FN P90

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P90
Photo of the P90 LV / IR model with an empty magazine in the weapon
P90 LV / IR model with empty magazine
Type Personal defense weapon
Place of origin  Belgium
Service history
In service 1991–present [1]
Used by 40+ nations (see Users)
Wars
Production history
Designed 1986–90 [1]
Manufacturer FN Herstal
Produced 1990–present [4]
Variants

See Variants:

  • P90 (P90 TR, P90 USG, P90 LV, P90 TR LV, P90 USG IR)
  • PS90 (PS90 TR, PS90 USG)
Specifications
Weight
  • 2.6 kg (5.7 lb) (P90) [5]
  • 2.85 kg (6.3 lb) (PS90) [6]
Length
  • 50.5 cm (19.9 in) (P90)[5]
  • 66.6 cm (26.2 in) (PS90)[6]
Barrel length
  • 26.4 cm (10.4 in) (P90)[5]
  • 40.7 cm (16.0 in) (PS90)[6]
Width 5.5 cm (2.2 in) [7]
Height 21 cm (8.3 in) [7]

Cartridge FN 5.7×28mm [8]
Action Straight blowback, closed bolt [8]
Rate of fire 900 RPM (rounds per minute) [7]
Muzzle velocity 715 m/s (2,350 ft/s)[7]
Effective firing range 200 m (660 ft)[7]
Maximum firing range 1,800 m (5,900 ft)[7]
Feed system 50-round detachable box magazine [8]
Sights Tritium-illuminated reflex sight, back-up iron sights [7]

The FN P90 is a selective fire personal defense weapon (PDW) designed and manufactured by FN Herstal in Belgium.[9] The P90's name is taken from 1990, the year it was introduced.[4] The P90 was created in response to NATO requests for a replacement for 9×19mm Parabellum firearms; it was designed as a compact but powerful firearm for vehicle crews, operators of crew-served weapons, support personnel, special forces and counter-terrorist groups.[9][10]

The P90 was designed by FN in conjunction with the FN Five-seven pistol and FN 5.7×28mm ammunition.[4] Development of the P90 began in 1986, and production commenced in 1990, whereupon the 5.7×28mm ammunition was redesigned and shortened.[1] A modified version of the P90 with a magazine adapted to use the new ammunition was introduced in 1993, and the Five-seven pistol was subsequently introduced as a companion weapon using the same 5.7×28mm ammunition.[11]

The P90 was developed and initially marketed as a personal defense weapon, but it could also be considered a submachine gun or compact assault rifle.[12] Featuring a compact bullpup design with an integrated reflex sight and fully ambidextrous controls, the P90 is an unconventional weapon with a futuristic appearance.[12] Its design incorporates several innovations such as a unique top-mounted magazine and FN's small-caliber, high-velocity 5.7×28mm ammunition.[12]

The P90 is currently in service with military and police forces in over 40 nations, such as Austria, Brazil, Canada, France, Greece, India, Malaysia, Poland, and the United States.[13] In the United States, the P90 is in use with over 200 law enforcement agencies, including the U.S. Secret Service.[14] The standard selective fire P90 is restricted to military and law enforcement customers, but since 2005, a semi-automatic carbine version has been offered to civilian shooters as the PS90.[15]

History[edit]

Development[edit]

The P90 and its 5.7×28mm ammunition were developed by FN Herstal in response to NATO requests for a replacement for the 9×19mm Parabellum cartridge and associated pistols and submachine guns.[16] NATO called for two types of weapons chambered for a new cartridge—one a shoulder-fired weapon, and the other a handheld weapon.[16] According to NATO, these new weapons, termed personal defense weapons (PDWs), were to provide "personal protection in last-resort situations when the user is directly endangered by the enemy [...]."[16] In 1989, NATO published document D/296, outlining a number of preliminary specifications for these weapons:

  • The new cartridge was to have greater range, accuracy, and terminal performance than the 9×19mm cartridge.[16] Additionally, it was to be capable of penetrating body armor.[16]
  • The shoulder-fired personal defense weapon was to weigh less than 3 kg (6.6 lb), with a magazine capacity of at least 20 rounds.[16]
  • The handheld personal defense weapon (pistol) was to weigh less than 1 kg (2.2 lb), although a weight of 700 g (1.5 lb) was deemed desirable; it was to have a magazine capacity of no less than 20 rounds.[16]
  • Both weapons were to be sufficiently compact to be carried hands-free on the user's person at all times, whether in the cab of a vehicle or the cockpit of an aircraft, and were to perform effectively in all environments and weather conditions.[16]

