|Founded||10 April 2008|
|Key people||Anna Hutsol
FEMEN (Ukrainian: Фемен) is a radical feminist protest group founded in Ukraine in 2008. The group is now based in Paris. The organization became internationally known for organizing controversial topless protests against sex tourism, religious institutions, sexism, homophobia and other social, national and international topics. In October 2013 FEMEN had its largest membership in France (30 local activists in January 2013). In October 2012 the organization claimed it had about 40 activists in Ukraine, and another 100 who had joined their protests abroad, as well as twenty thousand supporters via the social network Vkontakte.
The organisation describes itself as "fighting patriarchy in its three manifestations - sexual exploitation of women, dictatorship and religion" and has stated that its goal is "sextremism serving to protect women's rights". FEMEN activists have been regularly detained by police in response to their protests.
FEMEN has several international branches. The FEMEN office in their native Kiev was closed and the organization's leadership left Ukraine ("Fearing for their lives and freedom") in August 2013.
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Goals and stances
- 4 Protests against religious institutions
- 5 Amina Tyler case
- 6 Cultural and political image
- 7 Criticism
- 8 Financing
- 9 See also
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 Filmography
- 12 Notes and references
- 13 External links
Anna Hutsol is credited as founding the FEMEN movement, on 10 April 2008, after she became aware of stories of Ukrainian women duped into going abroad and then taken advantage of sexually. However, according to the 2013 documentary by Kitty Green, Ukraine Is Not a Brothel, FEMEN was founded by Viktor Sviatsky. In September 2013 Inna Shevchenko responded to the documentary stating that Sviatsky "did lead the movement some time ago...We accepted this because we did not know how to resist and fight it....This is when I decided to leave Ukraine for France to build a new Femen". FEMEN member Inna Shevchenko discussed Sviatsky with The Independent in January, 2014, and, while not using the word 'founder' said: 'I will never deny that he is a smart person. He was the reason why we knew each other. He was one of those smart people around us at the beginning, who were more experienced.'
Initially, Femen gained attention by demonstrating in skimpy or erotic clothing. For example on 21 September 2008 in front of the Turkish embassy[where?] a dozen FEMEN members were dressed as sexy nurses with smudged makeup and high pink heels; however at the 24 August 2009 demonstration on Ukrainian independence day Oksana Shachko went topless. Since this approach obtained such great publicity it rapidly became FEMEN's trademark approach. While most of the protests have been confined to bare breasts, in October 2010 Shachko exposed her buttocks outside a locked toilet in a demonstration to protest the lack of public toilets in Kiev, and four of the group members staged a similar protest in Kiev in February 2011.
From late 2011 the Ukrainian FEMEN activists started to do more international protests. In December 2011 three FEMEN activists claimed that the State Security Committee of the Republic of Belarus had abducted and terrorized them after they staged topless protests in Minsk.[nb 1] On 8 April 2013 5 FEMEN members were able to "topless ambush" Russian President Vladimir Putin (accompanied by German Chancellor Angela Merkel) at the Hanover trade fair.
After Inna Shevchenko chopped down a wooden cross overlooking Maidan Nezalezhnosti in Kiev on 17 August 2012, she claimed to have received several death threats and that her front door had been kicked in. Fearing arrest, she sought asylum in France and moved to Paris. There in September 2012 she established a training facility for activists for Femen in France.
Late July 2013 one of the ideologists of the FEMEN, Viktor Sviatsky[nb 2] and Hutsol were beaten up on the eve of a visit by Putin to Kiev to celebrate the 1025th anniversary of Christianization of Kievan Rus'. According to Hutsol those who attacked them “resemble those cooperating with secret services SBU and FSB”.
In October 2013 FEMEN had its largest membership in France. In January 2013 FEMEN France counted 30 local activists. In 2010, the group comprised some 320 activists, with about 300 of the active participants being in Kiev. In a 2010 interview Anna Hutsol said that in addition to 20 core organizers there are 300 activists in Kiev, as well as a social network based on vkontakte of about 20,000 persons. Female university students between 18 and 20 years old formed the backbone of the movement when it was formed in 2008 with few male members. In 2011 various sources state that in an interview Anna Hutsol claimed that the movement has 150 thousand supporters. In October 2012 the organization claimed it had about 40 activists in Ukraine, and another 100 who had joined their protests abroad.
