||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (January 2009)|
An early M249 version of the Minimi.
|Type||Light machine gun|
|Place of origin||Belgium|
|Used by||See Users|
|Weight||Standard model: 6.85 kg (15.1 lb)
Minimi Para: 6.56 kg (14.5 lb)
Vehicle model: 5.32 kg (11.7 lb)
Minimi 7.62: 8.17 kg (18.0 lb) fixed stock
Minimi 7.62: 8.4 kg (19 lb) telescopic metal stock
|Length||Standard model: 1,040 mm (40.9 in)
Minimi Para: 914 mm (36.0 in) stock extended / 766 mm (30.2 in) stock collapsed
Vehicle model: 793 mm (31.2 in) no buttstock
Minimi 7.62: 1,015 mm (40.0 in) fixed stock
Minimi 7.62: 1,000 mm (39.4 in) stock extended / 865 mm (34.1 in) stock collapsed
|Barrel length||Standard model: 465 mm (18.3 in)
Minimi Para: 349 mm (13.7 in)
Minimi 7.62: 502 mm (19.8 in)
|Width||110 mm (4.3 in)
Minimi 7.62: 128 mm (5.0 in)
|Cartridge||Minimi: 5.56x45mm NATO
Maximi: 7.62×51mm NATO
|Action||Gas-actuated, open bolt|
|Rate of fire||700–1,150 rounds/min
Minimi 7.62: 680–800 rounds/min
|Muzzle velocity||Standard model: 925 m/s (3,035 ft/s)
Minimi Para: 866 m/s (2,841.2 ft/s)
|Effective range||300–1,000 m sight adjustments|
|Feed system||200-round M27 disintegrating-link belt, 30-round STANAG magazine|
|Sights||Rear aperture, front post|
The Minimi (short for French: Mini Mitrailleuse; "mini machine gun") is a Belgian 5.56mm light machine gun developed by Fabrique Nationale (FN) in Herstal by Ernest Vervier. First introduced in 1974, it has entered service with the armed forces of more than thirty countries. The weapon is currently manufactured at the FN facility in Herstal and their US subsidiary FN Manufacturing LLC.
The Minimi is a light machine gun firing from an open bolt. The weapon is primarily chambered for 5.56x45mm NATO, though a 7.62×51mm NATO variant exists. It is an air-cooled weapon, capable of fully automatic fire only. It can be belt fed or fired from a magazine.
The Minimi is configured in several variants: the Standard model as a platoon or squad support weapon, the Para version for paratroopers and the Vehicle model as secondary armament for fighting vehicles.
Design details 
Operating mechanism 
The Minimi uses a gas-actuated long-stroke piston system. The barrel is locked with a rotary bolt, equipped with two massive locking lugs, forced into battery by a helical camming guide in the bolt carrier. Upon firing, the piston is forced to the rear by expanding propellant gases bled through a port in the barrel near the muzzle end. The piston rod acts against the bolt carrier, which begins its rearward motion guided on two rails welded to the receiver walls, while the bolt itself remains locked. This sequence provides a slight delay that ensures chamber pressure has dropped to a safe level by the time a cam in the bolt carrier rotates and unlocks the bolt, increasing extraction reliability as the empty cartridge casing has had the time to cool down and contract, exerting less friction against the chamber walls.
The Minimi fires from an open bolt, which reduces the danger of a round cooking off after extended periods of continuous fire, since a cartridge is only momentarily introduced into the chamber prior to ignition, and the movement of the bolt and bolt carrier forces air through the chamber and barrel after each shot, ventilating the barrel and removing heat. Gas escaping the gas cylinder is directed upward, avoiding kicking up dust and debris that would reveal the shooter's position.
The Minimi has a manually adjustable gas valve with two positions, normal and adverse. The adverse setting increases the cyclic rate of fire from 700–850 rounds per minute to 950–1,150 rounds per minute and is used only in extreme environmental conditions or when heavy fouling is present in the weapon's gas tube. The spring extractor is located inside the bolt, while the tilting lever ejector is contained inside the receiver housing. Spent casings are removed through a port located at the bottom of the right side of the receiver, protected from debris with a spring-loaded dust cover. The Minimi is striker-fired and the bolt carrier functions as the striker mechanism.
