. Internationally, Porto reached the quarter-finals of the 1977–78 Cup Winners' Cup, beating Manchester United along the way, but suffered its heaviest defeat (6–1) against AEK Athens in the subsequent season's European Cup. A poor run of performances in the latter part of the season – resulting in the loss of the league and cup titles – sparked a conflict between the technical staff and president Américo de Sá, which ended with the resignation of Pedroto and his replacement by Hermann Stessl. In December 1981, Porto overcame Benfica to win the inaugural staging of the Portuguese Super Cup, the Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira.
Pedroto returned in April 1982 by the hand of the club's newly elected president Jorge Nuno Pinto da Costa, who had resigned as director of football, two years before, in solidarity with the coach. The previous month, Porto fell again in the Cup Winners' Cup quarter-finals against one of the eventual finalists, but needed only two years to finally reach the competition's final. On 16 May 1984, Porto played its first major European final in Basel's St. Jakob Stadium, losing 2–1 to Michel Platini's Juventus. Already without Pedroto, who stepped down due to illness, Porto won that season's Taça and Supertaça but lost the championship to Benfica. Under the steering of Pedroto's apprentice, Artur Jorge, the following season brought the Primeira Divisão title back to the club and crowned homegrown striker Fernando Gomes as Europe's top goalscorer for the second time, after first taking the award in 1983.
Porto retained the league title in 1986, securing an entry to the 1986–87 European Cup. In the first game, the club recorded its biggest win in European competitions: 9–0 against Maltese side Rabat Ajax. Vítkovice of Czechoslovakia, Brøndby of Denmark, and Dynamo Kyiv of the Soviet Union were successively eliminated as Porto advanced to its first European Cup final, against Bayern Munich. Trailing the Germans 1–0 until the 79th minute, Porto scored twice in two minutes – the first goal through a famous backheel from former Algerian international Rabah Madjer, who assisted Juary for the second – to secure a surprising win and the European Cup title.
The following season, under new coach Tomislav Ivic, the club completed a treble of international trophies by beating Ajax for the 1987 European Super Cup and Uruguay's Peñarol for the 1987 Intercontinental Cup. The 1987–88 season was one of the most successful for the club, who also won the Taça de Portugal and an expanded 20-team Primeira Divisão with a record number of goals scored (88) and distance in points to the runners-up (15).[d]
Tri, Tetra, Penta (1988–2001)
In contrast to the previous season, Porto failed to win a trophy in 1988–89, with many of its players struck down with injuries, such as Madjer and Gomes. Fifteen years after his first-team debut, Gomes made his last season for Porto, where he became the all-time top goalscorer with 352 goals in 455 matches. The club brought back Artur Jorge, who recovered the Primeira Divisão title in the following season and added the Taça and Supertaça trophies in 1991. His successor, Brazilian Carlos Alberto Silva, won back-to-back league titles in two seasons and qualified Porto for the first UEFA Champions League.
Midway through the 1993–94 season, Porto hired former England manager Bobby Robson, who had been sacked by Sporting CP. The club closed the gap to league winners Benfica, reached the 1993–94 UEFA Champions League semi-finals and ended the season with a victory over Sporting CP in the Taça de Portugal final. In Robson's first full season, Porto claimed the 1994–95 Primeira Divisão title with a win at Sporting CP's ground and played Benfica four times to secure both the 1993 and 1994 stagings of the Supertaça. The beginning of the season had been clouded by the death of 26-year-old midfielder Rui Filipe, who had scored the club's first league goal. Robson's increasing health problems barred him from leading Porto in the first months of the 1995–96 season, but he returned in time to revalidate the league title. Striker Domingos Paciência became the club's top goalscorer for the second consecutive time and won that season's Bola de Prata, the last win by a Portuguese player.
To fill the void left by the departure of Robson for Barcelona, Porto hired former club captain and Portugal national team manager António Oliveira. Under his command, Porto made history by winning a third consecutive league title (the Tri) for the first time, leaving the runners-up at distance of 13 points. The club's eighth Supertaça win over Benfica was achieved with a solid performance at the Estádio da Luz that resulted in a 5–0 scoreline. The arrival of Brazilian players Artur and Mário Jardel proved highly productive in the 1996–97 UEFA Champions League, as their goals helped Porto beat Milan in Italy and win its group without defeats. In addition, Jardel would win the first of four consecutive Bola de Prata awards while at Porto. In Oliveira's second and last season at the club, Porto won the Primeira Divisão for the fourth straight season (the Tetra), matching Sporting CP's achievement in the early 1950s, and secured its third double after beating Braga in the 1998 Taça de Portugal final.