FN Herstal was the first small arms manufacturer to respond to NATO's requirement; FN started by developing a shoulder-fired personal defense weapon, the P90, along with a small caliber, high velocity 5.7×28mm cartridge type.[16] The original 5.7×28mm cartridge, called the SS90, went into production with the P90 in 1990.[17] The SS90 propelled a 1.5 g (23 grain) plastic-core projectile from the P90 at a muzzle velocity of roughly 850 m/s (2,800 ft/s).[17] Shortly after its introduction, the P90 was adopted and used in service with the Belgian special forces group in the 1991 Gulf War.[1]

Following the P90's introduction, FN revised the 5.7×28mm ammunition.[11] The new variation, designated the SS190, used a projectile 2.7 mm (0.11 in) shorter in length than that of the SS90.[17] This allowed it to be used more conveniently in the 5.7×28mm FN Five-seven pistol, which was under development at that time.[11] The SS190 projectile had a heavier weight, and a more conventional construction with an aluminium and steel core.[11][17] The first prototypes of the SS190 were created in 1992, and the design was finalized in 1993, replacing the SS90.[11] A modified version of the P90, with a magazine adapted to use the shortened ammunition, was then introduced in the same year.[11] Several special cartridge variations were developed, such as the L191 tracer round and the SB193 subsonic round for use with a sound-suppressed P90.[7]

NATO evaluation[edit]

In 2002 and 2003, NATO conducted a series of tests with the intention of standardizing a PDW cartridge as a replacement for the 9×19mm Parabellum cartridge.[10] The tests compared the relative merits of the FN 5.7×28mm cartridge and the HK 4.6×30mm cartridge, which was created by German small arms manufacturer Heckler & Koch as a competitor to the 5.7×28mm.[10] The results of the NATO tests were analyzed by a group formed of experts from Canada, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the group's conclusion was that the 5.7×28mm was "undoubtedly" the more efficient cartridge.[10] However, the German delegation and others rejected the NATO recommendation that 5.7×28mm be standardized, halting the standardization process indefinitely.[10][16] As a result, both the 4.6×30mm and 5.7×28mm cartridges (and the associated weapons) have been independently adopted by various NATO countries, according to preference; the P90 is currently in service with military and police forces in over 40 countries throughout the world.[13][16]

Present[edit]

Further development of the P90 platform led to the creation of the P90 TR model, which has a MIL-STD-1913 triple rail interface for mounting accessories.[16] This model was introduced in late 1999 and continues to be offered alongside the standard P90.[16] More recently, the P90 has been offered to civilian shooters as the PS90, a semi-automatic carbine intended for personal protection and sporting use.[18]

Design[edit]

A disassembled PS90 carbine, showing the major component groups. The standard P90 disassembles into similar component groups: 1. hammer group, 2. barrel and optical sight group, 3. butt plate, 4. magazine, 5. moving parts group, 6. frame and trigger group

The P90 is a selective fire, straight blowback-operated weapon with a cyclic rate of fire of 900 RPM (rounds per minute).[7][8] The weapon is chambered for FN's 5.7×28mm ammunition, and although it was developed and initially marketed as a personal defense weapon, it could be considered a submachine gun or compact assault rifle.[12] Its unusual shape is based on extensive ergonomic research.[7][9] The weapon is grasped by means of a thumbhole in the frame that acts as a pistol grip, as well as an oversized trigger guard that acts as a foregrip for the shooter's support hand.[17] The P90 fires from a closed bolt for maximum accuracy, and its design makes extensive use of polymers for reduced weight and cost.[15] Overall, the weapon is relatively lightweight, weighing 2.5 kg (5.6 lb) empty, or 3 kg (6.6 lb) with a loaded 50-round magazine.[9][17]

The P90 is notable for being fully ambidextrous—it can be operated by right or left-handed shooters with equal ease, and without making any modifications to the weapon.[17] FN Herstal has described it as the "first fully ambidextrous individual automatic weapon."[19] The charging handle, magazine release and backup iron sights are symmetrically distributed on both sides of the weapon, and the firing selector is located directly at the foot of the trigger, where it can be operated from either side by the shooter's trigger finger or support hand thumb.[8] When fired, the P90 ejects spent cartridge casings downward through a chute located behind the grip, so spent cases are kept out of the shooter's line of sight.[17]

