FEMEN

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For the French branch of this group, see FEMEN France.
FEMEN
Фемен
Femen Logo.svg
Founded 10 April 2008[1]
Founder Anna Hutsol[1]
Type Protest group
Focus Women's liberation[2]
Location
Key people Anna Hutsol[1]
Oksana Shachko[5]
Alexandra Shevchenko[6]
Inna Shevchenko[5]
Slogan Sextremism[2]
Website femen.org

FEMEN (Ukrainian: Фемен) is a feminist protest group founded in Ukraine in 2008. The group is now based in Paris.[7] The organization became internationally known for organizing controversial[8][9] topless protests against sex tourism,[1][8] religious institutions,[10] sexism, homophobia[11] and other social, national and international topics. In October 2013 FEMEN had its largest membership in France (30 local activists in January 2013).[5][7] In October 2012 the organization claimed it had about 40 activists in Ukraine, and another 100 who had joined their protests abroad,[10] as well as twenty thousand of supporters via the social network Vkontakte.[12]

The organisation describes itself as "fighting patriarchy in its three manifestations - sexual exploitation of women, dictatorship and religion"[13] and has stated that its goal is "sextremism serving to protect women's rights".[7] FEMEN activists have been regularly detained by police in response to their protests.[13][14]

FEMEN has several international branches.[15] The FEMEN office in their native Kiev was closed and the organization's leadership left Ukraine ("Fearing for their lives and freedom") in August 2013.[16][17][18]

History[edit]

FEMEN protest in Kiev 09 Nov 2009. Early protests were provocative but not topless

Anna Hutsol is credited as founding the FEMEN movement, on 10 April 2008, after she became aware of stories of Ukrainian women duped into going abroad and then taken advantage of sexually.[19][20] However, according to the 2013 documentary by Kitty Green, Ukraine is not a Brothel, FEMEN was founded by Viktor Sviatsky. In September 2013 Inna Shevchenko responded to the documentary stating that Sviatsky "did lead the movement some time ago...We accepted this because we did not know how to resist and fight it....This is when I decided to leave Ukraine for France to build a new Femen".[21][22] FEMEN member Inna Shevchenko discussed Sviatsky with The Independent in January, 2014, and, while not using the word 'founder' said: 'I will never deny that he is a smart person. He was the reason why we knew each other. He was one of those smart people around us at the beginning, who were more experienced.'[23]

Initially, Femen gained attention by demonstrating in skimpy or erotic clothing. For example on 21 September 2008 in front of the Turkish embassy[where?] a dozen FEMEN members were dressed as sexy nurses with smudged makeup and high pink heels; however at the 24 August 2009 demonstration on Ukrainian independence day Oksana Shachko went topless.[24] Since this approach obtained such great publicity it rapidly became FEMEN's trademark approach. While most of the protests have been confined to bare breasts, in October 2010 Shachko exposed her buttocks outside a locked toilet in a demonstration to protest the lack of public toilets in Kiev,[25] and four of the group members staged a similar protest in Kiev in February 2011.[26]

FEMEN protest in Kiev during the 2010 Ukrainian presidential election

Since May 2011 a host of international news outlets have started to report about the organization's actions; this has sharply heightened FEMENs international profile.[27][28]

From late 2011 the Ukrainian FEMEN activists started to do more international protests.[29] In December 2011 three FEMEN activists claimed that the State Security Committee of the Republic of Belarus had abducted and terrorized them after they staged topless protests in Minsk.[30][nb 1] On 8 April 2013 5 FEMEN members were able to "topless ambush" Russian President Vladimir Putin (accompanied by German Chancellor Angela Merkel) at the Hanover trade fair.[33]

After Inna Shevchenko chopped down a wooden cross overlooking Maidan Nezalezhnosti in Kiev on 17 August 2012, she claimed to have received several death threats and that her front door had been kicked in.[34] Fearing arrest, she sought asylum in France and moved to Paris. There in September 2012 she established a training facility for activists for Femen in France.[34]

Late July 2013 one of the ideologists of the FEMEN, Viktor Sviatsky[nb 2] and Hutsol were beaten up on the eve of a visit of Putin to Kiev to celebrate the 1025th anniversary of Christianization of Kievan Rus'.[35] According to Hutsol those who attacked them “resemble those cooperating with secret services SBU and FSB”.[35]