For the 1998–99 season, Porto tasked Portuguese coach Fernando Santos with winning the club's fifth successive Primeira Divisão title (the Penta) – a Portuguese football record. He accomplished this feat, becoming thereafter known as the "Penta engineer" (a pun to his academic degree), and saw Jardel's 36 goals win him the European Golden Shoe. Porto lost the chance to win its sixth straight league title, after finishing four points behind 1999–2000 Primeira Liga champions Sporting, but overcame them to lift its tenth Taça de Portugal trophy. Despite winning the Portuguese cup for the second time in two years, continued failure to retake the league title led to the resignation of Santos at the end of the 2000–01 season.
Mourinho's golden years (2001–2004)
The appointment of former club player and assistant coach Octávio Machado to head Porto back to the league title appeared to pay off as the team began the season with a Supertaça win against the 2000–01 Primeira Liga winners, Boavista. However, this would be the only major achievement in a lacklustre season that would culminate with a third place in the league classification – the lowest in 20 years. The elimination from the 2001–02 Taça de Portugal, four days after losing away for the Primeira Liga, precipitated the sacking of Machado after 36 matches in charge.
Two days later, Porto signed União de Leiria's coach, José Mourinho, who had previously worked in the club alongside Robson. In his presentation, Mourinho promptly showcased his personality by stating unequivocally that the club would win next season's league title. He kept true to his promise and delivered one of the club's most successful seasons. Fielding the likes of Deco, Ricardo Carvalho, Maniche, and less known players hired from other Portuguese clubs, such as Paulo Ferreira, Pedro Emanuel, Nuno Valente and Derlei, Porto won the 2002–03 Primeira Liga with relative comfort, finishing 11 points ahead of second-placed Benfica. The club also won the UEFA Cup, defeating Celtic in a dramatic extra-time final, to win its second major European title. Mourinho then secured an unprecedented treble for Porto by winning the Taça de Portugal final against his previous club.
The 2003–04 season began with another 1–0 win over União de Leiria, which gave the club its 13th Supertaça. Weeks later, Porto failed to repeat this result in the 2003 UEFA Super Cup, losing 1–0 to Milan. The departure of striker Hélder Postiga was compensated by the signing of South Africa's Benni McCarthy, whose 20 league goals helped Porto in its league title defence and crowned him the competition's top scorer. Confident with his team, Mourinho entered the 2003–04 UEFA Champions League. Porto finished second in its group, losing only once to Real Madrid, and advanced to a round-of-16 meeting with Manchester United. Porto scored on the 90th minute of the second leg at Old Trafford to draw 1–1 and advance to the quarter-finals with a 3–2 aggregate win. The team then overcame Lyon and Deportivo La Coruña and reached the Champions League final, where it defeated Monaco 3–0 to lift the club's second European Champion Clubs' Cup. A 2–1 loss to Benfica in the Taça de Portugal final, held 10 days before, prevented another treble-winning season.
Life after Mourinho (2004–2010)
The successful European performances of Mourinho's Porto projected the image of the coach and players like Carvalho, Ferreira and Deco, all of whom left the club in the aftermath of the Champions League victory. The following season was an atypical one, as the club had three different coaches: Luigi Delneri,[e] Víctor Fernández and José Couceiro. Under Férnandez, Porto won the 2004 Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira and the 2004 Intercontinental Cup, but lost the 2004 UEFA Super Cup to Valencia and was eliminated prematurely in the 2004–05 Taça de Portugal. Recording only 17 wins in 34 matches, Porto lost the Primeira Liga title to Benfica by three points. During this period, the club was involved in corruption scandal Apito Dourado.
In 2005–06, Dutch coach Co Adriaanse was picked to reorganise the team and return the club to the top of Portuguese football. His tactical discipline and the contribution of new signings Lucho González and Lisandro López led the club to not only retake the Primeira Liga title but also secure its fifth domestic double, after beating holders Vitória de Setúbal in the Taça de Portugal final. Adriaanse's domestic success did not transfer to the Champions League, as Porto finished in the bottom of its group.
The club began the 2006–07 season with a new coach, Jesualdo Ferreira, signed from neighbours Boavista. Before Ferreira assumed his role, Porto won the season-opening Supertaça, with former club player Rui Barros acting as interim coach. An experienced head coach, Ferreira had never achieved major club level success, but in his first season in Porto he became national champion for the first time. The 2006–07 Primeira Liga title was only secured in a frantic final day, as Porto finished one point above Sporting and two above Benfica. In the following season, the club achieved the Tri for the second time in its history – with López clinching the top goalscorer award –, but lost the Taça and Supertaça finals to Sporting CP. As result of a legal investigation on match fixing in Portuguese football, Porto was punished with the loss of six points, which did not affect its final league classification.
