Intercontinental Cup (football)

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For other uses, see Intercontinental Cup.
Toyota Cup
European-South American Cup
Intercontinental Cup Borussia Dortmund.jpg
The European-South American Cup trophy
Founded 1960 (1980 in its
last format)
Abolished 2004
Region Europe (UEFA)
South America (CONMEBOL)
Number of teams 2
Last champions Portugal Porto (2nd title)
Most successful club(s) Uruguay Peñarol
Uruguay Nacional
Italy Milan
Spain Real Madrid
Argentina Boca Juniors

(3 titles each)

The Intercontinental Cup, known earlier as European-South American Cup and Toyota Cup from 1980 to 2004 for commercial reasons by agreement with the automaker, was a football official competition endorsed by Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and Confederación Sudamericana de Fútbol (CONMEBOL), contested between representative clubs from these confederations, usually the winners of the European Champions' Cup and the South American Copa Libertadores.

Despite being chronologically the fourth international competition created to define "the best team in the world" after Lipton Trophy, Copa Rio and Pequeña Copa del Mundo due to Fédération Internationale de Football Association's inability to organize club competitions,[1] it is considered by that international governing body as the sole predecessor[2] to the FIFA Club World Cup, held for the first time in 2000.[3]

From its formation in 1960 to 1979, the competition was contested over a two legged tie, with a playoff if necessary until 1968, and penalty kicks later. During the 1970s, European participation in the Intercontinental Cup became a running question due controversial events in the 1969 final,[4] and some European Champions Club' winner teams withdrew.[5] From 1980 until 2004, the competition was contested over a single match held in Japan and sponsored by multinational automaker Toyota, which offered a secondary trophy, the Toyota Cup.[6]

All the winner teams were recognised de facto as "world club champions".[2][7][8][9] The last winner of the cup was Portuguese side Porto, defeating Colombian side Once Caldas in a penalty shootout in 2004.

History[edit]

Beginnings[edit]

Created in 1960 at the initiative of the European confederation (UEFA), with CONMEBOL's support, the European/South American Cup, known also as the Intercontinental Cup, was contested by the holders of the European Champion Clubs’ Cup and the winners of its newly established South American equivalent, the Copa Libertadores. Both UEFA and CONMEBOL consider all editions official by including them in their records.[10][11][12] It was the brainchild of UEFA president Henri Delaunay, who also helped Jules Rimet in the realization of the inaugural FIFA World Cup in 1930.[13][14] Initially played over two legs, with a third match if required in the early years (when goal difference did not count), the competition had a rather turbulent existence. The first winners of the competition was Spanish club Real Madrid. Real Madrid managed to hold Uruguayan side Peñarol 0-0 in Montevideo and trounce the South Americans 5-1 in Madrid to become the first winners of the competition.[15][16][17] The Spaniards titled themselves world champions until FIFA stepped in and objected; citing that the competition did not include any other champions from the other confederations, FIFA stated that they can only claim to be intercontinental champions of a competition played between two organizations.[18] Peñarol would appear again the following year and come out victorious after beating Portuguese club Benfica on the playoff; after a 1-0 win by the Europeans in Lisboa and a 5-0 trashing by the South Americans, a playoff at the Estadio Centenario saw the home side squeeze a 2-1 win to become the first South American side to win the competition.[19][20][21]

In 1962 the tournament grew more in worldwide attention after it was swept through the sublime football of a Santos team led by Pelé, considered by some the best club team of all times.[22] Os Santásticos, also known as O Balé Branco (or white ballet), which dazzled the world during that time and containing stars such as Gilmar, Mauro, Mengálvio, Coutinho, and Pepe, won the title after defeating Benfica 3-2 in Rio de Janeiro and thrashing the Europeans 2-5 in their Estádio da Luz.[23][24][25] Santos would successfully defend the title in 1963 after being pushed all the way by Milan. After each side won 4-2 at their respective home legs, a playoff match at the Maracanã saw Santos keep the title after a tight 1-0 victory.[23][26] The competition had attracted the interest of other continents. The North and Central America condeferation, CONCACAF, had asked, unsuccessfully, to participate.[25][27] Milan's fierce rivals, Inter Milan, would go on to win the 1964 and 1965 editions, beating Argentine club Independiente on both occasions.[28][29][30][31][32] Peñarol gain revenge for their loss in 1960 by crushing Real Madrid 4-0 in aggregate in 1966.[21][33][34]