The P90 can be fitted with a sling for greater ease of carry, and since the weapon has a fixed stock (as opposed to having a collapsing or folding stock), it can be quickly deployed when needed.[17][20] The weapon's smooth, rounded contours prevent it from snagging on the shooter's clothing or equipment, and a small vertical protrusion is provided at the front end of the weapon's frame to prevent the shooter's hand from accidentally slipping in front of the muzzle while shooting.[9][17] A hollow compartment inside the rear of the weapon's frame—accessed by removing the buttplate—allows for convenient storage of a cleaning kit.[17]

The P90 was designed to have a length no greater than a man's shoulder width, to allow it to be easily carried and maneuvered in tight spaces, such as the inside of an armored vehicle.[12] To achieve this, the weapon's design utilizes the unconventional bullpup configuration, in which the action and magazine are located behind the trigger and alongside the shooter's face so that there is no wasted space in the stock.[15] The P90's dimensions are minimized by its unique horizontally mounted feeding system, wherein the box magazine sits parallel to the barrel on top of the weapon's frame.[12] The weapon overall has an extremely compact profile—it is the most compact fixed-stock submachine gun to be made.[12] The standard version of the weapon has an overall length of 500 mm (19.7 in), a height of 210 mm (8.3 in), and a width of 55 mm (2.2 in).[7]

The P90 requires minimal maintenance, and it can be disassembled quickly and easily.[7][21] It is a modular firearm, consisting of four main component groups: the barrel and optical sight group, the moving parts group, the frame and trigger group, and the hammer group. The P90's barrel is cold hammer-forged and chrome-lined, with an overall length of 263 mm (10.4 in).[8] The barrel has eight rifling grooves with a right-hand twist rate of 1:231 mm (1:9.1 in), and it is equipped with a diagonally cut flash suppressor that acts as a recoil compensator.[7][8] The stated service life of the barrel is 20,000 rounds.[12]

The P90 uses an internal hammer striking mechanism and a trigger mechanism with a three-position rotary dial fire control selector, located at the foot of the trigger. The dial has three settings: S – safe, 1 – semi-automatic fire, and A – fully automatic fire. When set on A, the P90's fire selector provides a two-stage trigger operation similar to that of the Steyr AUG assault rifle—pulling the trigger back slightly produces semi-automatic fire, and pulling the trigger fully to the rear produces fully automatic fire.[17]

Ammunition[edit]

Three of the small-caliber, high-velocity 5.7×28mm cartridges as used in the P90. The left cartridge has a plain hollow tip, the center cartridge has a red plastic V-max tip, and the right cartridge has a blue plastic V-max tip[12]
The P90's unique magazine has a capacity of 50 rounds, and it fits flush with the weapon's frame.[12]
The P90 magazine feed lips

Particularly significant to the design of the P90 is the small-caliber, high-velocity bottlenecked cartridge it uses. The 5.7×28mm cartridge was created by FN Herstal in response to a NATO requirement that called for a replacement for the 9×19mm Parabellum cartridge, which is commonly used in pistols and submachine guns.[10] The 5.7×28mm cartridge weighs 6.0 g (93 grains)—roughly half as much as a typical 9×19mm cartridge—allowing the same amount of ammunition to be carried for less weight, or allowing more ammunition to be carried for the same weight.[15][22][23] Since the 5.7×28mm cartridge has a relatively small diameter, an unusually high number of cartridges can be contained in a magazine.[24] The cartridge has a loud report and produces considerable muzzle flash (when fired from a pistol), but it produces roughly 30 percent less recoil than the 9×19mm cartridge, improving controllability.[23] Due to its high velocity, the 5.7×28mm exhibits an exceptionally flat trajectory.[12][21]

One of the design intents for the standard 5.7×28mm cartridge type, the SS190, was that it have the ability to penetrate Kevlar protective vests—such as the NATO CRISAT vest—that will stop conventional pistol bullets.[23] Fired from the P90, the 5.7×28mm SS190 has a muzzle velocity of roughly 716 m/s (2,350 ft/s) and is capable of penetrating the CRISAT vest at a range of 200 m (219 yd), or a Level IIIA Kevlar vest at the same range.[21][23] FN states an effective range of 200 m (219 yd) and a maximum range of 1,800 m (1,969 yd) for the 5.7×28mm cartridge when fired from the P90.[7]