Having claimed a sixth league and cup double in the 2008–09 season, Porto was on course to emulate the Penta of the late 1990s, but the series was broken by Benfica in the following season. Although Ferreira won his first Supertaça and defended the Taça de Portugal title, the team's failure to claim a fifth consecutive league – finishing third, outside the Champions League-qualifying places – and a heavy defeat against Benfica in the final of the Taça da Liga contributed to his resignation at the end of the season. A home win against Benfica prevented the rivals from celebrating the league title at the Estádio do Dragão. Under Ferreira's steering, Porto always qualified for the Champions League knockout stage, reaching the quarter-finals in 2008–09, where it was eliminated by holders Manchester United.
Villas-Boas and recent years (2010–present)
The arrival of Mourinho's former assistant André Villas-Boas, in the spring of 2010, set the stage to a highly successful 2010–11 season, which began with a 2–0 victory over Benfica for the Supertaça. Spearheaded by João Moutinho, Silvestre Varela, Falcao and Hulk (the Bola de Prata winner), Porto performed strongly in the Primeira Liga and assured its 25th title with five matches to play, after beating Benfica in its stadium. In addition, the club broke a number of records: biggest distance between champions and runners-up (21 points), most consecutive league wins (16) and highest percentage of points in a 30-game season (93.33%), dropping only six points and finishing the league without defeats, for the first time in its history. Eight years after the 2003 triumph, Porto returned to the UEFA Cup (renamed UEFA Europa League) and reached the final in Dublin's Aviva Stadium. In an all-Portuguese affair, Porto beat Braga with a goal from the competition's top goalscorer Falcao and lifted the trophy for the second time, as Villas-Boas became the youngest UEFA competition-winning coach. Four days later, Porto won its third consecutive Taça de Portugal with a convincing 6–2 scoreline, securing their fourth trophy of the season.
As Villas-Boas left for Chelsea, Porto recruited the services of his assistant, Vítor Pereira. For the third straight year, the club began the season with another Supertaça title, which was followed by a 2–0 loss to Barcelona for the 2011 UEFA Super Cup. Although lacking the goalscoring prolificacy of Falcao (sold to Atlético Madrid), Porto was able to revalidate the Primeira Liga title, but was eliminated prematurely from the Taça and Champions League competitions. Transferred to the Europa League, Porto failed to defend its title after being knocked out by Manchester City. In the following season, the club went a stage further in both domestic cup competitions and in the Champions League, where it fell to Málaga in the last-16 round. In the 2012–13 Primeira Liga, Porto reduced the distance to leaders Benfica to two points, before hosting them in the penultimate matchday. In a dramatic turn of events, Porto won with a goal in stoppage time and moved to the top of the league table. An away victory in the last game confirmed the Tri and Porto's 27th league title – the second without defeats.
Porto entered the 2013–14 season with a new head coach – Paulo Fonseca, signed from 2012–13 Primeira Liga third-placed Paços de Ferreira – but continued the trend of the previous four seasons by winning the Supertaça. This title would be the highlight of the season, as the club underperformed in every other competition it was involved. In the league, Porto led with five points over its pursuers, but a series of compromising results pushed the club down to third place, resulting in the sacking of Fonseca. Failing to overcome the Champions League group stage, Porto reached the Europa League quarter-finals, where they lost to the eventual winners Sevilla. In the following weeks, two semi-final losses against Benfica closed the doors to the finals of the Taça de Portugal and Taça da Liga.
Crest and kit
|Period||Kit manufacturer||Shirt partner[f]|
The club's first crest was created in 1910 and consisted of an old blue football with white seams bearing the club name's initials in white. On 26 October 1922, the crest was changed to its present-day appearance after the club approved a design by Augusto Baptista Ferreira (nicknamed "Simplício"), a graphical artist and one of the club's players. In his proposal, the city's coat of arms – consisting at the time of a quartered shield (first and fourth quadrants: national arms; second and third quadrants: image of Our Lady holding baby Jesus and flanked by two towers holding above a banner with the Latin words "Civitas Virginis") surrounded by the collar of the Order of the Tower and Sword and topped by a crown supporting a green dragon with a red banner inscribed with "Invicta" (Undefeated [city]) – was added on top of the old crest, pushing the white letters down.
In 1906, the club's first official team wore kits with a variety of colors and patterns, which included white shirts with red collars or vertical blue stripes, and even red shirts. This indefinition in the equipment was only solved in 1909, when through the initiative of Monteiro da Costa, Porto stipulated in its first statutes that the players had to use "a shirt with blue vertical stripes, black shorts, and personal footwear" as the club's uniform, at every training and match. Some argued that the kit should have included the city colours, green and white. Monteiro da Costa, however, defended the blue-and-white combination because he believed the colors "should be those of the country's flag, and not of the city's flag", hoping that the club would "not only defend the good name of the city, but also that of Portugal, in sporting feuds against foreigners."