Organization[edit]

FEMEN protest against EURO 2012 on 8 Jun 2012

In October 2013 FEMEN had its largest membership in France.[7] In January 2013 FEMEN France counted 30 local activists.[5] In 2010, the group comprised some 320 activists,[25][36] with about 300 of the active participants being in Kiev.[37] In a 2010 interview Anna Hutsol said that in addition to 20 core organizers there are 300 activists in Kiev, as well as a social network based on vkontakte of about 20,000 persons.[12] Female university students between 18 and 20 years old formed the backbone of the movement when it was formed in 2008;[19] with few male members.[1] In 2011 various sources state that in an interview Anna Hutsol claimed that the movement has 150 thousand supporters.[5][38] In October 2012 the organization claimed it had about 40 activists in Ukraine, and another 100 who had joined their protests abroad.[10]

Hutsol claimed in July 2010 "We are working better than any news agency. We have a photographer, cinematographer, designer and content manager.[39] In Ukraine most of FEMEN's demonstrations are staged in Kiev, but the organization has also held actions in cities like Odessa, Dnipropetrovsk, and Zaporizhia. In April 2010 the organization was contemplating becoming a political party to run for seats in the October 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election.[1][37][40] However, it did not take part in these elections.[10][41]

FEMEN explained its methodology of topless protesting by saying: "This is the only way to be heard in this country. If we staged simple protests with banners, then our claims would not have been noticed".[42] The organization plans to become the biggest and the most influential movement in Europe.[37][43]

Facebook initially blocked the FEMEN page because it suspected it was pornographic.[44] In addition, FEMEN has displayed several provocative images on its Facebook page, including images of FEMEN activists taking a chainsaw to the heads of Vladimir Putin and Kirill I of Moscow, who were depicted covered in blood.[45]

In 2010 and 2011 Ukrainian members had stated that their involvement in FEMEN had caused their families to become alienated from them.[37][44] Some FEMEN members, including Inna Shevchenko, have also been subject to threats, kidnapping, beating and other intimidation.[46]

Criminal cases against the organization[edit]

Several criminal cases have been opened against the organization in Ukraine on charges of "hooliganism" and "desecration of state symbols" among others, and they have been fined.[35][47] In addition, most FEMEN activists are detained by the police after protesting; in one case the State Security Committee of the Republic of Belarus arrested the FEMEN activists, "threatening them with knives and cutting their hair."[14] According to FEMEN, after the early 2010 election of President Viktor Yanukovych, the Security Service of Ukraine attempted to intimidate the FEMEN activists.[44]

The Ukrainian police opened a criminal case against FEMEN because during its 27 August 2013 raid in the movement's Kiev office it had found a TT pistol and a grenade.[48] FEMEN claimed that these items were planted there by the Ukrainian police as part of a conspiracy by the Russian and Ukrainian secret services to prosecute the movement, which the police denied.[48][49][50][51][nb 3] On 30 August 2013 FEMEN activist Yana Zhdanov, Anna Hutsol and Alexandra Shevchenko were called in for questioning but instead (according to a FEMEN statement) "Fearing for their lives and freedom the activists escaped from Ukraine to Europe to continue FEMEN activities" (also in Ukraine (as Hutsol had stated 3 days before she left Ukraine)).[17][18] The Kiev office became a (not FEMEN affiliated) bookstore on 23 October 2013.[16] Early March Hutsol claimed that although the regime that had criminal probed them had fallen it was "too risky to return to Ukraine" (in a February 2014 interview Hutsol also claimed that FEMEN activists who had stayed in Ukraine had helped suring the Euromaidan-protests that ultimately had toppled this regime).[52][53] FEMEN actions did recur in Kiev in the summer of 2014.[54]

International branches[edit]

FEMEN France[edit]

Further information: FEMEN France

FEMEN France is the French branch of FEMEN. After cutting down a crucifix near Maidan Nezalezhnosti in Kiev in August 2012,[55] Inna Shevchenko left the country and went to Paris to set up FEMEN France, a training center for activists.[56] The international training center opened on 18 September 2012.[3]