In testing conducted by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) in 1999, the SS190 fired from the P90 at a distance of 25 m (27 yd) exhibited an average penetration depth of 25 cm (9.85 in) in ballistic gelatin covered with a Level II vest.[25] The SS190 exhibited penetration depths ranging from 28 to 34 cm (11 to 13.5 in) when fired from the P90 into bare ballistic gelatin, in tests conducted by Houston Police Department SWAT.[21] In testing, the SS190 and similar 5.7×28mm projectiles consistently turn base over point ("tumble") as they pass through ballistic gelatin and other media, using the 21.6-mm (.85 in) projectile length[26] to create a larger wound cavity.[9][15][21][27] However, some are skeptical of the bullet's terminal performance, and it is a subject of debate among civilian shooters in the United States.[27]

The 5.7×28mm projectile potentially poses less risk of collateral damage than conventional pistol bullets, because the projectile design limits overpenetration, as well as risk of ricochet.[25][28] The lightweight projectile loses much of its kinetic energy after traveling only 400 m (437 yd), whereas a conventional pistol bullet such as the 9×19mm retains significant energy beyond 800 m (875 yd), posing less risk of collateral damage in the event of a miss.[12] This range exceeds the engagement distances expected for the 5.7×28mm cartridge's intended applications, so the cartridge's limited energy at long range is not considered to be disadvantageous.[12] Since the SS190 projectile does not rely on fragmentation or the expansion of a hollow point, the cartridge (and 5.7×28mm weapons) is considered suitable for military use under the Hague Convention of 1899, which prohibits the use of expanding bullets in warfare.[27]

Ballistic performance summary for various 5.7×28mm cartridges
Cartridge type SS195LF[29] SS197SR[29] EA Protector[30] EA Varmintor[30] EA S4[30]
Projectile weight 1.8 g (28 gr) 2.6 g (40 gr) 2.6 g (40 gr) 2.3 g (35 gr) 1.8 g (28 gr)
Muzzle velocity 777 m/s (2,550 ft/s) 640 m/s (2,100 ft/s) 716 m/s (2,350 ft/s) 747 m/s (2,450 ft/s) 930 m/s (3,100 ft/s)
Muzzle energy 550 J (130 cal) 530 J (130 cal) 665 J (159 cal) 650 J (160 cal) 785 J (188 cal)

Feeding[edit]

The P90 uses a unique horizontally mounted feeding system—patented in the United States—that contributes to the weapon's compact profile and unusual appearance.[12] U.S. Patent 4,905,394 ("Top mounted longitudinal magazine") was awarded in 1990, naming René Predazzer as the sole inventor.[31] The detachable box magazine is mounted parallel to the P90's barrel, fitting flush with the top of the weapon's frame, and it contains 50 rounds of ammunition, which lie in two rows at a right angle to the barrel.[17] As the cartridges are pushed back by spring pressure and arrive at the rear end of the magazine, they are fed as a single row into a spiral feed ramp and rotated 90 degrees, aligning them with the chamber.[17] The magazine body is composed of polymer, and it is semi-transparent to allow the shooter to see the amount of ammunition remaining at any time.[17]

Sights and accessories[edit]

The normal and low-light reticles of the USG reflex sight used on the FN P90 / PS90 USG models. The USG reflex sight has a black T-shaped reticle with tritium elements that glow red and are visible in dim lighting.[32]

The P90 was originally equipped with the Ring Sights HC-14-62 reflex sight, but the current weapon is instead fitted with the Ring Sights MC-10-80 sight, which was specifically designed for it.[16][33] The HC-14-62 has a polymer housing and uses a forward-aimed fiber optic collector to illuminate the white daytime reticle, which consists of a large circle of about 180 minutes of arc (MOA), with a 20 MOA circle surrounding a 3.5 MOA dot in the center. The MC-10-80 has an anodized aluminum housing, and has a similar black reticle. The night reticle for both the HC-14-62 and the MC-10-80 consists of an open T that is primarily illuminated by a tritium module, and, in the HC-14-62, ambient light drawn in by an upward-facing collector. The sight is adjustable for both windage and elevation, and it can be used in conjunction with night vision equipment.[33] As backup in case the reflex sight is damaged, a set of fixed iron sights is provided on each side of the reflex sight housing.[33]