In 1975, Adidas became the first sports apparel manufacturers to provide kits for the club. Eight years later, Porto became the first Portuguese team to have a shirt partner, after signing a sponsorship deal with Revigrés for 10 million escudos per year. This deal lasted for 20 years, with successive renovations, after which the national communications corporation Portugal Telecom (PT) became the new shirt sponsors. Still, Revigrés remain as one of the club's main partners and longest-serving collaborators.
The club's first ground was the Campo da Rainha (Queen's Field), inaugurated in 1906 with an exhibition game against Boavista. The site was located near the residence of Monteiro da Costa and was the property of the city's horticultural society. Aided by his father, a horticultor by profession, Monteiro da Costa rented a portion (30 by 50 meters) of uncultivated terrain to create the first dedicated football pitch in the country. Later that year, the society's vivaria were transferred to another location, allowing Porto to increase the pitch area to match the sport's official dimensions. The ground had capacity for 600 people, including a VIP tribune, and possessed a changing room equipped with showers and sinks, a bar and a gym. The first match between Porto and a foreign team took place at the Campo da Raínha, on 15 December 1907, when the hosts played Spanish side Real Fortuna.
By 1911, the Campo da Raínha was becoming too small for the growing attendances. After being notified about the sale of the ground for construction of a factory, the club searched for a new ground and rented a terrain near the Constituição street for an annual fee of 350$00. The Campo da Constituição (Constitution Field) was opened in January 1913 with a match against Oporto Cricket and Lawn Tennis Club and hosted Porto's home matches for the regional championship. Eventually, the larger capacity of this ground also became insufficient for the ever-increasing crowds attending the games, particularly against high-profile opponents. On several occasions, between the 1920s and 1940s, Porto played host to matches at the Campo do Ameal (Ameal Field) or the Estádio do Lima (Lima Stadium), home of local rivals Sport Progresso and Académico, respectively. It was in the latter ground that the club achieved their most important victory at the time, as they beat English champions Arsenal 3–2 in a friendly match on 7 May 1948.
In 1933, Porto approved a plan to build a new stadium to accommodate and meet the demands of larger attendances, but the project only moved forward with the purchase of 48,000 square metres (12 acres) of land in the eastern side of the city in 1947. Designed by Portuguese architects Oldemiro Carneiro and Aires de Sá, the construction of the Estádio do Futebol Clube do Porto – better known as Estádio das Antas (Antas Stadium) for the neighbourhood where it was built – began in January 1950, one month after the first stone was symbolically laid. Two years later, on 28 May 1952, the stadium was inaugurated with a ceremony, featuring the presence of the President of the Republic Francisco Craveiro Lopes, and a match against Benfica, which Porto lost 2–8. The stadium's initial layout had an open east sector (Marathon Door), which was closed in 1976 with the construction of a two-tier stand that raised the capacity to 70,000. In 1986, works to lower the pitch and build an additional tier in the place of the athletics and cycling track were concluded, setting the capacity to a new maximum of 95,000. As stadium safety regulations became stricter during the following decade, the placing of individual seats brought the capacity of the Estádio das Antas down to 55,000 by 1997.
The awarding of the UEFA Euro 2004 hosting rights to Portugal in 1999 was the perfect opportunity for Porto to move into a more modern, functional and comfortable stadium, in line with the demands of high-level international football. The club decided to build an entirely new ground and chose a site located a few hundreds of meters southeast of the Estádio das Antas. The project was commissioned to Portuguese architect Manuel Salgado, and construction took two years to complete at a cost of €98 million. Baptised Estádio do Dragão (Dragon Stadium) by president Pinto da Costa, for the mythological creature placed atop the club's crest, it was officially inaugurated on 16 November 2003 with a match against Barcelona. Porto won 2–0 in front of a record 52,000 spectators, which also witnessed the professional debut of Lionel Messi. In June 2004, the venue hosted the opening ceremony and match of the UEFA Euro 2004, and four other tournament matches. The highest attendance in an official match was registered on 21 April 2004, when 50,818 people saw Porto draw Deportivo La Coruña without goals, for the first leg of the 2003–04 UEFA Champions League semi-finals. For safety reasons, its current capacity is limited to 50,431.
The FC Porto Museum was inaugurated on 28 September 2013, on occasion of the club's 120th anniversary. The museum includes an auditorium, a club store, a coffeehouse, and spaces for educational services and temporary exhibitions.