As of early January 2013, the organization consisted of 30 local activists.[5] The only Ukrainians regularly present were Oksana Shachko and Inna Shevchenko.[5] On March 6, 2013, FEMEN activists, together with French writer Galia Ackerman, released their first book, FEMEN. The book was published by Calmann-Lévy.[57]

The international training center opened on 18 September 2012. 15 activists marched topless from the metro station Château Rouge to the Lavoir Moderne Parisien, where their new headquarters are located, and organized a press conference there.[58]

On 3 October 2012, French activists Éloïse Bouton, Elvire Duvelle-Charles, Miyabi K., Julia Javel, Jenny Bah, Nathalie Vignes and Inna Shevchenko protested against rape by standing topless in front of the Venus de Milo statue in the Louvre Museum. The FEMEN activists shouted, “We have hands to stop rape”. They stated they chose the Venus de Milo because it has no arms, arguing this best symbolizes a woman’s helplessness and vulnerability. This protest followed an incident in Tunisia where a woman faced charges of indecency after claiming she was raped by police officers.[59]

On 15 October 2012, 8 topless activists protested in front of the French Ministry of Justice at the Place Vendôme in Paris in response to the verdict in the trial of fourteen men for the gang rape of teenage girls.[60] After a four-week trial in Fontenay-sous-Bois near Paris, four of the accused were found guilty of taking part in gang rapes, but 10 were acquitted.[61] The sentences were far lighter than those recommended by the state prosecutor, who had called for prison sentences of five to seven years for eight of the men. The protestors accused the French authorities of tolerating the rape of minors.[60]

FEMEN activists held protests in front of Great Mosque of Paris on 3 April 2013, to demand the release of Amina Tyler, a FEMEN activist in Tunisia. They also burned the Salafist flag.

Other branches[edit]

Since late 2011 FEMEN has held rallies outside Ukraine.[62][63] In late April 2011, the organization said it was setting up international branches in Warsaw, Zürich, Rome, Tel Aviv, and Rio de Janeiro.[64][65] A demonstration by a group called RU FEMEN in the Russian capital, Moscow, in late April 2011[66] was immediately denounced as a fake offspring of FEMEN.[64][65] FEMEN accused the Russian political party United Russia of having set up RU FEMEN.[64][65] Early 2013 FEMEN claimed to have members in Brazil, Germany, the U.S., Canada, Switzerland, Italy, Bulgaria, and Tunisia.[5]

On 23 January 2013 a third national FEMEN-group was opened officially when Alexandra Shevchenko launched FEMEN in Germany proposing to train and lead the group from Berlin and Hamburg bases.[6][15] The German branch of FEMEN was founded by Zana Ramadani.

A Quebec-based FEMEN is also active, founded by Ukraine-born, Sept-Îles raised Xenia Chernyshova.[67]

On 10 September 2013 the Belgium branch of FEMEN voluntary disbanded itself.[nb 4].[68]

A branch of FEMEN in Turkey, founded in late-2013 is also active.[69][70]

June 2014 FEMEN opened a branch in Israel with 15 women, FEMEN notes, "our numbers are growing from week to week.” The members, who range in age from 17 to 30, come from all over the country.[71]

Goals and stances[edit]

FEMEN describes itself as "radical feminism"[72] and it claims to be "fighting patriarchy in its three manifestations - sexual exploitation of women, dictatorship and religion".[13] FEMEN has pledged to fight the sex industry and marriage agencies,[73] the Church and its pro-life beliefs[74][75] and patriarchal society, as well as those who oppose gay marriage.[5] FEMEN has expressed opposition against Islamism,[76] "Sharia law"[77] and spoken against the practice of FGM.[78] On its official website FEMEN states: "FEMEN – is sextremism serving to protect women's rights, democracy watchdogs attacking patriarchy, in all its forms: the dictatorship, the church, the sex industry".[2][7]

FEMEN has expressed both support for and opposition against various public figures and organizations; for example, the group lauded Pussy Riot[79] and collaborated with Aliaa Elmahdy.[80][81] In 2011 the group has stated it has enjoyed limited success in pushing its agenda.[82] It was also criticized for failure "to provide much insight into what the concrete goals [of the organization] are".[72]

Feminist issues[edit]