The P90 has provisions for mounting a number of different types of accessories, including tactical lights and laser aiming devices. A sling can be attached to the P90 for greater ease of carry, or it can be fitted with various sound suppressors such as the Gemtech SP90, which was designed specifically for the weapon in cooperation with FN Herstal.[7] This stainless steel suppressor with a black oxide finish is built according to MIL-SPECs, including saltwater corrosion resistance.[7] It has a length of 184 mm (7.2 in), a diameter of 35 mm (1.4 in) and a weight of 680 g (1.5 lb).[7] When subsonic ammunition is used in conjunction with the suppressor, it reduces the sound signature of the P90 by 33 dB.[7] A small case collector pouch for the P90 which fits over the ejection port and collects spent cases as they are ejected downward is available; the pouch will collect up to one hundred cases before filling.[16][21]

Variants[edit]

P90 TR (Triple Rail) model, which features a Picatinny rail system for mounting accessories, equipped with an Aimpoint red dot sight[7]

Military models[edit]

P90 TR
The P90 TR (Triple Rail) model, also known as the "flat-top," was introduced in late 1999.[7] It features a receiver-mounted triple MIL-STD-1913 (Picatinny) rail interface system, or "Triple Rail," for mounting accessories.[7] There is one full-length accessory rail integrated into the top of the receiver, and two rail stumps are included on the sides of the receiver.[7] The top rail will accept various optical sights with no tools or additional mounting hardware required, and the side rails serve to mount secondary accessories, such as tactical lights or laser aiming devices.[8]
P90 USG
The P90 USG (United States Government) model is similar to the standard P90, except the reflex sight housing is aluminium, and the sight has a revised reticle.[32] The black reticle consists of a tiny dot inside of a small ring, which is joined by three posts that glow red in low light conditions due to tritium-illumination.[32] The USG reflex sight can be removed and replaced with a special MIL-STD-1913 (Picatinny) rail mount for attaching a different sight.[32]
P90 Laserex models
The P90 LV (Laser Visible) and P90 IR (InfraRed) models, both of which were introduced in late 1995, have an integrated laser sight manufactured by Laserex Technologies in Australia.[34] The P90 LV model projects a 8 mW visible laser intended to be used as a low-light shooting aid or for dissuasive effect, while the P90 IR model projects a 4.5 mW infrared laser that can only be seen with night vision equipment.[8][35] Both laser systems are compact, consisting of a small, flat panel integrated into the front end of the weapon's frame.[35]

The Laserex P90 laser systems have a weight of 131 g (0.29 lb), and they are activated by means of a green pressure switch located on the underside of the weapon's pistol grip.[35] The lasers can be configured for three different internal settings: Off – disabled to prevent accidental activation, Training – low intensity for eye safety and extended battery life in training, or Combat – high intensity for maximum visibility.[35] The Laserex P90 laser systems have a battery life of 250 hours when used on the Training setting, or a life of 50 hours when used on the Combat setting.[35]

Semi-automatic models[edit]

The matte black PS90 USG model; the PS90 is a semi-automatic carbine developed for civilian shooters for personal protection and sporting use[18]

The PS90 is a carbine version of the P90, intended for civilian shooters for personal protection and sporting use; it was introduced in 2005, and continues to be offered in several configurations.[18][36] The PS90 will accept the standard 50-round P90 magazines, but the gun is supplied with a magazine that is blocked to a capacity of 10 or 30 rounds, allowing it to be sold in jurisdictions where magazine capacities are restricted by law.[36]

In order to be legal for purchase by civilians without obtaining a tax stamp for a Short Barreled Rifle (SBR) as defined by the United States National Firearms Act, the PS90 carbine has an extended 407 mm (16 in) barrel and is semi-automatic, with a trigger pull of approximately 31–36 newtons (7.0–8.1 lbf).[32][36] The lengthened barrel has eight rifling grooves, with a right-hand twist rate of 1:229 mm (1:9 in) and a rifled length of 376 mm (14.8 in); the muzzle is equipped with a fixed "birdcage" type flash suppressor.[36]