Porto's biggest rivalries are with the other Big Three members and regular league title contenders, Benfica and Sporting CP. They stem from the historical, political, economical and cultural clash between the cities of Porto and Lisbon, where the other two clubs are based. These rivalries became more intense in the past decades, particularly since Pinto da Costa assumed Porto's presidency in 1982 and adopted a regionalistic and confrontational speech towards Lisbon. In the following years, the club began establishing its dominance in Portuguese football, at the expense of Benfica and Sporting, who had been the traditional powers since the 1940s.
The rivalry with Benfica is the strongest and most passionate, opposing the most representative football emblems from each city as well as the current most titled Portuguese clubs. The first match between Porto and Benfica – traditionally referred to as O Clássico (The Classic) – took place on 28 April 1912, and ended with a 2–8 win for Benfica; Porto's first victory (3–2) came only in 1920. As of 10 May 2014, the clubs have faced each other in 230 competitive matches, which have resulted in 89 wins for Porto, 86 for Benfica and 56 draws.
The first meeting between Porto and Sporting CP occurred on 30 November 1919, during a friendly tournament organised by Porto. Their first official encounter was in the first leg of the final of the inaugural Campeonato de Portugal in 1922, which Porto won 2–1 en route to its first national title. Since then, the clubs have met in a total of 218 official matches, with 79 wins for Porto, 77 for Sporting CP and 62 draws.
Records and statistics
Former defender João Pinto holds the record for most matches played in all competitions (587) and in the Primeira Liga (407), while former goalkeeper Vitor Baía has the most appearances in international competitions (99). Baía is also the most titled player, having won 25 trophies during his career in Porto. Portuguese striker Fernando Gomes is the all-time club goalscorer in all competitions (352), having also scored the most league goals (288). In European competitions, Porto's record goalscorer is Radamel Falcao, with 22 goals.
José Maria Pedroto is the longest-serving coach, having taken charge of the team for 327 matches in a total of nine seasons, while Jesualdo Ferreira became the first Portuguese coach to win three consecutive league titles (2006–2009). André Villas-Boas's victorious campaign in the 2010–11 UEFA Europa League made him the youngest coach ever to win a European competition.
The 2010–11 season was particularly strong in record achievements. Porto played the most matches (58) and secured the most wins (49) and highest winning percentage (84.4%). For the league, it had the most consecutive wins (16) and suffered the fewest defeats (none). In Europe, the club won the most matches (14 in 17) and scored the most goals (44) en route to the UEFA Europa League title – one of a record-matching four.
|Season||Rank||Pld||W||D||L||GS||GA||Pts||Top scorer(s) in league||Goals||TP||TL||ST||UCL||UEL||Other competitions|
|2004–05||2nd||34||17||11||6||39||26||62||Benni McCarthy||11||R32||Not held||W||R16||–||UEFA Super Cup||RU|
|2011–12||1st||30||23||6||1||69||19||75||Hulk||16||R32||SF||W||GS||R32||UEFA Super Cup||RU|
- Last updated: 28 April 2014
- Rank = Rank in Primeira Liga; Pld = Matches played; W = Wins; D = Draws; L = Losses; GS = Goal scored; GA = Goal against; Pts = Points;
- TP = Taça de Portugal (Portuguese Cup); TL = Taça da Liga (Portuguese League Cup); ST = Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira (Portuguese Super Cup); UCL = UEFA Champions League; UEL = UEFA Europa League
- GS = Group stage; QF = Quarter-finals; R16 = Round of 16; R32 = Round of 32; R64 = Round of 64; RU = Runner-up; SF = Semi-finals; W = Winner
As of the end of the 2013–14 season, Porto had 74 official titles in senior football. Domestically, it has won 27 Primeira Liga, 16 Taça de Portugal, and a record 4 Campeonato de Portugal and 20 Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira trophies. Porto is also Portugal's leading team in international competitions, having won 2 European Cup/UEFA Champions League, 2 UEFA Cup/UEFA Europa League, 1 UEFA Super Cup and 2 Intercontinental Cup titles. It is the only Portuguese club to have won any of the last three competitions.
On two occasions, Porto has won four titles in a single season: in 1987–88 (UEFA Super Cup, Intercontinental Cup, Primeira Liga and Taça de Portugal) and in 2010–11 (Supertaça, Primeira Liga, UEFA Europa League and Taça de Portugal), which also included the club's second continental treble, after its first in 2002–03 (Primeira Liga, Taça de Portugal and UEFA Cup).