Hutsol claimed in July 2010 "We are working better than any news agency. We have a photographer, cinematographer, designer and content manager. In Ukraine most of FEMEN's demonstrations are staged in Kiev, but the organization has also held actions in cities like Odessa, Dnipropetrovsk, and Zaporizhia. In April 2010 the organization was contemplating becoming a political party to run for seats in the October 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election. However, it did not take part in these elections.
FEMEN explained its methodology of topless protesting by saying: "This is the only way to be heard in this country. If we staged simple protests with banners, then our claims would not have been noticed". The organization plans to become the biggest and the most influential movement in Europe.
Facebook initially blocked the FEMEN page because it suspected it was pornographic. In addition, FEMEN has displayed several provocative images on its Facebook page, including images of FEMEN activists taking a chainsaw to the heads of Vladimir Putin and Kirill I of Moscow, who were depicted covered in blood.
In 2010 and 2011 Ukrainian members had stated that their involvement in FEMEN had caused their families to become alienated from them. Some FEMEN members, including Inna Shevchenko, have also been subject to threats, kidnapping, beating and other intimidation.
Criminal cases against the organization
Several criminal cases have been opened against the organization in Ukraine on charges of "hooliganism" and "desecration of state symbols" among others, and they have been fined. In addition, most FEMEN activists are detained by the police after protesting; in one case the State Security Committee of the Republic of Belarus arrested the FEMEN activists, "threatening them with knives and cutting their hair." According to FEMEN, after the early 2010 election of President Viktor Yanukovych, the Security Service of Ukraine attempted to intimidate the FEMEN activists.
The Ukrainian police opened a criminal case against FEMEN because during its 27 August 2013 raid in the movement's Kiev office it had found a TT pistol and a grenade. FEMEN claimed that these items were planted there by the Ukrainian police as part of a conspiracy by the Russian and Ukrainian secret services to prosecute the movement, which the police denied.[nb 3] On 30 August 2013 FEMEN activist Yana Zhdanov, Anna Hutsol and Alexandra Shevchenko were called in for questioning but instead (according to a FEMEN statement) "Fearing for their lives and freedom the activists escaped from Ukraine to Europe to continue FEMEN activities" (also in Ukraine (as Hutsol had stated 3 days before she left Ukraine)). The Kiev office became a (not FEMEN affiliated) bookstore on 23 October 2013. Early March Hutsol claimed that although the regime that had criminally probed them had fallen it was "too risky to return to Ukraine" (in a February 2014 interview Hutsol also claimed that FEMEN activists who had stayed in Ukraine had helped during the Euromaidan-protests that ultimately had toppled this regime). FEMEN actions did recur in Kiev in the summer of 2014.
FEMEN France is the French branch of FEMEN. After cutting down a crucifix near Maidan Nezalezhnosti in Kiev in August 2012, Inna Shevchenko left the country and went to Paris to set up FEMEN France, a training center for activists. The international training center opened on 18 September 2012.
As of early January 2013, the organization consisted of 30 local activists. The only Ukrainians regularly present were Oksana Shachko and Inna Shevchenko. On March 6, 2013, FEMEN activists, together with French writer Galia Ackerman, released their first book, FEMEN. The book was published by Calmann-Lévy.
The international training center opened on 18 September 2012. 15 activists marched topless from the metro station Château Rouge to the Lavoir Moderne Parisien, where their new headquarters are located, and organized a press conference there.
On 3 October 2012, French activists Éloïse Bouton, Elvire Duvelle-Charles, Miyabi K., Julia Javel, Jenny Bah, Nathalie Vignes and Inna Shevchenko protested against rape by standing topless in front of the Venus de Milo statue in the Louvre Museum. The FEMEN activists shouted, “We have hands to stop rape”. They stated they chose the Venus de Milo because it has no arms, arguing this best symbolizes a woman’s helplessness and vulnerability. This protest followed an incident in Tunisia where a woman faced charges of indecency after claiming she was raped by police officers.
On 15 October 2012, 8 topless activists protested in front of the French Ministry of Justice at the Place Vendôme in Paris in response to the verdict in the trial of fourteen men for the gang rape of teenage girls. After a four-week trial in Fontenay-sous-Bois near Paris, four of the accused were found guilty of taking part in gang rapes, but 10 were acquitted. The sentences were far lighter than those recommended by the state prosecutor, who had called for prison sentences of five to seven years for eight of the men. The protestors accused the French authorities of tolerating the rape of minors.