May 2009 "Ukraine is not a Brothel!" protest on Maidan Nezalezhnosti

Founder Anna Hutsol is adamantly opposed to legalizing prostitution in Ukraine[19] and advocates for criminalization of prostitution abroad.[83] In late May 2009, FEMEN proposed the introduction of criminal responsibility for the use of sex industry services.[84] FEMEN protested against what they argued were moves being made by the Ukrainian government to legalize prostitution during the EURO 2012 championships.[85] The group asked UEFA and the Ukrainian government to create a social program devoted to the problem of sex tourism and prostitution in Ukraine; to inform football fans that prostitution is illegal in Ukraine; and to take additional steps to fight against prostitution and sex tourism.[86][nb 5]

Despite Femen's objection to the sex industry, the group has fought against the prosecution of Anastasia Grishay by Ukrainian authorities (initiated by a prominent Communist member of parliament)[88][89] on grounds of her involvement in pornography.[88][90][91]

According to (founder) Hutsol "The Femen movement stands for women-related policies, not women in politics".[92] FEMEN's leadership has very low expectations of all current mainstream Ukrainian politicians.[10][93][94] When asked (in April 2013) if she considered German Chancellor Angela Merkel "the enemy" Alexandra Shevchenko replied: "In so far as she shakes the hand of the dictator, yes; like Yulia Tymoshenko and like Margaret Thatcher before them, she has hardly spoken out for women's rights".[33]

Ukrainian issues[edit]

FEMEN protest outside the Secret Service Building in Kiev (August 2010)

FEMEN has protested "against the limitation of democratic liberties and freedom of the press" during Viktor Yanukovich's presidency[95] and against (Ukrainian) government corruption.[96]

FEMEN protest actions have also taken place against alleged anti-Ukrainian policies by the Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian President and Government of Russia.[97][98] It also demanded "independence for the Ukrainian church".[97][98]

In the past (namely 2012) FEMEN had stated that its goals were "to develop leadership, intellectual and moral qualities of young women in Ukraine" and "to build up the image of Ukraine, [a] country with great opportunities for women".[99][43] But today its official website makes no mention of goals aimed at Ukrainian woman in particular (nor from other countries).[2] In 2010 had stated the goals of the organization where "to shake women in Ukraine, making them socially active; to organize in 2017 a women's revolution."[37]

International issues[edit]

In December 2012 FEMEN "warned" the European Union "to stop immediately political, economic and cultural contacts with Gazprom-Kremlin's dictatorship"; because "dependence on Nord Stream will bring Europe to an economic collapse and the abolition of visas requirements for Russians threatens Europe with a cultural Armageddon".[100] An 8 April 2013 "topless ambush" of Russian President Vladimir Putin (accompanied by German Chancellor Angela Merkel) at the Hanover trade fair was described by Alexandra Shevchenko as "non-violent women protesting against the most dangerous dictator in the world, it got great coverage and will hopefully inspire people in Russia as well as helping us to recruit new members".[33]

Protests against religious institutions[edit]

Examples of FEMEN protests against religious institutions are:

Amina Tyler case[edit]

Amina "Tyler" Sboui
Main article: Amina Tyler

Amina Tyler (real name Amina Sboui), a Tunisian FEMEN activist, was arrested on 19 May 2013 in Tunis. International protests followed for her release from detention. On 12 June 2013 a Tunisian judge convicted the two French and a German FEMEN member after they were charged with public indecency while protesting for the release of Tyler.[13] Pauline Hillier, Marguerite Stern and Josephine Markmann were released on 26 June 2013 after a Tunisian court lifted their prison sentence.[122]

Amina Tyler was acquitted for contempt and defamation on 29 July 2013; but she remained jailed pending trial on a separate charge of desecrating a cemetery.[4]

FEMEN had staged protests in front of the Grand Mosque of Paris burning a Tawhid flag. Amina upon release in August 2013 from detention in a Tunisian jail declared she was leaving the group in protest adding that she thought FEMEN's actions in Paris were disrespectful to the Muslim world and because she saw a lack of financial transparency in the organization.[123]

Cultural and political image[edit]

The group has been widely covered in the media,[124] including by CNN, BBC News,[125] Der Spiegel, Die Welt, Independent.ie,[43] France 24,[20] RT,[91] Euronews,[126] the Kyiv Post,[127] USA Today,[128] Reuters,[36] The Washington Post, and The Wall Street Journal.[63]