- Winners (27): 1934–35, 1938–39, 1939–40, 1955–56, 1958–59, 1977–78, 1978–79, 1984–85, 1985–86, 1987–88, 1989–90, 1991–92, 1992–93, 1994–95, 1995–96, 1996–97, 1997–98, 1998–99, 2002–03, 2003–04, 2005–06, 2006–07, 2007–08, 2008–09, 2010–11, 2011–12, 2012–13
- Runners-up (24): 1935–36, 1937–38, 1940–41, 1950–51, 1953–54, 1956–57, 1957–58, 1961–62, 1962–63, 1963–64, 1964–65, 1968–69, 1974–75, 1979–80, 1980–81, 1982–83, 1983–84, 1986–87, 1988–89, 1990–91, 1993–94, 1999–2000, 2000–01, 2004–05
- Winners (16): 1955–56, 1957–58, 1967–68, 1976–77, 1983–84, 1987–88, 1990–91, 1993–94, 1997–98, 1999–2000, 2000–01, 2002–03, 2005–06, 2008–09, 2009–10, 2010–11
- Runners-up (12): 1952–53, 1958–59, 1960–61, 1963–64, 1977–78, 1979–80, 1980–81, 1982–83, 1984–85, 1991–92, 2003–04, 2007–08
- Winners (20) (record): 1981, 1983, 1984, 1986, 1990, 1991, 1993, 1994, 1996, 1998, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013
- Runners-up (9): 1979, 1985, 1988, 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2007, 2008
- Runners-up (1): 1983–84
- As of 3 February 2015
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Out on loan
Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
|Head coach||Julen Lopetegui|
|Assistant coach|| Julián Calero
Juan Carlos Martínez
|Goalkeeping coach||Juan Carlos Arévalo|
|Fitness coach||Raul Costa|
|Nurse|| Eduardo Braga
José Mário Almeida
|Doctor|| Nélson Puga
José Carlos Esteves
|Medical team|| Paulo Colaço
|Director of football||Antero Henrique|
Last updated: 12 July 2014
Source: Technical and medical teams (Portuguese)
|President||Pinto da Costa|
Álvaro Pinto Júnior
Vitor Hugo Silva
|President of general assembly||Fernando Pinto|
|President of audit committee||José Paulo Almeida|
Last updated: 24 April 2014
Source: Social organs (Portuguese)
After going public in 1997, Porto created several satellite companies:
- FC Porto – youth football, basketball, handball, roller hockey, athletics, club's magazine, etc.
- FC Porto – Futebol SAD (professional football companie); SAD stands for Sociedade Anónima Desportiva
- Porto Estádio (stadium management)
- Porto Multimédia (official site and multimedia products)
- Porto Comercial (merchandising)
- Porto Seguro (insurance)
The FCPorto SAD is listed in the Euronext Lisbon stock exchange.
Porto Canal is a television station managed by Porto, which airs generalist, regional and club-related programming. This includes live broadcast of the home matches of the football reserve and youth teams, as well as of the senior basketball, handball and roller hockey teams. The channel is available through cable, satellite and IPTV. On 27 March 2015 and after almost four years managing the channel, president Pinto da Costa announced the actual purchase of the same by the club.
The club also issues Dragões, an official monthly magazine that publishes articles and interviews of the teams, players and other club-related content.
- Porto won the regional championship consecutively between 1918 and 1939.
- An administrative battle arose between Porto and Académico after a 1939–40 regional championship match between both clubs, which ended prematurely due to numerical inferiority of Porto's team, was repeated by decision of the Porto FA and won by Porto. To solve this situation, the Portuguese Football Federation decided to annul the result from the repetition match – causing Porto to lose the regional title to Leixões and finish in the third place, behind Académico. However, the Federation also decided to expand the Primeira Divisão from eight to ten teams, accepting an additional team from the Porto and Setúbal FAs, which resulted in the top-three teams from the Porto regional championship qualifying for the 1939–40 Primeira Divisão.
- Before the 1941–42 season, the federation decided to expand the Primeira Divisão to ten teams, to admit the Braga FA and Algarve FA champions, for the first time. That season, Porto finished the regional championship in third place, which did not grant entry into the Primeira Divisão. However, after consulting every district football association and receiving no opposition to the idea, the federation approved a new expansion of the top-tier league, to twelve teams, which enabled the club to participate.
- Until the 1995–96 season, league wins were worth two points.
- Delneri never took charge of the team in a competitive match; he was sacked before the start of the season, two months after signing for Porto.
- Only home shirt partner shown.
- Porto were deducted six points due to suspicion on attempted bribery of referees in the 2003–04 season (Pinto da Costa denied it and after the trial the club was absolved).
- Record shared with Sporting CP.
- "Estádio do Dragão – História" (in Portuguese). FC Porto.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 147.
- "Cidadãos nacionais agraciados com Ordens Portuguesas" (in Portuguese). Presidency of the Portuguese Republic. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
- Tovar 2011, pp. 9–10.
- "FC Porto". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- "Clubs – FC Porto". FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
- Martins, Paulo (15 September 2004). "Taça D. Carlos I 1894". RSSSF.com. Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 11.