Since late 2011 FEMEN has held rallies outside Ukraine. In late April 2011, the organization said it was setting up international branches in Warsaw, Zürich, Rome, Tel Aviv, and Rio de Janeiro. A demonstration by a group called RU FEMEN in the Russian capital, Moscow, in late April 2011 was immediately denounced as a fake offspring of FEMEN. FEMEN accused the Russian political party United Russia of having set up RU FEMEN. Early 2013 FEMEN claimed to have members in Brazil, Germany, the U.S., Canada, Switzerland, Italy, Bulgaria, and Tunisia.
On 23 January 2013 a third national FEMEN-group was opened officially when Alexandra Shevchenko launched FEMEN in Germany proposing to train and lead the group from Berlin and Hamburg bases. The German branch of FEMEN was founded by Zana Ramadani.
June 2014 FEMEN opened a branch in Israel with 15 women, FEMEN notes, "our numbers are growing from week to week.” The members, who range in age from 17 to 30, come from all over the country.
Goals and stances
|This section relies too much on references to primary sources. (May 2013)|
FEMEN describes itself as "radical feminism" and it claims to be "fighting patriarchy in its three manifestations - sexual exploitation of women, dictatorship and religion". FEMEN has pledged to fight the sex industry and marriage agencies, the Church and its pro-life beliefs and patriarchal society, as well as those who oppose gay marriage. FEMEN has expressed opposition against Islamism, "Sharia law" and spoken against the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM). On its official website FEMEN states: "FEMEN – is sextremism serving to protect women's rights, democracy watchdogs attacking patriarchy, in all its forms: the dictatorship, the church, the sex industry".
FEMEN has expressed both support for and opposition against various public figures and organizations; for example, the group lauded Pussy Riot and collaborated with Aliaa Elmahdy. In 2011 the group has stated it has enjoyed limited success in pushing its agenda. It was also criticized for failure "to provide much insight into what the concrete goals [of the organization] are".
Founder Anna Hutsol is adamantly opposed to legalizing prostitution in Ukraine and advocates for criminalization of prostitution abroad. In late May 2009, FEMEN proposed the introduction of criminal responsibility for the use of sex industry services. FEMEN protested against what they argued were moves being made by the Ukrainian government to legalize prostitution during the EURO 2012 championships. The group asked UEFA and the Ukrainian government to create a social program devoted to the problem of sex tourism and prostitution in Ukraine; to inform football fans that prostitution is illegal in Ukraine; and to take additional steps to fight against prostitution and sex tourism.[nb 5]
Despite Femen's objection to the sex industry, the group has fought against the prosecution of Anastasia Grishay by Ukrainian authorities (initiated by a prominent Communist member of parliament) on grounds of her involvement in pornography.
According to (founder) Hutsol "The Femen movement stands for women-related policies, not women in politics". FEMEN's leadership has very low expectations of all current mainstream Ukrainian politicians. When asked (in April 2013) if she considered German Chancellor Angela Merkel "the enemy" Alexandra Shevchenko replied: "In so far as she shakes the hand of the dictator, yes; like Yulia Tymoshenko and like Margaret Thatcher before them, she has hardly spoken out for women's rights".
FEMEN protest actions have also taken place against alleged anti-Ukrainian policies by the Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian President and Government of Russia. It also demanded "independence for the Ukrainian church".
In the past (namely 2012) FEMEN had stated that its goals were "to develop leadership, intellectual and moral qualities of young women in Ukraine" and "to build up the image of Ukraine, [a] country with great opportunities for women". But today its official website makes no mention of goals aimed at Ukrainian woman in particular (nor from other countries). In 2010 had stated the goals of the organization where "to shake women in Ukraine, making them socially active; to organize in 2017 a women's revolution."
In December 2012 FEMEN "warned" the European Union "to stop immediately political, economic and cultural contacts with Gazprom-Kremlin's dictatorship"; because "dependence on Nord Stream will bring Europe to an economic collapse and the abolition of visas requirements for Russians threatens Europe with a cultural Armageddon". An 8 April 2013 "topless ambush" of Russian President Vladimir Putin (accompanied by German Chancellor Angela Merkel) at the Hanover trade fair was described by Alexandra Shevchenko as "non-violent women protesting against the most dangerous dictator in the world, it got great coverage and will hopefully inspire people in Russia as well as helping us to recruit new members".