Despite the added barrel length, the PS90 is relatively compact and lightweight, with an overall length of 667 mm (26.3 in), and a weight of 3.4 kg (7.5 lb) with a fully loaded 50-round magazine.[36] Due to the added barrel length, the PS90 can achieve a muzzle velocity of up to 777 m/s (2,550 ft/s) with SS195LF ammunition, or up to 930 m/s (3,050 ft/s) with third-party ammunition.[29][30]

PS90 Standard
The PS90 Standard is the current model of the PS90 offered by FN Herstal.[18] It features a MIL-STD-1913 (Picatinny) rail fitted to the top of the receiver, which allows the shooter to mount his or her preferred optical sight.[18] The rail includes a set of integrated iron sights, as backup in case the primary sight is damaged.[18] The PS90 Standard is available with either an olive drab or black frame.[18]
PS90 TR
The PS90 TR is now discontinued.[18] It featured a "Triple Rail" receiver assembly identical to that of the P90 TR.[18] The top of the receiver consisted of an MIL-STD-1913 (Picatinny) rail, allowing the shooter to mount his or her preferred optical sight.[36] Two polymer side rails—one on each side of the receiver—were included for mounting secondary accessories, such as lasers or tactical lights.[36] Like the PS90 Standard, the PS90 TR was available with either an olive drab or black frame.[18] As of 2013, the PS90 TR model is no longer listed by FNH USA.[18]
PS90 USG
The PS90 USG is now discontinued.[18] In the same fashion as the P90 USG, this model has an aluminium reflex sight housing with a revised reticle.[32] The black reticle consists of a tiny dot inside of a small ring, which is joined by three posts that glow red in low light conditions due to tritium-illumination.[32] The USG reflex sight can be removed and replaced with a special MIL-STD-1913 (Picatinny) rail mount for attaching a different sight, and like other models of the PS90, the USG is available with either an olive drab or black frame.[18][32] As of 2011, the PS90 USG model is no longer listed by FNH USA,[18] but the USG reflex sight is still offered as a standalone accessory.

Users[edit]

Photo of a Cypriot National Guard member carrying a P90 during a parade in Larnaca
The Cypriot National Guard purchased 350 P90s in 2000.[7]
Photo of the Peruvian special forces carrying P90s during a parade
Peruvian special forces carrying P90s during a military parade in 2012

Despite being originally intended as a defensive weapon for military personnel whose primary role is not fighting with small arms (such as vehicle drivers), most sales of the P90 have been to special forces and counter-terrorist groups who use it for offensive roles.[16] The P90 first saw operational use in the 1991 Gulf War, where it was used by the Belgian special forces group.[1]

In 1997, suppressed P90s were used in combat by the Peruvian special forces group (Grupo de Fuerzas Especiales) in Operation Chavín de Huantar, the hostage rescue siege that ended the Japanese embassy hostage crisis.[37] The operation was a success: all 14 MRTA revolutionaries were killed, and 71 hostages were rescued.[37] The MRTA revolutionaries who had taken the hostages were equipped with body armor, but it was defeated by the Peruvian special forces' P90s.[38] In 2011, P90s were used by Muammar Gaddafi's military forces in the 2011 Libyan civil war, and some of these examples were captured and used in the war by Libyan rebel forces.[3]

By 2009, the P90 was in service with military and police forces in over 40 countries.[13] In the United States, Houston Police Department was the first local law enforcement agency to adopt the P90, acquiring it for their SWAT team in 1999.[21] In 2003, the Houston SWAT team became one of the first agencies in the country to use the weapon in a shootout.[21] By 2009, the P90 was in use with over 200 law enforcement agencies in the United States,[14] including the Secret Service and Federal Protective Service.[7][39] In response, the National Rifle Association added the P90 and PS90 to its NRA Tactical Police Competition standards, allowing law enforcement agencies to compete in the event using either weapon.[40]

Military and law enforcement organizations using the P90 include:

Country Organization Model Quantity Date Reference
 Argentina Agrupación de Buzos Tácticos tactical diver group of the Argentine Navy P90 [41][42][43]
Former Policia Aeronáutica Nacional (PAN; National Aeronautical Police) P90 [44]
 Austria Jagdkommando (Jakdo) special group of the Austrian Army P90,
P90 TR
140 [45]
Kommando Militärstreife & Militärpolizei (Kdo MilStrf&MP) close protection teams P90 TR [46]
 Belgium Composante Marine (Belgian Navy) commandos [47]
Composante Terre (Belgian Army), replacing the Uzi 2004– [48]
Détachement d'Agents de Sécurité (DAS) dignitary protection group P90 53 [48]
Directorate of Special Units (DSU) group of the Federale Politie/Police Fédérale/Föderale Polizei [49]
Former Gendarmerie/Rijkswacht paramilitary police force P90 114 [50]
Special Forces Group (SFG; used in the 1991 Gulf War) P90 [1]
Aarschot municipal police force P90 [51]
Liège metropolitan police force (replaced the Uzi) 2002– [52][53]
Zone de Police Boraine (Boussu/Colfontaine/Frameries/Quaregnon/Saint-Ghislain municipalities) police force P90 TR [54]
 Brazil Batalhão de Operações Policiais Especiais (BOPE) of the Military Police of Rio de Janeiro State [55]
 Canada Joint Task Force 2 (JTF2) special group of the CF Special Operations Forces Command 2005– [56]
Halifax Regional Police force in Halifax Regional Municipality, Nova Scotia [57]
Service de police de la Ville de Montréal (SPVM) SWAT in Montreal, Quebec [58]
 Chile Fuerzas Especiales (Special Forces) [59]
 Cyprus Εθνική Φρουρά (Cypriot National Guard) special forces P90 350 2000– [7][16]
 Czech Republic Útvar Rychlého Nasazení (URNA) of the Czech National Police P90 2000s– [60]
 Dominican Republic Cuerpo de Ayudantes Militares del Presidente de la República [61]
Dominican Republic's counter-terrorist group 150 2002– [62]
Fuerzas Armadas de la República Dominicana (Military of the Dominican Republic) [61]
 El Salvador Comando Especial Antiterrorista (CEAT) 350 2002– [63]
 France 1er Régiment Parachutiste d'Infanterie de Marine (1er RPIMa) of the French Army P90 [64]
Commandement des Opérations Spéciales (COS) joint special operations command [1]
GIGN counter-terrorism group of the Gendarmerie Nationale P90 TR [65]
GIPN counter-terrorism group of the Police Nationale [66]
RAID counter-terrorism group of the Police Nationale [66][67]
Troupes de marine naval infantry regiment of the Armée de Terre (French Army) P90 [64]
 Germany Bundeskriminalamt (BKA; Federal Criminal Police Office) Sicherungsgruppe (SG; tasked with protection of the chancellor and other officials) P90 TR [68]
 Greece Ειδική Κατασταλτική Αντιτρομοκρατική Μονάδα (EKAM) unit of the Hellenic Police [69]
 Guatemala Secretaría de Asuntos Administrativos de Seguridad de la Presidencia (SAAS) P90 20 2009– [70]
 India Special Protection Group (SPG; tasked with protection of the prime minister and other officials) P90,
P90 TR
2008– [71]
 Indonesia Komando Pasukan Katak (Kopaska) tactical diver group of the Indonesian Navy [72]
Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus) special forces group of the Indonesian Army [72]
 Ireland Sciathán Fianóglach an Airm (Army Ranger Wing) of the Irish Defence Forces 2003– [73]
 Italy Col Moschin 9o Reggimento d'Assalto Paracadutisti (9th Parachute Assault Regiment) special forces of the Italian Army P90 TR [74]
 Jordan Jordanian Armed Forces [75]
 Lebanon Forces de Sécurité Intérieure (FSI) [76]
 Libya Military of Libya (used by Muammar Gaddafi's military forces in the 2011 Libyan civil war, and some of these examples were captured and used in the war by Libyan rebel forces) 367 2008– [3][77]
 Luxembourg Unité Spéciale de la Police (USP) group of the Grand Ducal Police P90 TR [45][78]
 Malaysia Pasukan Khas Laut (PASKAL) special operations group of the Royal Malaysian Navy [79]
 Mauritania BASEP presidential security battalion [80]
 Mauritius Various police forces P90 [81]
 Mexico Ejército Méxicano (Mexican Army) Special Forces P90 [82]
Estado Mayor Presidencial (EMP; Presidential Guard) [82]