Rioplatense violence[edit]

However, as a result of the violence practiced often in the Copa Libertadores by Argentine and Uruguayan clubs,[35] disagreements with CONMEBOL, the lack of financial incentives and the violent, brutal and controversial way the Brazilian national team was treated in the 1966 FIFA World Cup by European teams, in 1966, 1969 and 1970, Brazilian football, including its clubs, declined to participate in international competitions, including the Copa Libertadores and consequently the Intercontinental Cup. During this time, the competition became dogged by foul play.[36] Calendar problems, acts of brutality, even on the pitch, and boycotts tarnished its image, to the point of bringing into question the wisdom of organizing it at all.

The 1967 edition between Argentina's Racing Club and Scotland's Celtic F.C. was a violent affair, with the decisive game being dubbed "The Battle of Montevideo" after three players from the Scottish side and two the Argentine side were sent off. A fourth Celtic player was dismissed but amid the chaos got away with staying on.[37][38][39][40]

A.C. Milan's Nestor Combin was left bloodied and unconscious after a brutal series against Estudiantes de La Plata.

The following season, Argentine side Estudiantes de La Plata faced England's Manchester United in which the return leg saw Estudiantes come out on top of a bad-tempered series.[41][42][43] But it was the events of 1969 which damaged the competition's integrity.[44] After a 3-0 win at San Siro, Milan went to Buenos Aires to play Estudiantes at La Bombonera.[45][46][47] Estudiantes' players booted balls at the Milan team as they warmed up and hot coffee was poured on the Italians as they emerged from the tunnel by Estudiantes' fans. Estudiantes resorted to inflicting elbows and allegedly even needles at the Milanese team in order to intimidate them. Pierino Prati was knocked unconscious and continued for a further 20 minutes despite suffering from a mild concussion. Estudiantes goalkeeper Alberto Poletti also punched Gianni Rivera, but the most vicious treatment was reserved for Nestor Combin-an Argentinean-born striker, who had faced accusations of being a traitor as he was on the opposite side of the intercontinental match.[44][48][49]

Combin was kicked in the face by Poletti and later saw his nose and cheekbone broken by the elbow of Ramón Aguirre Suárez. Bloodied and broken, Combin was asked to return to the pitch by the referee but fainted. While unconscious, Combin was arrested by Argentine police on a charge of draft dodging, having not undertaken military service in the country. The player was forced to spend a night in the cells, eventually being released after explaining he had fulfilled national service requirements as a French citizen.[44] Estudiantes won the game 2-1 but Milan took the title on aggregate.[44][47][48][49]

Italian newspaper Gazzetta dello Sport dubbed it, "Ninety minutes of a man-hunt". The Argentinean press responded with "The English were right"-a reference to Alf Ramsey's famous description of the Argentina national football team as "animals" during the 1966 FIFA World Cup.[44][48][49] The Argentinean Football Association (AFA), under heavy international pressure, took stern action. Argentina's President, military dictator Juan Carlos Onganía, summoned Estudiantes delegate Oscar Ferrari and demanded "the severest appropriate measures in defence of the good name of the national sport. [It was a] lamentable spectacle which breached most norms of sporting ethics".[44][48][49] Poletti was banned from the sport for life, Suarez was banned for 30 games, and Eduardo Manera for 20 with the former and latter serving a month in jail.[44]

Degradation[edit]

Bayern Munich participated, and won, in the Intercontinental Cup in 1976 overcoming Brazil's Cruzeiro EC.