Protests against religious institutions
Examples of FEMEN protests against religious institutions are:
- In November 2011, FEMEN activist Alexandra Shevchenko started stripping and waving a banner stating "Freedom for women" after Pope Benedict XVI's Sunday sermon at Saint Peter's Square at the Holy See. Shevchenko and her associates were immediately captured by the Italian Police.
- In April 2012, five FEMEN activists protested legislation that would halt abortions in Ukraine by staging a pro-choice demonstration at the belfry of Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev, ringing the church bells while doing so. They were detained by police.
- On 26 July 2012, a topless FEMEN activist, Yana Zhdanova, attacked the Patriarch of Moscow and all the Rus', Kirill I of Moscow, while he was visiting Ukraine. Zhdanova had the words "Kill Kirill" painted on her back and screamed "Get Out!" to the Orthodox Christian leader. She was arrested for fifteen days for her actions.
- The organization staged a topless protest at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London in opposition to "bloody Islamist regimes", which they accuse the IOC of supporting. The protest included women in the clothing of Muslim men as well as signs stating "No Sharia".
- On 17 August 2012, Inna Shevchenko and two other FEMEN activists chainsawed down a large wooden crucifix near Maidan Nezalezhnosti in Kiev in support for the Russian group Pussy Riot. (Three members of Pussy Riot were to be sentenced by a Russian court later that day.)[nb 6] The action attracted overwhelmingly negative responses. A criminal case was opened against FEMEN under "Part 2 of Article 296 (hooliganism) of the Criminal Code of Ukraine". FEMEN claimed that after the incident, special forces troops from the Ministry of Internal Affairs organized a blockade around FEMEN's headquarters in Kiev. On 18 August 2012 a new Christian cross was erected at the same site.
- FEMEN activists burned the Salafist flag in front of the Great Mosque of Paris on 3 April 2013, as part of a solidarity protest with Amina Tyler.
Amina Tyler case
Amina Tyler (real name Amina Sboui), a Tunisian FEMEN activist, was arrested on 19 May 2013 in Tunis. International protests followed for her release from detention. On 12 June 2013 a Tunisian judge convicted the two French and a German FEMEN member after they were charged with public indecency while protesting for the release of Tyler. Pauline Hillier, Marguerite Stern and Josephine Markmann were released on 26 June 2013 after a Tunisian court lifted their prison sentence.
Amina Tyler was acquitted for contempt and defamation on 29 July 2013; but she remained jailed pending trial on a separate charge of desecrating a cemetery.
FEMEN had staged protests in front of the Grand Mosque of Paris burning a Tawhid flag. Amina upon release in August 2013 from detention in a Tunisian jail declared she was leaving the group in protest adding that she thought FEMEN's actions in Paris were disrespectful to the Muslim world and because she saw a lack of financial transparency in the organization.
Cultural and political image
The group has been widely covered in the media, including by CNN, BBC News, Der Spiegel, Die Welt, Independent.ie, France 24, RT, Euronews, the Kyiv Post, USA Today, Reuters, The Washington Post, and The Wall Street Journal.
Critics have stated FEMEN members are more interested in self-promotion than real reform, and that their antics are often tacky and undermine the cause of their protests. According to Ukrainian gender studies expert Tetyana Bureychak, most Ukrainian women are unimpressed by FEMEN. Ukrainian sociologist Oleh Demkiv has spoken out against the controversial nature of FEMEN's protests and in July 2011 he stated they "unfortunately, do not enjoy popular support, or lead to changes in Ukraine's consciousness". In February 2013 Joanna Rohozinska (from National Endowment for Democracy) stated "there is little evidence of any of Femen's protests having significant impact" and she called FEMEN's decision to set up branches in outside Ukraine "as disingenuous at best and, frankly, somewhat cowardly". Positive remarks in Ukraine about FEMEN came from Maria Mayerchyk (of Lviv University), who has spoken about FEMEN, saying that they are a "positive, radical and important phenomenon that is able to raise social issues", and Larysa Kobelianska (UN-led women's rights program) said the group has succeeded in attracting public attention to women's problems, even if by questionable means.
The group is seen more positively abroad. Naomi Westland wrote that "Western countries are more accustomed than those in the Eastern Hemisphere to seeing naked or semi-naked bodies in the media and on the streets. But in countries where nudity is taboo, the protests have more profound impact." Jeffrey Tayler noted: "Femen originated in Ukraine, born of young women who grew up without exposure to the West's culture of political correctness and who have scant respect for it; from their country's Soviet past, they know how deleterious the stifling of free speech can be. Now that they have moved to the West, Femen has courageously broken rules and enlivened the debate over religion's role in our world." FEMEN received a positive reception after opening their location in Paris. FEMEN has been criticized by Chitra Nagarajan for "its obsession with nudity that feeds a racist colonial feminism."