Critics have stated FEMEN members are more interested in self-promotion than real reform, and that their antics are often tacky and undermine the cause of their protests.[97] According to Ukrainian gender studies expert Tetyana Bureychak, most Ukrainian women are unimpressed by FEMEN.[129] Ukrainian sociologist Oleh Demkiv has spoken out against the controversial nature of FEMEN's protests and in July 2011 he stated they "unfortunately, do not enjoy popular support, or lead to changes in Ukraine's consciousness".[130] In February 2013 Joanna Rohozinska (from National Endowment for Democracy) stated "there is little evidence of any of Femen's protests having significant impact" and she called FEMEN's decision to set up branches in outside Ukraine "as disingenuous at best and, frankly, somewhat cowardly".[72] Positive remarks in Ukraine about FEMEN came from Maria Mayerchyk (of Lviv University), who has spoken about FEMEN, saying that they are a "positive, radical and important phenomenon that is able to raise social issues",[129] and Larysa Kobelianska (UN-led women's rights program) said the group has succeeded in attracting public attention to women's problems, even if by questionable means.[25][131]

The group is seen more positively abroad.[10] Naomi Westland wrote that "Western countries are more accustomed than those in the Eastern Hemisphere to seeing naked or semi-naked bodies in the media and on the streets. But in countries where nudity is taboo, the protests have more profound impact."[124] Jeffrey Tayler noted: "Femen originated in Ukraine, born of young women who grew up without exposure to the West's culture of political correctness and who have scant respect for it; from their country's Soviet past, they know how deleterious the stifling of free speech can be. Now that they have moved to the West, Femen has courageously broken rules and enlivened the debate over religion's role in our world."[132] FEMEN received a positive reception after opening their location in Paris.[133] FEMEN has been criticized by Chitra Nagarajan for "its obsession with nudity that feeds a racist colonial feminism."[134]

Critique[edit]

In September 2013 FEMEN came under heavy critique when the Australian documentary film-maker Kitty Green exposed a man named Victor Svyatski as the mastermind behind the group.[135] Svyatski was previously known as (only) a “consultant” to the movement. In the documentary "Ukraine is not a brothel"[136] Svyatski admits he is the brain behind the group, stating that the girls would not have been able to start FEMEN without him, which is confirmed by some of the female FEMEN activists. In the documentary Svyatski is heard intensively instructing the FEMEN women how to perform their protests and bullying them when not all goes according to plan. Activist Inna Shevchenko admits later in the documentary, that the patriarchal system roots so deep in Ukranian women, it was probably indeed not possible to start FEMEN without Svyatski, but is also clear that this is not something that can continue much longer. Shevchenko explains that Svyatski will have to go, even if he is unwilling to do so. FEMEN received much critique after this exposure, but film maker Green stated that the press overemphasized Svyatski's role, not including that he indeed was no longer involved with FEMEN after the release of the film.

Financing[edit]

FEMEN founder Anna Hutsol watches a FEMEN demonstration with DJ Hell in Kiev on 22 May 2009

Funding is provided by FEMEN activists through the sale of products bearing the FEMEN logo by some 30 chapters.[137] FEMEN also receives donations from individuals[25][37][138] like Helmut Geier (also known as DJ under the alias DJ Hell),[44] German businesswoman Beate Schober (who is currently residing in Ukraine),[139] the American businessman Jed Sunden (founder of Ukrainian KP Media and former owner of Kyiv Post newspaper)[1][140] and Ukrainian Canadians.[93]

In March 2012 Ukrainian magazine Focus claimed that FEMEN activists receive royalties for foreign interviews and in the tabloids.[39] In the magazine Anna Hutsol confirmed that a rally in Istanbul was sponsored by a Turkish company producing underwear.[39]

A Ukrainian 1+1 journalist, who claimed (in September 2012) to have infiltrated the organisation, says that its office in the Ukrainian capital, Kiev, costs the movement over $2,500 per month, on top of which each member’s salary was roughly $1,000 per month.[141]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ackerman, Galia et al., FEMEN, Published by Calmann-Lévy (Paris 2013), 280 pages. ISBN 978-2702144589. (French language publication)[142]

Filmography[edit]

