The Fichier National Automatisé des Empreintes Génétiques (English: Automated National File of Genetic Prints) is the French national DNA database, used by both the national police force and local gendarmerie.
Origins and evolution
In June 1998, the Guigou law on the prevention of sexually-related crimes, passed by the Plural Left Lionel Jospin government, created a national DNA database. The implementation, originally planned for 1999, was finally completed in 2001, with the database itself located at Écully in the Rhône, managed by a subdirectorate of the technical and scientific departments of the French police force.
In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks on the USA in 2001, the French government increased the scope of the database to include DNA related to other serious criminal offences, such as voluntary manslaughter, criminal violence and terrorism.
A further 'law for interior safety' introduced by Nicolas Sarkozy on March 18, 2003 expanded the scope still further to cover almost all violent crimes to people or property, serious crimes such as drug trafficking, simple thefts, tags and dégradations, and finely almost all small offenses, but not traffic offenses or crimes committed abroad. Tackings is done for convicted person and simple suspect. The law does not expect minimal age.
In septembre 2009, Matthieu Bonduelle, the general secretary of the Syndicat de la magistrature (the first syndicat of juges) has declared that « nobody has pronounced himself in aid of a global filing, but, in fact, it is being done. ».
- As at October 1, 2003, FNAEG was understood to contain the DNA records of approximately 8,000 convicted criminals and another 3,200 suspects.
- In 2006, this number was believed to now be in excess of 330,000 entries.
- In May 2007, this number was believed to now be in excess of nearly 500,000 entries .
- In December 2009, there is 1.27 million entries.
With the expansion of the database in 2003, it also became an offense for suspects to fail to provide a DNA sample, with punishment ranging from a prison sentence of between six months and two years, and a fine of between 7,500 and 30,000 euros.
At the end of 2006, the media raised the case of individuals refusing to provide DNA samples. Many of them were civil disobedience activists opposed to Genetically modified organism (GMO) (See fr:Faucheurs volontaires). Although this was only around 200 cases, they denounced what they regarded as the threat to personal freedom.
- (French) A 8 et 11 ans, ils sont menacés de fichage génétique pour vol de jouets dans Le Monde daté du 05 mai 2007
- Le Canard enchaîné, (French) "L'ADN fiche la trouille", article of Dominique Simonnot, mercredi 16 septembre 2009, p. 4.
- Ouvrez la bouche, vous êtes fiché, article in Le Monde, of 18 September 2009.
- (French) A 8 et 11 ans, ils sont menacés de fichage génétique pour vol de jouets, Le Monde May 7, 2007
- (French) le Figaro du 16, (French) Record d'enquêtes élucidées grâce à l'ADN, article of Mathieu Delahousse
- (French) official declaration 2010/01/12