Due to the brutality in these editions, FIFA was called into providing penalties and regulating the tournament. However, FIFA stated that it could not stipulate regulations in a competition that it did not organize. However, with the Asian and North American club competitions in place, FIFA opened the idea of supervising the competition if it included those confederations, which was met with a negative response from its participants.[50][51][52][53][54][55] Nevertheless, some European champions started to decline participation in the tournament after the events of 1969.[18]

Estudiantes would face Dutch side Feyenoord the following season, which saw the Europeans victorious. Oscar Malbernat ripped off Joop van Daele's glasses and trampled on them claiming that he was "not allowed to play with glasses."[56][57][58][59] Dutch side Ajax, European champions of 1971, would decline to face Uruguay's Nacional due to the latter side's reputation for violent play, which resulted in European Cup runners-up, Greek side Panathinaikos, participating.[60][61][62] Nacional's Luis Artime ended up breaking Yiannis Tomaras' leg in two places in the first leg as Nacional won the series 3-2 on aggregate.[60][61][62][63]

Ajax participated in 1972 against Independiente.[64][65][66] The team's arrival at Buenos Aires was extremely hostile: Johan Cruyff received several death threats from Independiente's local fan firms.[67] Due to the indifference from the Argentine police, Ajax manager Ştefan Kovács appointed an organized emergency security detail for the Nederlandse meester, headed by himself and team member Barry Hulshoff, described as a big and burly man.[67] In the first leg, Cruyff opened the scoring in Avellaneda at the 5th minute. As a result, Dante Mircoli retaliated with a vicious tackle a couple of minutes later; Cruyff was too injured to continue and the Dutch team found themselves being assaulted with tackles and punches.[64][65][66] Kovács had to convince his team to play on during half-time as his players wanted to withdraw.[64][65][66] Ajax squeezed a 1-1 tie and followed up with a 3-0 trounce in Amsterdam to win the Cup.[64][65][66][68] Although Ajax were the defending champions, they again declined to participate a year later after Independiente won Libertadores again, leaving it to Juventus, European Cup runners-up, to play a single-match final won by the Argentines.[65][66][69][70] That same year, French newspaper L'Equipe, who helped bring about the birth of the European Cup, volunteered to sponsor a Club World Cup contested by the champions of Europe, South America, Central and North America and Africa, the only continental club tournaments in existence at the time; the competition was to potentially take place in Paris between September and October 1974 with an eventual final to be held at the Parc des Princes.[18][18][71][72][73] The proposal, supported by the South Americans,[18] was dismissed due to the negativity of the Europeans.[73]

German club Bayern Munich also declined to play in 1974 as Independiente again qualified to participate.[74][75][76][77] European Cup runners-up Atlético Madrid from Spain won the competition 2-1 on aggregate.[74][75] Once again, Independiente qualified to participate in 1975; this time, both finalists of the European Cup declined to participate and the competition was not played.[78] That same year, L'Equipe tried, once again, to create a Club World Cup, in which the participants would have been: the four semifinalists of the European Cup, both finalists of the Copa Libertadores, as well as the African and Asian champions. However, UEFA declined once again and the proposal failed.[79]

In 1976, when Brazilian side Cruzeiro won the Copa Libertadores, the European champions Bayern Munich willingly participated, with the Bavarians winning 2-0 on aggregate. In an interview with Jornal do Brasil, Bayern's manager Dettmar Cramer denied that Bayern's refusal to dispute the 1974 and 1975 Intercontinental Cups were a result of the rivals being Argentine teams. He claimed it was a scheduling impossibility, rather, which kept the Germans from participating. He also stated that the competition was not economically rewarding due to the team's fan base's disinterest in the Cup. To cover the costs of playing the first leg in Munich's Olympiastadion, the organizers needed to have a minimum of 25,000 spectators. However, due to heavy snow and cold weather, only 18,000 showed up. Because of this deficit, Cramer stated that if Bayern were to win the European Cup again, they would decline to participate as it held no assurances of income.[80]

Argentine side Boca Juniors qualified for the 1977 and 1978 editions, for which the European champions, English club Liverpool, declined to participate on both occasions. In 1977, Boca Juniors defeated European Cup runners-up, German club Borussia Mönchengladbach, 5-2 on aggregate.[81][82][83][84] Boca Juniors declined to face Belgian club Brugge in 1978 leaving that edition undisputed.[78] Paraguay's Olimpia won the 1979 edition against European Cup runners-up, Swedish side Malmö FF, after winning both legs.[85][86][87][88] However, the competition had greatly declined in prestige. After the 0-1 win of the South Americans in the first leg at Malmö, which saw less than 5000 Swedish fans turn up, Spanish newspaper El Mundo Deportivo called the Cup "a dog without an owner", adding:[18]

The truth is that the Intercontinental Cup is an adventitious competition without foundation. It has no known owner, it depends on a strange consensus and the interested clubs are not tempted to risk much for so little money, as evidenced by the attendance at the game in Malmö, played, of course, in absence of this year's champion, Nottingham Forest, by the Swedish team, finalist in one of the most boring and worst games played to cap off the European Cup since 1956.