In September 2013 FEMEN came under heavy criticism when the Australian documentary film-maker Kitty Green exposed a man named Victor Svyatski as the mastermind behind the group. Svyatski was previously known as (only) a “consultant” to the movement. In the documentary "Ukraine is not a brothel" Svyatski admits he is the brain behind the group, stating that the girls would not have been able to start FEMEN without him, which is confirmed by some of the female FEMEN activists. In the documentary Svyatski is heard intensively instructing the FEMEN women how to perform their protests and bullying them when not all goes according to plan. Activist Inna Shevchenko admits later in the documentary, that the patriarchal system roots so deep in Ukranian women, it was probably indeed not possible to start FEMEN without Svyatski, but is also clear that this is not something that can continue much longer. Shevchenko explains that Svyatski will have to go, even if he is unwilling to do so. FEMEN received much criticism after this exposure, but film maker Green stated that the press overemphasized Svyatski's role, not including that he indeed was no longer involved with FEMEN after the release of the film.
Funding is provided by FEMEN activists through the sale of products bearing the FEMEN logo by some 30 chapters. FEMEN also receives donations from individuals like Helmut Geier (also known as DJ under the alias DJ Hell), German businesswoman Beate Schober (who is currently residing in Ukraine), the American businessman Jed Sunden (founder of Ukrainian KP Media and former owner of Kyiv Post newspaper) and Ukrainian Canadians.
In March 2012 Ukrainian magazine Focus claimed that FEMEN activists receive royalties for foreign interviews and in the tabloids. In the magazine Anna Hutsol confirmed that a rally in Istanbul was sponsored by a Turkish company producing underwear.
A Ukrainian 1+1 journalist, who claimed (in September 2012) to have infiltrated the organisation, says that its office in the Ukrainian capital, Kiev, costs the movement over $2,500 per month, on top of which each member’s salary was roughly $1,000 per month.
- Ackerman, Galia et al., FEMEN, Published by Calmann-Lévy (Paris 2013), 280 pages. ISBN 978-2702144589. (French language publication)
- Nos seins, nos armes ! (Our breasts, our weapons!), documentary film (1hour 10 mins), written and directed by Caroline Fourest and Nadia El Fani, produced by Nilaya Productions, aired on France 2 on 5 March 2013.
- "Everyday Rebellion", documentary film (1hour 58 mins), written and directed by the Riahi Brothers Arash T. Riahi and Arman Riahi, Austria / Switzerland / Germany, 2013, world premiere at Copenhagen International Documentary Festival on November 13, 2013.
- Ukraine Is Not a Brothel
Notes and references
- On 19 December 2011 FEMEN performed a topless protest against Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko outside the KGB Headquarters in Minsk, mocking Lukashenko's recognizable haircut and moustache. Afterwards, according to FEMEN, the three protesters Inna Shevchenko, Oksana Shachko and Aleksandra Nemchinova were abducted by the Belarus authorities and taken to a remote forest blindfolded, doused with oil, forced to strip and then threatened with being set on fire, before having their hair violently cut with knives and being abandoned in the snow half-naked.
- Early September 2013 Inna Shevchenko stated that FEMEN had "broke free" of Sviatsky.
- On 28 August 2013 a Kiev police spokesperson stated no one in the group had been charged but the criminal probe into illegal possession of weapons by the group continued and the women could be called in for further questioning.
- The reason given on its Facebook page was: "disagreement about the internal organization within the international movement Femen".
- As a counter-act Polish prostitutes held their own nude demonstration (in masks) with the catchphrase "Femen! Get the fuck out of our business".
- The desecration of the cross was repudiated by Maria Alyokhina of Pussy Riot, who said "Their surprise displays and protests against authoritarianism are similar to us, but we look at feminism differently, especially the form of speech. We wouldn't take our clothes off, and will not. Their latest action, the sawing of the cross, does not create a feeling of solidarity, unfortunately."