- Pereira da Silva, Joaquim (1 March 1926). O Tripeiro (in Portuguese) (5). p. 113. Missing or empty
- Bandeira 2012, pp. 40, 81.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 164.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 73.
- Martins, Paulo; Nunes, João (26 June 2004). "Taça José Monteiro da Costa". RSSSF.com. Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 70.
- Tovar 2011, p. 37.
- Martins, Paulo; Nunes, João (26 June 2004). "Campeonato do Porto (Oporto Championship)". RSSSF.com. Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- Tovar 2011, pp. 49–50.
- "História". FPF.pt (in Portuguese). Portuguese Football Federation. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- Claro, Paulo (15 May 2004). "Campeonato de Portugal 1921–1938". RSSSF.com. Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 22 June 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 89.
- Tovar 2011, p. 92.
- Teixeira, Jorge Miguel (11 August 1999). "Portugal 1934–35". RSSSF.com. Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 96.
- Tovar 2011, p. 121.
- Stadium Newspaper, 10 January 1940
- Tovar 2011, p. 136.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 22.
- Tovar 2011, pp. 219–222.
- Claro, Paulo (22 May 2014). "Portugal – List of Cup Winners". RSSSF.com. Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 224.
- "UEFA Champions League 1956–57". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 236.
- Tovar 2011, p. 304.
- Claro, Paulo (15 May 2014). "Portugal – List of champions". RSSSF.com. Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- "FC Porto – History". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 330.
- Marques Simões, Rui (13 September 2009). "FC Porto–Setúbal à jornada 13: é dia de lembrar Pavão" [FC Porto–Setúbal on matchday 13: a day to remember Pavão]. dn.pt (in Portuguese). Diário de Notícias. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 655.
- Tovar 2011, p. 349.
- Tovar 2011, p. 355.
- "1977/78: Two out of three for Anderlecht". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- Tovar 2011, pp. 368, 377.
- Claro, Paulo (15 August 2013). "Portugal – List of Super Cup winners". RSSSF.com. Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 391.
- "1981/82: Home sweet home for Barcelona". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "1983/84: Star-studded Juventus make their mark". UEFA.com. Union European Football Associations. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 398.
- Tovar 2011, pp. 391, 406.
- "Golden Shoe". European Sports Media. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- "Classic Players – Madjer the magnificent". FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- "1986/87: Madjer inspires Porto triumph". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- "1987: Sousa makes sure for Porto". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- "Madjer lobs Porto to glory in the snow". FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 13 December 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 428.
- Tovar 2011, p. 436.
- Bandeira 2012, pp. 21, 176.
- Tovar 2011, pp. 444, 453.
- Tovar 2011, pp. 462, 470.
- "UEFA Champions League 1992/93". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 478.
- Tovar 2011, p. 486.
- Tovar 2011, pp. 494, 501–502.
- Tovar 2011, pp. 503, 510.
- "UEFA Champions League 1996/97 – History – Standings". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 511.
- "Fernando Santos deixa selecção da Grécia após o Mundial do Brasil" [Fernando Santos leaves the Greek national football team after the World Cup in Brazil] (in Portuguese). Público. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 519.
- Tovar 2011, p. 527.
- Tovar 2011, p. 539.
- Tovar 2011, pp. 548–556.
- "Mourinho ready for Porto challenge". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. 23 January 2002. Retrieved 30 June 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 557.
- "2002/03: Mourinho makes his mark". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. 1 June 2003. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
- "2003: Shevchenko steals the show". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 561.
- "UEFA Champions League 2003/04 – History". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- "Mourinho checks in at Chelsea". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. 3 June 2004. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- Burt, Jason (28 July 2004). "Chelsea sign Carvalho from Porto in £20m deal". The Independent. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- "Chelsea to sign Ferreira". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 23 June 2004. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- "Chelsea sign Barca playmaker Deco". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 30 June 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- "Porto dump coach Del Neri". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 7 August 2004. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- Tovar 2011, pp. 575–582.
- Tovar 2011, p. 583.
- "UEFA Champions League 2005/06 – History – Standings". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 591.
- "Jesualdo Ferreira". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. 1 June 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 597.
- Tovar 2011, p. 598.
- "Apito Final – FC Porto perde seis pontos, Pinto da Costa suspenso por dois anos, Boavista despromovido" [Final Whistle – FC Porto lose six points, Pinto da Costa suspended for two years, Boavista relegated]. SAPO Notícias (in Portuguese). SAPO. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 4 July 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 606.
- Tovar 2011, pp. 615–623.
- "UEFA Champions League 2008/09 – History". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 5 July 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 627.