Rebirth in Japan[edit]

Seeing the deterioration of the Intercontinental Cup, Japanese motor corporation Toyota took the competition under its wing. It created contractual obligations to have the Intercontinental Cup played in Japan once a year in which every club participating were obliged to participate or face legal consequences. This modern format breathed new air into the competition which saw a new trophy handed out along with the Intercontinental Cup, the Toyota Cup.

The first Toyota Cup was held in 1980 which saw Uruguay's Nacional triumph over Nottingham Forest. The 1980s saw a domination by South American sides as Brazil's Flamengo and Grêmio, Uruguay's Nacional and Peñarol, Argentina's Independiente and River Plate take the spoils once each after Nacional's victory in 1980. Only Juventus, Portugal's FC Porto and Milan managed to bring the trophy to the European continent. In that decade, the English Football Association tried organizing a Club World Cup sponsored by promoting company West Nally only to be shot down by UEFA.[89]

The 1990s proved to be a decade dominated by European teams as Milan, Red Star Belgrade, Ajax, Juventus, Real Madrid, Manchester United and newcomers Borussia Dortmund of Germany were fueled to victory by its economic powers and heavy pouching of South American stars. Only three title went to South America as São Paulo and Argentina's Vélez Sársfield came out the winners, each of them defeating Milan with São Paulo's inaugural win being over Barcelona. The 2000s would see Boca Juniors win the competition twice for South America while European victories came from Bayern Munich, Real Madrid and Porto. The 2004 Intercontinental Cup proved to be the last edition as the competition was absorbed into the FIFA Club World Cup.

Trophy[edit]

The competition trophy bears the words "Coupe Européenne-Sudamericaine" ("European-South American Cup") at the top. At the base of the trophy, there is the round logo of UEFA and a map of South America in a circle.

Cup format[edit]

From 1960 to 1979, the Intercontinental Cup was played in two legs. Between 1960 and 1968, the cup was decided on points only, the same format used by CONMEBOL to determine the winner of the Copa Libertadores final through 1987. Because of this format, a third match was needed when both teams were equal on points. Commonly this match was host by the continent where the last game of the series was played. From 1969 through 1979, the competition adopted the European standard method of aggregate score, with away goals.

Starting in 1980, the final became a single match. Up until 2000, the matches were held at Tokyo's National Stadium. Finals since 2002 were held at the Yokohama International Stadium, also the venue of the 2002 FIFA World Cup final.

Results[edit]