Fuerzas Especiales (FES) of the Mexican Navy [82]
Policía Federal (PF; Federal Police) of the Secretaría de Seguridad Pública [70]
 Netherlands Korps Commandotroepen (KCT) of the Royal Netherlands Army (replaced the Uzi) P90 TR 2000– [16][83]
Unit Interventie Mariniers (UIM) of the Netherlands Marine Corps P90 TR 2001– [84]
Brigade Speciale Beveiligingsopdrachten (BSB) of the Dutch Gendarmerie [85]
 Nigeria National Intelligence Agency (NIA), State Security Service (SSS) P90 100 2011– [86]
 Pakistan Special Services Group (SSG) [citation needed]
Pakistan Army [87]
 Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea Defence Force (PNGDF) [88]
 Peru Grupo de Fuerzas Especiales (GRUFE) of the Peruvian Armed Forces (used in the rescue of hostages in the 1997 Japanese embassy hostage crisis known as Operation Chavín de Huantar) [7][37][89]
Fuerza de Operaciones Especiales (FOES) of the Peruvian Navy P90 53 [90][91]
Paracaidistas del Ejército (Peruvian Army paratroopers) [92]
 Philippines Special Action Force (SAF) of the Philippine National Police [38]
 Poland Jednostka Wojskowa Grom P90 TR 2006– [93]
Biuro Ochrony Rządu (used primarily for dignitary protection) P90 2007– [94]
 Portugal Grupo de Operações Especiais (GOE) of the Polícia de Segurança Pública 2002– [95]
 Romania Detaşamentul de Intervenţie Rapidă special operations group of the Romanian Military [96]
 Saudi Arabia Special Emergency Force P90 500 1992– [17][97]
 Singapore Singapore Armed Forces Commando Formation (CDO FN) 500 2002– [98][99][100]
 Spain Grupo Especial de Operaciones (GEO) of the Cuerpo Nacional de Policía P90 TR [101][102]
Escuadrón de Zapadores Paracaidistas (EZAPAC) special group of the Ejército del Aire (Spanish Air Force) P90,
P90 TR
[103]
 Suriname Military of Suriname 900 2001– [62][104]
 Taiwan Republic of China Armed Forces P90 1992– [97][105]
 Thailand กองทัพบกไทย (Royal Thai Army) special units [106]
 Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago Defence Force [107]
 Turkey Karşı Atak Timi, prime minister's close protection teams. [108]
Polis Özel Harekat special operations group of the General Directorate of Security [108][109]
Jandarma Özel Asayiş Komutanlığı domestic special operations group of the Turkish Gendarmerie [110]
 Ukraine Ukrainian police force (unspecified) P90 LV 30 2008– [111]
 United States U.S. Federal Protective Service branch of the DHS (formerly a branch of ICE) P90 2001– [39][53][112]
U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service [7]
U.S. Secret Service P90 TR 1990s– [7][113]
Addison police department in Texas (first agency in the country to issue it to patrol cars) PS90 TR 52 2007– [114][115][116]
Alaska State Troopers in Alaska P90 LV 9 [117]
Birmingham Police Department SWAT in Alabama P90 [118][119]
Bryan police department SWAT in Texas [120]
Chula Vista Police Department SWAT in California P90 TR [121]
Creve Coeur police department in Missouri [122]
Edina police department in Minnesota 11 2005– [123]
Houston Police Department SWAT in Texas (first local law enforcement agency in the country to adopt and use the weapon) P90 5 1999– [21]
Kutztown police department in Pennsylvania [124]
Olathe police department ERT in Kansas 23 2001– [125]
Passaic County sheriff's department SWAT in New Jersey 2002– [28]
Richland County Sheriff's Department SRT in South Carolina 2000– [126]
Sioux Falls Police Department SWAT in South Dakota [127]
Sparta Police Department in New Jersey [128]
Zapata County sheriff's department in Texas [129]
 Venezuela Bodyguards assigned to the Ministerio del Poder Popular para Relaciones Exteriores [130]
COPEMI unit of the Armada Bolivariana de Venezuela (Venezuelan Navy) [131]
CSAR unit of the Aviación Militar Venezolana (Venezuelan Air Force) [131]
Ejército Libertador de Venezuela (Venezuelan Army) [131][132]
Guardia Nacional de Venezuela (Venezuelan National Guard) [131]
Various police forces [133][134]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]