  • Nos seins, nos armes ! (Our breasts, our weapons!), documentary film (1hour 10 mins), written and directed by Caroline Fourest and Nadia El Fani, produced by Nilaya Productions, aired on France 2 on 5 March 2013.[143]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ On 19 December 2011 FEMEN performed a topless protest against Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko outside the KGB Headquarters in Minsk, mocking Lukashenko's recognizable haircut and moustache.[31] Afterwards, according to FEMEN, the three protesters Inna Shevchenko, Oksana Shachko and Aleksandra Nemchinova were abducted by the Belarus authorities and taken to a remote forest blindfolded, doused with oil, forced to strip and then threatened with being set on fire, before having their hair violently cut with knives and being abandoned in the snow half-naked.[30][32]
  2. ^ Early September 2013 Inna Shevchenko stated that FEMEN had "broke free" of Sviatsky.[22]
  3. ^ On 28 August 2013 a Kiev police spokesperson stated no one in the group had been charged but the criminal probe into illegal possession of weapons by the group continued and the women could be called in for further questioning.[49]
  4. ^ The reason given on its Facebook page was: "disagreement about the internal organization within the international movement Femen".[68]
  5. ^ As a counter-act Polish prostitutes held their own nude demonstration (in masks) with the catchphrase "Femen! Get the fuck out of our business".[87]
  6. ^ The desecration of the cross was repudiated by Maria Alyokhina of Pussy Riot, who said "Their surprise displays and protests against authoritarianism are similar to us, but we look at feminism differently, especially the form of speech. We wouldn't take our clothes off, and will not. Their latest action, the sawing of the cross, does not create a feeling of solidarity, unfortunately."[110]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Femen wants to move from public exposure to political power, Kyiv Post (28 April 2010)
  2. ^ a b c d FEMEN: FEMEN - is a global women's movement, Official FEMEN website
  3. ^ a b "Naked March in Paris to Open New Office of Femen Feminist Group – SPIEGEL ONLINE". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 2012-11-19. 
  4. ^ a b Tunisian Femen activist ‘acquitted’ of defamation, France 24 (29 July 2013)
    Court dismisses 1 charge against Tunisian feminist[dead link], TimesDaily (29 July 2013)
    Tunisian Activist Acquitted Amid Growing Unrest, Voice of America (29 July 2013)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Femen in Paris: Ukraine's Topless Warriors Move West, The Atlantic (2 January 2013)
  6. ^ a b "FEMEN". FEMEN. 2013-01-24. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Fearless ... and topless: Femen activists to bring 'sextremism' to the UK, theguardian.com (19 October 2013)
  8. ^ a b "Ukraine’s Ladies Of Femen". Movements.org. 2011-08-16. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  9. ^ Jeffrey Tayler. "The Woman Behind Femen's Topless Protest Movement - Jeffrey Tayler". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f Ukraine's Femen:Topless protests 'help feminist cause', BBC News (23 October 2012)
  11. ^ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/04/24/topless-femen-protest-andre-jozef-leonard_n_3146609.html
  12. ^ a b "Девушки хотят. Интервью с Анной Гуцол, лидером FEMEN", 15 July 2010, Анастасия Рингис, Focus (Ukrainian magazine) website (retrieved 6 February 2013) (Russian)
  13. ^ a b c d Femen activists jailed in Tunisia for topless protest, BBC News (12 June 2013)
  14. ^ a b c d "FEMEN rings the bell: Naked activists defend right to abortion". Russia Today. 10 April 2012. 
  15. ^ a b "Bare-chested protesters take on Berlin | Germany | DW.DE | 26.02.2013". DW.DE. 2013-02-26. Retrieved 2013-11-12. 
  16. ^ a b (Ukrainian) У колишньому офісі Femen відкрили книжкову крамницю In the former office Femen opened a bookstore, Ukrayinska Pravda (23 October 2013)
  17. ^ a b (Ukrainian) Активістки Femen втекли з України Femen activists fled from Ukraine, Ukrayinska Pravda (31 August 2013)
  18. ^ a b (Ukrainian) Femen закриє офіс в Україні, але діяльність не припинить Femen closes office in Ukraine, however, the activities do not stop, Ukrayinska Pravda (27 August 2013)
  19. ^ a b c Feminine Femen targets 'sexpats', Kyiv Post (22 May 2009)