The Minimi has a push-button type manual safety installed in the trigger housing, above the pistol grip. In the "weapon safe" position, it disables the sear mechanism; pushing the button to the right side exposes a red-colored rim on the left side of the firearm and indicates the weapon is ready to fire. The black polymer pistol grip from the FAL and FNC rifles was initially used, but the Minimi is currently fitted with a modified grip with lateral grooves, installed at a smaller angle to the receiver.
The Minimi features a welded receiver made from stamped steel. Both the standard and Para variants are equipped with a fixed, folding bipod mounted to the gas tube and stowed under the handguard. The bipod can be adjusted in height and each leg has three height settings. The bipod also offers a 15° range of rotation to either side. With the bipod fully extended, the bore axis is elevated to a height of 465 mm (18.3 in). The Minimi can also be fired from the Belgian FN360° tripod or the American M122 mount using an M60 pintle. The vehicle-mounted Minimi is fitted with an electrically powered trigger that enables it to be fired remotely from within an armored fighting vehicle.
The standard light machine gun version has a 465 mm (18.3 in) barrel and a skeletonized aluminum stock with a folding wire shoulder strap. The shortened Para model has a 349 mm (13.7 in) barrel and a collapsible metal stock, while the vehicle-mounted model has a 465 mm (18.3 in) barrel but does not have a stock or iron sights. All models can alternatively be fitted with a fixed synthetic stock, the same used on the M249, which contains a hydraulic buffer that contributes to stabilizing the rate of fire and reducing recoil forces.
The weapon is fed from the left-hand side by disintegrating-link M27 ammunition belts (a miniaturized version of the 7.62mm M13 belt), from either an unsupported loose belt, enclosed in a polymer ammunition box with a 200-round capacity attached to the base of the receiver, or from detachable STANAG magazines, used in other NATO 5.56 mm assault rifles such as the M16 and FNC. Magazine feeding is used only as an auxiliary measure, when belted ammunition has been exhausted. The ammunition belt is introduced into the feed tray, magazines are seated inside the magazine port at a 45° angle, located beneath the feed tray port. When a belt is placed in the feed tray it covers the magazine port. Likewise, a magazine inserted into the magazine well will prevent the simultaneous insertion of a belt. The magazine port, when not in use, is closed with an L-shaped hinged flap equipped with a tooth, which engages a corresponding opening in the magazine and serves as a magazine release. This feature was developed by FN's Maurice V. Bourlet and allows the Minimi to be instantly changed from belt feed to magazine feed without any modification.
The pawl-type feeding mechanism is modeled on the system used in the MAG general-purpose machine gun, which was originally used in the World War II-era MG 42. The belt is moved in two stages during both the forward and rearward movement of the reciprocating bolt carrier, which provides for a smooth and continuous feeding cycle. The feeding mechanism top cover features a device that indicates the presence of a cartridge in the feed path.
The barrels used in the Minimi have an increased heat capacity for sustained fire, feature a chrome-lined rifled bore (six right-hand grooves) and are manufactured in two versions: with a 178 mm (1:7 in) twist rate used to stabilize the heavier Belgian 5.56×45 mm SS109 projectile, or a 305 mm (1:12 in) twist for use with American M193 ammunition. The barrels have a quick-change capability; a lever is provided on the left side of the weapon that releases the barrel from its trunnion. A carrying handle is also fixed to the barrel and assists in the barrel change process. A trained soldier can perform a barrel change and ready the weapon for aimed fire in 6–7 seconds. Early models of the Minimi had a flash suppressor with side ports as seen on the FNC, CAL and FAL rifles; new production guns have a shorter, cone-shaped slotted flash suppressor.
Both the standard and Para models come with a rear sight, adjustable for windage and elevation, that provides a peep aperture for ranges from 300 to 1000 m in 100 m increments. The hooded front sight is installed in a post on the gas block and is also adjustable for elevation and windage. Early models of the Minimi had the rear sight mounted forward of the feed cover and the front post secured to the barrel, closer to the muzzle end. An adapter can also be used that allows the use of standard NATO night and day sights.