Key
dagger Match was won during extra time
* Match was won on a penalty shootout
Playoff match
# European runner-up contested in place of European champion
Year Country Winner Score Runner-up Country Venue Location Refs
1960  ESP Real Madrid 0–0 Peñarol  URU Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay [16]
 ESP Real Madrid 5–1 Peñarol  URU Estadio Santiago Bernabéu Madrid, Spain
1961  URU Peñarol 0–1 Benfica  POR Estádio da Luz Lisbon, Portugal [20]
 URU Peñarol 5–0 Benfica  POR Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay
 URU Peñarol 2–1 Benfica  POR Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay
1962  BRA Santos 3–2 Benfica  POR Maracanã Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [24]
 BRA Santos 5–2 Benfica  POR Estádio da Luz Lisbon, Portugal
1963  BRA Santos 2–4 Milan  ITA San Siro Milan, Italy [23]
 BRA Santos 4–2 Milan  ITA Maracanã Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
 BRA Santos 1–0 Milan  ITA Maracanã Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
1964  ITA Internazionale 0–1 Independiente  ARG La Doble Visera Avellaneda, Argentina [29]
 ITA Internazionale 2–0 Independiente  ARG San Siro Milan, Italy
 ITA Internazionale 1–0 Independiente  ARG Estadio Santiago Bernabéu Madrid, Spain
1965  ITA Internazionale 3–0 Independiente  ARG San Siro Milan, Italy [30]
 ITA Internazionale 0–0 Independiente  ARG La Doble Visera Avellaneda, Argentina
1966  URU Peñarol 2–0 Real Madrid  ESP Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay [34]
 URU Peñarol 2–0 Real Madrid  ESP Estadio Santiago Bernabéu Madrid, Spain
1967  ARG Racing 0–1 Celtic  SCO Hampden Park Glasgow, Scotland [38]
 ARG Racing 2–1 Celtic  SCO El Cilindro Avellaneda, Argentina
 ARG Racing 1–0 Celtic  SCO Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay
1968  ARG Estudiantes 1–0 Manchester United  ENG Estadio Camilo Cichero Buenos Aires, Argentina [42]
 ARG Estudiantes 1–1 Manchester United  ENG Old Trafford Manchester, England
1969  ITA Milan 3–0 Estudiantes  ARG San Siro Milan, Italy [46]
 ITA Milan 1–2 Estudiantes  ARG Estadio Camilo Cichero Buenos Aires, Argentina
1970  NED Feyenoord 2–2 Estudiantes  ARG Estadio Camilo Cichero Buenos Aires, Argentina
 NED Feyenoord 1–0 Estudiantes  ARG De Kuip Rotterdam, Netherlands
1971  URU Nacional 1–1 Panathinaikos#  GRE Karaiskakis Stadium Piraeus, Greece
 URU Nacional 2–1 Panathinaikos#  GRE Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay
1972  NED Ajax 1–1 Independiente  ARG La Doble Visera Avellaneda, Argentina
 NED Ajax 3–0 Independiente  ARG Olympic Stadium Amsterdam, Netherlands
1973  ARG Independiente 1–0 Juventus#  ITA Stadio Olimpico Rome, Italy
Second leg was not played. Independiente declared winner.
1974  ESP Atlético Madrid# 0–1 Independiente  ARG La Doble Visera Avellaneda, Argentina
 ESP Atlético Madrid# 2–0 Independiente  ARG Vicente Calderón Stadium Madrid, Spain
1976  FRG Bayern Munich 2–0 Cruzeiro  BRA Olympiastadion Munich, West Germany
 FRG Bayern Munich 0–0 Cruzeiro  BRA Mineirão Belo Horizonte, Brazil
1977  ARG Boca Juniors 2–2 Borussia Mönchengladbach#  FRG La Bombonera Buenos Aires, Argentina
 ARG Boca Juniors 3–0 Borussia Mönchengladbach#  FRG Wildparkstadion Karlsruhe, West Germany
1979  PAR Olimpia 1–0 Malmö FF#  SWE Malmö Stadion Malmö, Sweden
 PAR Olimpia 2–1 Malmö FF#  SWE Estadio Defensores del Chaco Asunción, Paraguay
1980  URU Nacional 1–0 Nottingham Forest  ENG National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
1981  BRA Flamengo 3–0 Liverpool  ENG National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
1982  URU Peñarol 2–0 Aston Villa  ENG National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
1983  BRA Grêmio 2–1 Hamburg  FRG National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
1984  ARG Independiente 1–0 Liverpool  ENG National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
1985  ITA Juventus *2–2* Argentinos Juniors  ARG National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [a]
1986  ARG River Plate 1–0 Steaua București  ROU National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
1987  POR Porto dagger2–1dagger Peñarol  URU National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
1988  URU Nacional *2–2* PSV Eindhoven  NED National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [b]
1989  ITA Milan 1–0 Atlético Nacional  COL National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
1990  ITA Milan 3–0 Olimpia  PAR National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
1991  YUG Red Star Belgrade 3–0 Colo-Colo  CHI National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
1992  BRA São Paulo 2–1 Barcelona  ESP National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
1993  BRA São Paulo 3–2 Milan#  ITA National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [c]
1994  ARG Vélez Sársfield 2–0 Milan  ITA National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
1995  NED Ajax *0–0* Grêmio  BRA National Stadium Tokyo, Japan [d]
1996  ITA Juventus 1–0 River Plate  ARG National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
1997  GER Borussia Dortmund 2–0 Cruzeiro  BRA National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
1998  ESP Real Madrid 2–1 Vasco da Gama  BRA National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
1999  ENG Manchester United 1–0 Palmeiras  BRA National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
2000  ARG Boca Juniors 2–1 Real Madrid  ESP National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
2001  GER Bayern Munich dagger1–0dagger Boca Juniors  ARG National Stadium Tokyo, Japan
2002  ESP Real Madrid 2–0 Olimpia  PAR International Stadium Yokohama, Japan
2003  ARG Boca Juniors *1–1* Milan  ITA International Stadium Yokohama, Japan [e]
2004  POR Porto *0–0* Once Caldas  COL International Stadium Yokohama, Japan [f]