- Assunção, Manuel (14 May 2011). "FC Porto invicto confirmou na Madeira o seu lugar na história do campeonato" [Undefeated FC Porto confirmed in Madeira its place in Portuguese league history] (in Portuguese). Público. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- Fifield, Dominic (18 May 2011). "Falcao strikes to bring Europa League glory to Porto". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- Atkin, John (22 June 2011). "The rise of new Chelsea manager Villas-Boas". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- "2011: Number four for Barcelona". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- "Classificação Liga ZON Sagres 2011–2012" (in Portuguese). LPFP. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- Hart, Simon (22 February 2012). "Slick City end Porto's UEFA Europa League defence". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- Smith, Jonathan (13 March 2013). "Malaga 2–0 FC Porto (agg 2–1)". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- "Primeira Liga: Porto stun Benfica with late goal to go top of table". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 11 May 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- Sousa, Hugo Daniel (19 May 2013). "FC Porto é o terceiro campeão sem derrotas" (in Portuguese). Público. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- "Porto appoint Fonseca". FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 10 June 2013. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- "Porto sack coach Paulo Fonseca after nine months in charge". BBC Sport. British Broadcasting Corporation. 5 March 2014. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- Aitken, Nick (10 April 2014). "Sevilla surge past Porto and into semis". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- Assunção, Manuel (27 April 2014). "Benfica aguentou com menos um e teve prémio nos penáltis" (in Portuguese). Público. Retrieved 6 July 2014.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 39.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 102.
- "PT patrocina camisolas dos "três grandes"". SAPO Notícias (in Portuguese). SAPO. 8 July 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- Ruela, João (29 May 2014). "FC Porto confirma Warrior como sucessora da Nike" [FC Porto confirms Warrior as the successor of Nike] (in Portuguese). Diário de Notícias. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- "New Balance vai vestir FC Porto" [New Balance will equip FC Porto] (in Portuguese). Diário de Notícias. 4 February 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- Nobre, Adriano. "PT sai da camisola dos três 'grandes'". Expresso.sapo.pt. Expresso. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 14.
- "História" (in Portuguese). FC Porto. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 138.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 202.
- "Main Partners" (in Portuguese). FC Porto. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- Tovar 2011, pp. 11–13.
- "Campo da Raínha" (in Portuguese). FC Porto. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- Tovar 2011, p. 13.
- "Campo da Constituição" (in Portuguese). FC Porto. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "Campo do Ameal" (in Portuguese). FC Porto. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- "Estádio do Lima" (in Portuguese). FC Porto. Retrieved 25 April 2014.
- Tovar 2011, pp. 13–14.
- "Estádio das Antas" (in Portuguese). FC Porto. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 159.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 122.
- "Estádio das Antas". The Stadium Guide. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
- "Estádio do Dragão" (in Portuguese). FC Porto. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
- "Estádio do Dragão". The Stadium Guide. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 41.
- "Benfica vs FC Porto – Portugal's great divide". FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- "FC Porto vs Sporting CP – Portugal’s other big-city clássico". FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Pereira, Sérgio (2 March 2012). "Lisboa–Porto: rivalidade começou há exatamente 118 anos" [Lisbon–Porto: rivalry started exactly 118 years ago] (in Portuguese). Mais Futebol. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Aleixo, Mário (2 March 2012). "Clássico Benfica–FC Porto: contam-se as horas" (in Portuguese). RTP. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Ruela, João (21 March 2014). "FC Porto-Benfica: 6 clássicos em dois meses é possível" (in Portuguese). Diário de Notícias. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- "FC Porto vs Benfica" (in Portuguese). Zerozero.pt. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 27.
- "FC Porto vs Sporting" (in Portuguese). Zerozero.pt. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 96.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 140.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 176.
- Tovar 2011, p. 710.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 40.
- Bandeira 2012, p. 25.
- "2010/11: Falcao heads Porto to glory". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. 6 June 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2014.
- Bandeira 2012, pp. 47, 81, 116.
- Bandeira 2012, pp. 37, 46.
- Bandeira 2012, pp. 15, 32.
- "Porto docked points, Boavista demoted". uefa.com. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-05-12.
- "Honours". FC Porto. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- "Squad". FC Porto. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- Margato, Dina (30 June 2011). "FC Porto assume gestão do Porto Canal em Agosto". Jornal de Notícias. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "FC Porto vai comprar o Porto Canal" [FC Porto will buy Porto Canal] (in Portuguese). SAPO. 27 March 2015. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
- "FC Porto-Revista Dragões" (in Portuguese). fcporto.pt. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
- Bandeira, João Pedro (2012). Bíblia do FC Porto (in Portuguese). Lisbon: Prime Books. ISBN 9789896550943.
- Tovar, Rui (2011). Almanaque do FC Porto 1893–2011 (in Portuguese). Alfragide: Caderno. ISBN 9789892315430.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to F.C. Porto.|