- Femen wants to move from public exposure to political power, Kyiv Post (28 April 2010)
- FEMEN: FEMEN - is a global women's movement, Official FEMEN website
- "Naked March in Paris to Open New Office of Femen Feminist Group – SPIEGEL ONLINE". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- Tunisian Femen activist ‘acquitted’ of defamation, France 24 (29 July 2013)
Court dismisses 1 charge against Tunisian feminist[dead link], TimesDaily (29 July 2013)
Tunisian Activist Acquitted Amid Growing Unrest, Voice of America (29 July 2013)
- Femen in Paris: Ukraine's Topless Warriors Move West, The Atlantic (2 January 2013)
- "FEMEN". FEMEN. 2013-01-24. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- Fearless ... and topless: Femen activists to bring 'sextremism' to the UK, theguardian.com (19 October 2013)
- "Ukraine’s Ladies Of Femen". Movements.org. 2011-08-16. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- Jeffrey Tayler. "The Woman Behind Femen's Topless Protest Movement - Jeffrey Tayler". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- Ukraine's Femen:Topless protests 'help feminist cause', BBC News (23 October 2012)
- "Девушки хотят. Интервью с Анной Гуцол, лидером FEMEN", 15 July 2010, Анастасия Рингис, Focus (Ukrainian magazine) website (retrieved 6 February 2013) (Russian)
- Femen activists jailed in Tunisia for topless protest, BBC News (12 June 2013)
- "FEMEN rings the bell: Naked activists defend right to abortion". Russia Today. 10 April 2012.
- "Bare-chested protesters take on Berlin | Germany | DW.DE | 26.02.2013". DW.DE. 2013-02-26. Retrieved 2013-11-12.
- (Ukrainian) У колишньому офісі Femen відкрили книжкову крамницю In the former office Femen opened a bookstore, Ukrayinska Pravda (23 October 2013)
- (Ukrainian) Активістки Femen втекли з України Femen activists fled from Ukraine, Ukrayinska Pravda (31 August 2013)
- (Ukrainian) Femen закриє офіс в Україні, але діяльність не припинить Femen closes office in Ukraine, however, the activities do not stop, Ukrayinska Pravda (27 August 2013)
- Feminine Femen targets 'sexpats', Kyiv Post (22 May 2009)
- How they protest prostitution in Ukraine, France 24 (28 August 2009)
- The man who made Femen: New film outs Victor Svyatski as the mastermind behind the protest group and its breast-baring stunts , The Independent (3 September 2013)
- Femen let Victor Svyatski take over because we didn't know how to fight it, The Guardian (5 September 2013)
- McNabb, Geoffrey (2014-01-17). "'I don't want to be liked': Inna Shevchenko, leader of women's rights group Femen, talks dictators, documentaries and death threats". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2014-01-19.
- (French) Femen Les féministes venues du froid, Paris Match (18 February 2012)
- Topless protesters gain fame in Ukraine[dead link], Associated Press (19 November 2010)
- [dead link]
- Eastern approaches Ex-communist Europe (2011-05-20). "Unorthodox protest in Ukraine: Indecent exposure". The Economist. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- "Kyiv's Topless Protestors: 'The Entire Ukraine Is a Brothel' - SPIEGEL ONLINE". Spiegel.de. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- "Des féministes ukrainiennes manifestent contre DSK - L'EXPRESS". Lexpress.fr. 2011-11-01. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
Your Name* (2011-11-05). "Ukrainian Femen Protesters - Irish Independent Galleries". Photos.independent.ie. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
"Bikyamasr: Ukraine woman strips at Vatican for rights, anti-Berlusconi". Kyivpost.com. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
"FEMEN - Zurich is not a Brothel! (NSFW)". Mizozo.com. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
"'Femen' Stage Naked Protest Against Putin in Moscow [PHOTOS] - IBTimes UK". Ibtimes.co.uk. 2011-12-09. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- Rfe/Rl. "Ukrainian Activists Allegedly Kidnapped, Terrorized In Belarus Found". Rferl.org. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- "FEMEN Protest Photos". Cryptome.org. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- "http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-16275566". BBC. 20 December 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
- Kate Connolly in Berlin (12 April 2013). "Femen activist tells how protest against Putin and Merkel was planned | World news". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-11-12.
- Kira Cochrane (20 March 2013). "Rise of the naked female warriors | World news". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-04-22.