Notes[edit]

  • a Juventus won 4–2 in a penalty shootout
  • b Nacional won 7–6 in a penalty shootout
  • c European champions Marseille were suspended due to a match fixing and bribery scandal
  • d Ajax won 4–3 in a penalty shootout
  • e Boca Juniors won 3–1 in a penalty shootout
  • f Porto won 8–7 in a penalty shootout

Statistics[edit]

By country[edit]

Country Teams Cups Years
Argentina Argentine Primera Division 6 9 1967, 1968, 1973, 1977, 1984, 1986, 1994, 2000, 2003
Italy Serie A 3 7 1964, 1965, 1969, 1985, 1989, 1990, 1996
Brazil Campeonato Brasileiro Série A 4 6 1962, 1963, 1981, 1983, 1992, 1993
Uruguay Uruguayan Primera Division 2 6 1961, 1966, 1971, 1980, 1982, 1988
Spain La Liga 2 4 1960, 1974, 1998, 2002
Netherlands Eredivisie 2 3 1970, 1972, 1995
Germany Bundesliga 2 3 1976, 1997, 2001
Portugal Primeira Liga 1 2 1987, 2004
Paraguay Paraguayan Primera Division 1 1 1979
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslav First League 1 1 1991
England Premier League 1 1 1999

By confederation[edit]

Confederation Teams Countries Cups
CONMEBOL 13 4 22
UEFA 12 7 21

Coaches[edit]

Carlos Bianchi won three editions as coach: one with Vélez Sársfield in 1994, and 2 with Boca Juniors in 2000 and 2003.

Luis Cubilla and Juan Mujica, 2 Uruguayans won cups both as players and coaches:

  • Luis Cubilla (played for Peñarol in 1961 and for Nacional in 1971; then coached Olimpia in 1979)
  • Juan Mujica (played for Nacional in 1971; and coached it in 1980)

Players[edit]

Man of the Match[edit]

Since 1980

Year Player Club
1980 Uruguay Waldemar Victorino Uruguay Nacional
1981 Brazil Zico Brazil Flamengo
1982 Brazil Jair Uruguay Peñarol
1983 Brazil Renato Gaúcho Brazil Grêmio
1984 Argentina José Percudani Argentina Independiente
1985 France Michel Platini Italy Juventus
1986 Uruguay Antonio Alzamendi Argentina River Plate
1987 Algeria Rabah Madjer Portugal Porto
1988 Uruguay Santiago Ostolaza Uruguay Nacional
1989 Italy Alberigo Evani Italy Milan
1990 Netherlands Frank Rijkaard Italy Milan
1991 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Vladimir Jugović Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Red Star Belgrade
1992 Brazil Raí Brazil São Paulo
1993 Brazil Toninho Cerezo Brazil São Paulo
1994 Argentina Omar Asad Argentina Vélez Sársfield
1995 Netherlands Danny Blind Netherlands Ajax
1996 Italy Alessandro Del Piero Italy Juventus
1997 Germany Andreas Möller Germany Borussia Dortmund
1998 Spain Raúl Spain Real Madrid
1999 Wales Ryan Giggs England Manchester United
2000 Argentina Martín Palermo Argentina Boca Juniors
2001 Ghana Samuel Kuffour Germany Bayern Munich
2002 Brazil Ronaldo Spain Real Madrid
2003 Argentina Matías Donnet Argentina Boca Juniors
2004 Portugal Maniche Portugal Porto

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  5. ^ Risolo, Don (2010). Soccer Stories: Anecdotes, Oddities, Lore, and Amazing Feats p.109. U of Nebraska Press. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
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