Standard equipment supplied with the Minimi consists of three ammunition boxes, a cleaning kit stored inside the forearm, lubricant bottle, sling and blank-firing adaptor.
The M249 version of the Minimi was adopted by the US military in 1982; since 1984, production for the US military has been carried out entirely in the US by a local subsidiary, FN Manufacturing LLC in South Carolina.
As part of the US military's M249 Product Improvement Program (PIP), the M249 was updated with: a new synthetic stock and modified buffer assembly, a single-position gas regulator, a so-called birdcage type flash hider/compensator from the M16A2, a polymer barrel heat guard, and a folding carry handle. As a result, the weapon’s weight increased to 7.47 kg (16.5 lb). Many of the PIP upgrades were later incorporated by FN for the Minimi.
A lightweight variant of the Para with a Picatinny top cover rail adapter is known as the Minimi Special Purpose Weapon (SPW). It had the magazine feed port removed to further reduce weight, and a railed MIL-STD-1913 handguard was used that enables the use of standard tactical accessories.
Another variant of the SPW requested by the US Special Operations Forces is the Mk 46 Mod 0 that incorporates a lightweight fluted barrel but lacks the magazine feed system, vehicle mounting lugs and carry handle. A railed forearm ensures modularity and mission-adaptability permitting the use of flashlights, vertical grips, and infrared laser designators. An improved variant known as the Mk 46 Mod 1 with an improved forward rail and lightweight titanium bipod has been adopted by the United States Navy.
Minimi 7.62 
The Minimi prototype was originally designed in 7.62×51mm NATO, and later redesigned around the 5.56 mm cartridge. When the USSOCOM issued the requirements for the Mk 48 Mod 0, the original plans for the Minimi were retrieved and used to develop this new model. As a result of favorable reviews of the Mk 48 Mod 0 and increasing demand for a more powerful variant of the Minimi, FN Herstal introduced the Minimi 7.62, available in several different configurations. Apart from the different caliber, the Minimi 7.62 incorporates a non-adjustable, self-regulating gas system and a hydraulic recoil buffer in the buttstock assembly. The Minimi 7.62 also has a different sight setup calibrated for the larger cartridge. The rear sight is adjustable from 100 to 1,000 m by 100 m increments. The sight can also be corrected for windage. A variant of the Minimi 7.62 equipped with a railed Picatinny handguard is the Minimi 7.62 TR.
Production in other countries 
Copies of the Minimi have been produced meant for export in China by Norinco without license, in the name of XY 5.56 x 45 and chambered in 5.56x45mm NATO. Taiwan and Egypt also produced the Minimi without license, as the T75.
The Minimi has been adopted by over 45 countries. Users include:
- Afghanistan: Afghan National Army uses the M249 light machine gun supplied by the United States.
- Australia: Designated F89 in Australian service. It is manufactured by Thales Australia. The longer flash suppressor of the FN MAG is used to enhance accuracy. The 7.62 mm model known as Maximi, is also in limited service.
- Belgium: Standard infantry support weapon of the Belgian Army. Uses both the standard (called the Minimi M2) and Para (Minimi M3) models.
- Brazil: Used by the Military Police of Rio de Janeiro, as well as the Marine corps and special forces of the Brazilian Army.
- Canada: The Canadian Forces C9 is a standard factory Minimi with a steel tubular stock. The C9A1 comes fitted with a Picatinny rail on the feed cover mounting a 3.4x ELCAN C79 telescopic sight and can mount a vertical grip on the underside of the stock for added stability in prone firing. The C9A2 mid-life upgrade introduced a shorter barrel, green furniture, cloth ammo boxes (replacing the plastic boxes), a C8-style collapsible stock, folding vertical foregrip and a laser aiming module (LAM). Two C9s are carried by each infantry section.
- Denmark: Used by the Jægerkorps.
- East Timor: Timor Leste Defence Force
- Egypt: Produced locally under license.