- Femen leader points to ‘Russian fingerprints’ in recent attacks on group’s activists in Kiev[dead link], Interfax-Ukraine (29 July 2013)
FEMEN says their male activist brutally beaten up by security services, Interfax-Ukraine (25 July 2013)
Fined Femen activists planned protest against Putin, Ukrinform (29 July 2013)
State Leaders, Orthodox Clergy Mark Kievan Rus Anniversary, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (27 July 2013)
'Attacks were meant to intimidate us': Femen, Deutsche Welle (29 July 2013)
- Ukraine's topless group widens political role, Reuters (15 November 2010)
- (Ukrainian) Femen: "Ми даємо чиновникам і політикам, проср...тися", Табло ID (20 September 2010)
- (Russian) Maria Dmitrieva, Радикальный эксгибиционизм ("Radical Exhibitionism"); first published on the website Private Correspondent
- (Russian) Игры на раздевание. Femen завоевывает симпатии мужчин и теряет поддержку феминисток Games on the strip. Femen winning the sympathies of men and losing the support of feminists, Focus (27 March 2012)
- (Russian) Мужественный протест (The courageous protest), Lenta.Ru (15 February 2012)
- (Ukrainian) Information on the registration of electoral lists of candidates[dead link], Central Election Commission of Ukraine
(Ukrainian) Results of voting in single constituencies in 2012[dead link] & Nation-wide list[dead link], Central Election Commission of Ukraine
- "Ukraine is not a bordello", Russia Today (14 December 2009)
- FEMEN, Organisations MySpace page
- 'The Entire Ukraine Is a Brothel', Der Spiegel (5 May 2011)
- "Après les guitares de Pussy Riot, la tronçonneuse de Femen". Les Nouvelles Calédoniennes. 20 August 2012.
- Taylor, Jerome (2011-12-23). "Topless protester was 'abducted and beaten' in Belarus". The Independent (London).
- (Russian) На FEMENисток завели два уголовных дела за "обнаженку", Информационно-аналитический центр "ЛІГА" (17 February 2012)
- Police seize TT pistol and grenade in Kyiv office of Femen women’s rights group[dead link], Interfax-Ukraine (28 August 2013)
- Femen moves out of 'bugged' Kiev office, News24 (28 August 2013)
- Femen accuses Kiev police of planting guns during raid, The Guardian (27 August 2013)
- FEMEN women’s rights group protests outside Ukrainian embassies in Europe following search of Kyiv office[dead link], Interfax-Ukraine (29 August 2013)
- "Cross sawn down by FEMEN activists in Kiev turned out to be Catholic, not Orthodox". Interfax. 20 August 2012.
- "Cross-chopping topless activist flees Ukraine". Indiatvnews.com. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-10.
- "FEMEN Book (2013)". FEMEN.info. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- "Naked March in Paris to Open New Office of Femen Feminist Group - SPIEGEL ONLINE". Spiegel.de. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "Topless at the Louvre: FEMEN activists stage anti-rape protest — RT". Rt.com. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- "Topless FEMEN Activists Attempt French Justice Ministry Break-In". Avaxnews.com. 2012-10-16. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- Angelique Chrisafis in Paris (11 October 2012). "Four guilty in gang-rape trial that shocked France | World news | guardian.co.uk". London: Guardian. Retrieved 2012-11-19.
- FEMEN participate in Berlusconi protests, Kyiv Post (2 November 2011)
Huffington Post: FEMEN, Ukrainian women's rights group, protests Russian election, Kyiv Post (9 December 2011)
Ukraine topless activists raise SOS from Belarus, Kyiv Post (20 December 2011)
Turkey acts to better protect women from abuse, Kyiv Post (9 March 2012)
- Naked Protesters Draw Attention at Moscow Polling Station, The Wall Street Journal (4 March 2012)
- (Ukrainian) На FEMEN здiйснена рейдерська атака! Клятi москалi! Перший пост без цицьок, Ukrayinska Pravda (28 April 2011)
- (Russian) Зассанные кремлевские матрасы!, LiveJournal blog of FEMEN (28 April 2011)
- (Russian) Полуголые активистки прошлись по Москве, L!FE NEWS (27 April 2011)
- Allard, Sophie (April 27, 2013). "Notre arme est le sein nu" (in French). Plus.lapresse.ca.
"My breasts become political: How a topless Montreal protestor invaded the speech of a former Tunisian PM". News.nationalpost.com. 13/06/03. Check date values in:
- "Belgische Femen-afdeling stopt Belgian Femen-branch stops" (in Dutch). Gazet van Antwerpen. 11 September 2013.