  20. ^ a b How they protest prostitution in Ukraine, France 24 (28 August 2009)
  21. ^ The man who made Femen: New film outs Victor Svyatski as the mastermind behind the protest group and its breast-baring stunts , The Independent (3 September 2013)
  22. ^ a b Femen let Victor Svyatski take over because we didn't know how to fight it, The Guardian (5 September 2013)
  23. ^ McNabb, Geoffrey (2014-01-17). "'I don't want to be liked': Inna Shevchenko, leader of women's rights group Femen, talks dictators, documentaries and death threats". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2014-01-19. 
  24. ^ (French) Femen Les féministes venues du froid, Paris Match (18 February 2012)
  25. ^ a b c d Topless protesters gain fame in Ukraine[dead link], Associated Press (19 November 2010)
  26. ^ [1][dead link]
  27. ^ Eastern approaches Ex-communist Europe (2011-05-20). "Unorthodox protest in Ukraine: Indecent exposure". The Economist. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  28. ^ "Kyiv's Topless Protestors: 'The Entire Ukraine Is a Brothel' - SPIEGEL ONLINE". Spiegel.de. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  29. ^ "Des féministes ukrainiennes manifestent contre DSK - L'EXPRESS". Lexpress.fr. 2011-11-01. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
    Your Name* (2011-11-05). "Ukrainian Femen Protesters - Irish Independent Galleries". Photos.independent.ie. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
    "Bikyamasr: Ukraine woman strips at Vatican for rights, anti-Berlusconi". Kyivpost.com. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
    "FEMEN - Zurich is not a Brothel! (NSFW)". Mizozo.com. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
    "'Femen' Stage Naked Protest Against Putin in Moscow [PHOTOS] - IBTimes UK". Ibtimes.co.uk. 2011-12-09. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  30. ^ a b Rfe/Rl. "Ukrainian Activists Allegedly Kidnapped, Terrorized In Belarus Found". Rferl.org. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  31. ^ "FEMEN Protest Photos". Cryptome.org. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  32. ^ "http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-16275566". BBC. 20 December 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  33. ^ a b c Kate Connolly in Berlin (12 April 2013). "Femen activist tells how protest against Putin and Merkel was planned | World news". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-11-12. 
  34. ^ a b Kira Cochrane (20 March 2013). "Rise of the naked female warriors | World news". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  35. ^ a b c Femen leader points to ‘Russian fingerprints’ in recent attacks on group’s activists in Kiev[dead link], Interfax-Ukraine (29 July 2013)
    FEMEN says their male activist brutally beaten up by security services, Interfax-Ukraine (25 July 2013)
    Fined Femen activists planned protest against Putin, Ukrinform (29 July 2013)
    State Leaders, Orthodox Clergy Mark Kievan Rus Anniversary, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (27 July 2013)
    'Attacks were meant to intimidate us': Femen, Deutsche Welle (29 July 2013)
  36. ^ a b Ukraine's topless group widens political role, Reuters (15 November 2010)
  37. ^ a b c d e f (Ukrainian) Femen: "Ми даємо чиновникам і політикам, проср...тися", Табло ID (20 September 2010)
  38. ^ (Russian) Maria Dmitrieva, Радикальный эксгибиционизм ("Radical Exhibitionism"); first published on the website Private Correspondent
  39. ^ a b c (Russian) Игры на раздевание. Femen завоевывает симпатии мужчин и теряет поддержку феминисток Games on the strip. Femen winning the sympathies of men and losing the support of feminists, Focus (27 March 2012)
  40. ^ (Russian) Мужественный протест (The courageous protest), Lenta.Ru (15 February 2012)
  41. ^ (Ukrainian) Information on the registration of electoral lists of candidates[dead link], Central Election Commission of Ukraine
    (Ukrainian) Results of voting in single constituencies in 2012[dead link] & Nation-wide list[dead link], Central Election Commission of Ukraine
  42. ^ "Ukraine is not a bordello", Russia Today (14 December 2009)
  43. ^ a b c FEMEN, Organisations MySpace page
  44. ^ a b c d 'The Entire Ukraine Is a Brothel', Der Spiegel (5 May 2011)
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External links[edit]