1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene

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1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene
1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene.svg
DNFB molecule
Identifiers
Abbreviations FDNB
CAS number 70-34-8 YesY
PubChem 6264
ChemSpider 21106037 YesY
UNII D241E059U6 YesY
ChEBI CHEBI:53049 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL167423 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C6H3FN2O4
Molar mass 186.10 g mol−1
Appearance yellow crystals[1]
Density 1.4718 g·cm−3 (54 °C)[2]
Melting point 25.8 °C[2]
Boiling point 296 °C[2]
Hazards
MSDS [1]
EU classification Toxic T
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Infobox references

1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, or Sanger's reagent (commonly called dinitrofluorobenzene or DNFB), is a chemical used for polypeptide sequencing.

Preparation[edit]

In 1936, Gottlieb presented a synthesis in which 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene reacted with potassium fluoride (KF) in nitrobenzene:[3]

Synthesis of 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene from 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene in nitrobenzene with potassium fluoride

Uses[edit]

Frederick Sanger

In 1945, Frederick Sanger described its use for determining the N-terminal amino acid in polypeptide chains, in particular insulin.[4] Sanger's initial results suggested that insulin was a smaller molecule than previously estimated (molecular weight 12,000), and that it consisted of four chains (two ending in glycine and two ending in phenylalanine), with the chains cross-linked by disulfide bonds. Sanger continued work on insulin, using dinitrofluorobenzene in combination with other techniques, eventually resulted in the complete sequence of insulin (consisting of only two chains, with a molecular weight of 6,000).[5]

Following Sanger's initial report of the reagent, the dinitrofluorobenzene method was widely adopted for studying proteins, until it was superseded by other reagents for terminal analysis (e.g., dansyl chloride and later aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases) and other general methods for sequence determination (e.g., Edman degradation).[5]

Dinitrofluorobenzene reacts with the amine group in amino acids to produce dinitrophenyl-amino acids. These DNP-amino acids are moderately stable under acid hydrolysis conditions that break peptide bonds. The DNP-amino acids can then be recovered, and the identity of those amino acids can be discovered through chromatography. More recently, Sanger's reagent has also been used for the rather difficult analysis of distinguishing between the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and cysteine in biological systems in conjunction with HPLC. This method is so rugged that it can be performed in such complex matrices as blood or cell lysate.[6][7]

Sanger's method of peptide end-group analysis: A derivatization of N-terminal end with Sanger's reagent (DNFB), B total acid hydrolysis of the dinitrophenyl peptide


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Oxford MSDS
  2. ^ a b c CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90. edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2009, ISBN 978-1-4200-9084-0, Section 3, Physical Constants of Organic Compounds, p. 3-260.
  3. ^ Hans Billroth Gottlieb: "The Replacement of Chlorine by Fluorine in Organic Compounds", J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1936, 58 (3), S. 532–533; doi:10.1021/ja01294a502.
  4. ^ Sanger, F (1945). "The free amino groups of insulin". The Biochemical journal 39 (5): 507–15. PMC 1258275. PMID 16747948. 
  5. ^ a b Joseph Fruton, Proteins, Enzymes, Genes: The Interplay of Chemistry and Biology. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999. p. 216.
  6. ^ Pamela K. Dominick, et al: "A new and versatile method for determination of thiolamines of biological importance", Journal of Chromatography B, 2001, 761 1-12; doi:10.1016/S0378-4347(01)00298-5.
  7. ^ Patrycja Bronowicka-Adamska, et al: "RP-HPLC method for the quantitative determination of cystathionine, cysteine, and glutathione: An application for the study of the metabolism of cysteine in human brain", Journal of Chromatography B, 2011, 879 2005-2009; doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2011.05.026.

Literature[edit]

External links[edit]