- Commentary: The Femen Effect On Feminism, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (5 February 2013)
- FEMEN opposed to marriage agencies
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- (Ukrainian) Польские проститутки ответили Femen Polish prostitutes replied Femen, ICTV (12 June 2012)
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- Azarov sexism is hurting this nation, editorial by FEMEN leader Anna Hutsol in Kyiv Post (15 April 2010)
- Two Bad Words: FEMEN & Feminism in Independent Ukraine by Jessica Zychowicz, University of Michigan (Fall 2011)
- International Women’s Issues: Yulia Tymoshenko and FEMEN: Women, Appearance, and Politics in Ukraine by Mary Anne Limoncelli, Persephone Magazine (13 October 2011)
- Activists of the Ukrainian women's movement FEMEN dressed as policemen "beat" journalists, photographers and cameramen during their symbolic protest action called "100 days" on Independence Square in Kiev, the capital., Los Angeles Times (3 June 2010)
- Ukraine parliament to resume session after brawl, Euronews (13 December 2012)
Media: Femen women's group tries to break into parliament, Kyiv Post (12 December 2012)
- Topless protester pursues Russia church leader, Nydailynews.com (26 July 2012)
- (Ukrainian) Дівчата з FEMEN пішли на Кирила з чорними грудьми FEMEN went to Cyril with black breast, Gazeta.ua (28 July 2012)
- Femen’s actions serve only to further Putin’s agenda, Kyiv Post (11 September 2012)
About FEMEN[dead link], Official webshop of FEMEN
- FEMEN's End Of The World Protest In Brussels: 'Putin Is the Apocalypse', The Huffington Post (21 December 2012)
- "Cross to bare: Topless Vatican protest". Russia Today. 7 November 2011.
- "Femen Takes Topless Act to the Vatican". Radio Free Europe. 7 November 2011.
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- "'Feminist Sentenced for Baring Breasts at Patriarch Kirill". Moscow Times. 27 July 2012.
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- "Ukrainians protest: topless women say "No Sharia" and "Bloody Islamist Regimes"". Al Bawaba. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- "Pussy Riot засудили акцію FEMEN зі спиленням хреста в Києві ("Pussy Riot condemn FEMEN action of cutting cross in Kiev")" (in Ukrainian). RegioNews. August 23, 2012. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2012.
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- "На месте спиленного FEMEN креста установили новый". NB News. 18 August 2012.
- "На місці спиляного Femen хреста поставили тимчасовий". Українська правда. 18 August 2012.
- Alan Taylor (4 April 2013). "Femen Stages a 'Topless Jihad'". The Atlantic. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
- Femen activists jailed in Tunisia retract apology, The Guardian (27 June 2013)
Tunisia's Amina quits ‘Islamophobic’ Femen, France 24 (20 August 2013)
- "Protesters say they achieve more with less clothing". Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Ukraine protest over NZ 'win a wife' competition prize, BBC News (2 March 2011)
- Ukrainian women activists protest against Saknieh execution[dead link], ;;Euronews (4 November 2010)
- FEMEN coverage on Kyiv Post, Kyiv Post (22 May 2009)
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- The nude radicals: feminism Ukrainian style, The Guardian (15 April 2011)
- (Ukrainian) Акції FEMEN — наслідок суспільної нечутливості?, Den (22 July 2011)
- Gender, Politics and Society in Ukraine by Olena Hankivsky and Anastasiya Salnykova, University of Toronto Press, 2012
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- "FEMEN Opens HQ in Paris". Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- Nagarajan, Chitra (11 April 2013), Femen's obsession with nudity feeds a racist colonial feminism, London: Guardian News, retrieved 12 April 2013
- The man who made Femen: New film outs Victor Svyatski as the mastermind behind the protest group and its breast-baring stunts (3 September 2013)
- [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt3136842/ Ukraine Is Not a Brothel
- "Chapters". FEMEN.info. Retrieved 2013-11-12.
- (Russian) Бюст героев, Kommersant (20 September 2010)
- "Die Ukraine ist kein Bordell" "Ukraine is not a brothel", Berliner Zeitung (26 January 2009)
- Kyiv Post founder reflects on 14 years as newspaper’s owner, reasons for sale, Kyiv Post (November 19, 2009)
- Boob job: FEMEN activist reveals topless protesters’ $1,000 salaries, RT (21 September 2012)
- "FEMEN livre (2013)". FEMEN.info. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- "Nos seins, nos armes (2012) - Documentaire - L'essentiel - Télérama.fr". Television.telerama.fr. Retrieved 2013-11-12.
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