- France: The Para version is widely used by the French Army. Replaced the AAT-F1 GPMG.
- Greece: Manufactured under license by EAS, used by the Hellenic Army and special forces. First 10 examples delivered in 1999.
- Hungary: M249 SAW is used by the Hungarian Special Force.
- Indonesia Standard light machine gun of Indonesian Armed Forces. Made under license by Pindad.
- Ireland: In use with the specialist Irish Army Ranger Wing.
- Italy: The Minimi is made under license by Beretta, which has a partnership with FN, and is employed by the Italian Armed Forces, replacing the MG 42/59 (a variant of the WWII MG 42, which still sees widespread mounted use) in the squad automatic weapon role. The Minimi is being widely employed by Italian forces in all the most recent and current international theaters of operation.
- Japan: Partially replaced the NTK-62 with the Japanese Ground Self-Defense Forces. It is manufactured under license by Sumitomo Heavy Industries.
- Latvia: Standard light machine gun in Latvian inventory.
- Luxembourg: The Para variant is used by the Unité Spéciale de la Police intervention unit of the Grand Ducal Police.
- Malaysia: The Malaysian Army replaced the HK11A1 machine gun with the Minimi. Also used by police special force units.
- Mexico: Mexican Army and Mexican Navy marines utilize the Minimi in the squad automatic weapon and vehicle mounted role along with the Federal Police and various state police forces.
- Morocco
- Nepal: Purchased 5,500 units in 2002.
- Netherlands: The Royal Netherlands Army has brought in the Para version of the Minimi to replace the FN MAG in some infantry roles. The MAG is still being used as a general-purpose machine gun, support fire weapon and as a vehicle-mounted weapon.
- New Zealand: The New Zealand Defence Force uses the Minimi under the designation C9 Minimi. This gun has been used as the Army's Light Support Weapon (LSW) since 1988. The 7.62 Minimi TR in Feb 2012 was selected to replace the C9 LSW Minimi and will be known as the 7.62 LSW Minimi in NZDF service.
- Norway: In use with HJK/FSK, KJK, and MJK since late 1980s, since 2011 in use with armed forces of Norway (1,900 machine guns were purchased in 2011).
- Pakistan: FN Minimi Para used by the Pakistan Army. 
- Papua New Guinea: Designated F89.
- Peru: Used by the Infantería de Marina del Perú (Peruvian Naval Infantry).
- Philippines: In use by the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP). Purchased the FN Minimi in May 2002.
- Poland: GROM special forces, JW Komandosów (7.62 mm), JW Formoza.
- Serbia: Used by the Special Brigade.
- Slovenia: Minimi Para used by the Military of Slovenia.
- Spain: The Spanish Navy acquired Minimi light machine guns in the 5.56x45mm Para and 7.62 NATO versions.
- Sri Lanka
- Sweden: Known as the Ksp 90 (Kulspruta 90). Para model designated Ksp 90B; both are made by Bofors Carl Gustaf.
- Switzerland: Designated LMg 05 (Leichtes Maschinengewehr 05) or FM 05 (Fusil mitrailleur 05).
- Republic of China: Designated T75.
- Thailand Used by the Royal Thai Navy Marine Corps and by the Royal Thai Army (M249 variant)
- Turkey: Used by Turkish special forces.
- United Arab Emirates
- United Kingdom: Uses standard and Para variants, designated L108A1 and the L110A1 respectively. The Army equips each four-man fireteam with the Para variant. The LMG is usually fitted with the 4x SUSAT standard issue rifle sight. It is also used by the Royal Navy, Royal Marines Commandos and the RAF Regiment. Additionally, small numbers of 7.62 Minimis are in service.
- United States: United States Armed Forces as the M249 light machine gun.
See also 
- MINIMI 7.62 Standard Sliding Butt
- "The MINIMI 5.56 can be fitted with a hydraulic buffer for stabilized rate of fire and reduced recoil forces. The design of the buttstock contributes to easy, comfortable and accurate firing."—MINIMI 5.56 Standard, FNHerstal.com.
- Supply device for a portable firearm Patent number: 4112817, Google patents.
- Popenker, Maxim & Williams, Anthony G., page 41.
- "FN Herstal – Major Product Achievements". FN Herstal. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- "Afghan National Security Forces Order of Battle". Long War Journal. Retrieved 16 May 212.
- Wachsberger, C. (June 1994). "Experiments to determine the effects of different flash suppressor designs on accuracy of an F89 Light Machine Gun". DSTO Formal Reports (Chief, Explosives Ordnance Division): 28. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- "Equipment and Clothing - Small Arms". army.gov.au. Australian Army. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
- Juchniewicz N.; Manchip J. (12 May 2011). "Gun maximises combat power". Army News (Australia). Defence News (Australia). p. 4. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- Miller, David (2001). The Illustrated Directory of 20th Century Guns. Salamander Books Ltd. ISBN 1-84065-245-4.
- C9A1 LIGHT MACHINE-GUN
- "Canadian Small Arms – Automatic Rifles – A Visual Guide". Canadian American Strategic Review. Archived from the original on 2011-02-07. Retrieved 2008-04-02.
- Jane's Sentinel Security Assessment – Southeast Asia. Issue 20 – 2007. Coulsdon: Jane's Information Group. pp. 146 and 152.
- Terre – MINIMI
- Hellenic Defense Systems
- Exhibition of Equipments. Retrieved on July 29, 2008.
- 5.56mm機関銃（ミニミ軽機関銃、FN Minimi）
- "Unofficial Pistols Page, Equipment". http://USP.lu – Unofficial Website of Unité Spéciale, Officially Endorsed. Retrieved 2009-10-06.
- "L'Unite d'Intervention de la Police Luxembourgeoise" (in French). RAIDS Magazine. March 2006. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- Lasterra, Juan Pablo (2004). "UPS Unidad Especial de la Policia Luxembourguesa" (in Spanish). ARMAS Magazine. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- Thompson, Leroy (December 2008). "Malaysian Special Forces". Special Weapons. Retrieved 2009-11-29.
- http://www.army.mil.nz/our-army/equipment/weapons/machine-guns.htm New Zealand Army official site
- Martin (Ed.), Judith (February 2012, Issue 428). "New Light Support Weapon for NZ Defence". NZ Army News. p. 5. Retrieved 14 May 2012. "The New Zealand Defence Force has selected the FN Herstal 7.62mm Minimi TR as a replacement for the 5.56 mm LSW C9, currently in service. The weapons are being acquired now, with NZ delivery due to start from April this year, and introduction to service and issuing to units planned to occur in last quarter of 2012. The 7.62 LSW Minimi will be issued to certain Army and Air Force Units. This will replace the C9 capability, with priority being given to field force units and regional equipment pools."
- "Pakistan Army".
- Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
- Daniel Watters. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 2002–2003". Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- Wilk (REMOV), Remigiusz. "Nowe gromy GROM".
- "GROM Utility and Equipment". Retrieved 2009-08-02.
- Lätt kulspruta 90. Retrieved on October 6, 2008. (Swedish)
- General Purpose Machine Guns of Sweden. Retrieved on October 9, 2008.
- Einführung Leichtes Maschinengewehr (in German).
- "FN MINIMI™ 7.62 Machine Gun Selected by British Military". Press release via army-technology.com. FN Herstal. June 08, 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2012. "FN Herstal has recently been awarded a new contract by the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) for the supply of up to 176 MINIMI™ 7.62 light machine guns by the end of 2011. The contract also includes optional quantities of a further 250 MINIMI 7.62 machine guns to be delivered annually over a three-year period from 2012 to 2014 should these options be exercised."
- Popenker, Maxim & Williams, Anthony G. (2008). Machine Gun. The Development of the Machine Gun from the Nineteenth Century to the Present Day. London: Crowood Press. ISBN 978-1-84797-030-5.
- Media related to FN Minimi at Wikimedia Commons
- FN Herstal official page (5.56 mm Minimi standard)
- FN Herstal official page (Minimi 7.62)
- Nazarian`s Gun`s Recognition Guide
- Video of operation on YouTube (Japanese)