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The FRBRoo ("FRBR-object oriented") initiative is a joint effort of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model and Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records international working groups to establish "a formal ontology intended to capture and represent the underlying semantics of bibliographic information and to facilitate the integration, mediation, and interchange of bibliographic and museum information."[1]


The idea behind this initiative is that both the library and museum communities would benefit from harmonizing the FRBR and CIDOC reference models to better share library and museum information, particularly in light of the Semantic Web and the overall need to improve the interoperability of digital libraries and museum information management systems. This led to the formation of the International Working Group on FRBR/CIDOC CRM Harmonisation in 2003 with the common goals of "expressing the IFLA FRBR reference model with the concepts, tools, mechanisms, and notation conventions provided by the CIDOC CRM…and aligning (possibly even merging) the two object-oriented models with the aim to contribute to the solution of the problem of semantic interoperability between the documentation structures used for library and museum information."[1]

The first draft of FRBRoo was completed in 2006.[2] It is a logically rigid model interpreting conceptualizations expressed in FRBRer and of concepts necessary to explain the intended meaning of all FRBRer attributes and relationships. The model is formulated as an extensions of the CIDOC CRM. Any conflicts occurring in the harmonization process with the CIDOC CRM have been or will be resolved on the CIDOC CRM side as well. The Harmonization Group intends to continue work modelling the FRAR concepts and elaborating the application of FRBR concepts to performing arts.

The draft model and the discussion of the past meetings is published on the Working Drafts and Releases website. The same content is published on the IFLA website.

In January 2008, the latest draft of FRBRoo version 0.9 was completed and it has been submitted for comment by IFLA FRBR Review Group. It has been approved in principle by IFLA FRBR Review Group at IFLA2008 in Quebec city August 2008. The FRBRoo version 1.0 has been released.


The ISSN International Centre, the ISSN Review Group, and the Bibliothèque nationale de France developed an extension of the FRBRoo model called PRESSoo in 2013. PRESSoo extends FRBRoo to describe serials and continuing resources. Version 0.1 was released in March 2013 and Version 0.2 was released in December 2013.[3]

PRESSoo's model includes properties and classes that recognize the dynamic nature of serials. The model includes all of the serial relationships in the ISSN Manual.[4] One interesting aspect of PRESSoo is its premise that "there is no single expression or manifestation representing a complete serial work unless the serial work is ended."[5]


  1. ^ a b FRBRoo Introduction.
  2. ^ FRBRoo Model and mapping to the FRBR-ER (version 1.0). Editors: Chryssoula Bekiari, Martin Doerr and Patrick Le Bouf. V.1.0, June 2009.
  3. ^ "PRESSoo". Our partners and projects. International Standard Serial Number International Centre. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  4. ^ Fallgren, Nancy; Lauruhn, Michael; Reynolds, Regina Romano; Kaplan, Laurie (2 May 2014). "The Missing Link: The Evolving Current State of Linked Data for Serials". The Serials Librarian 66 (1-4): 123–138. doi:10.1080/0361526X.2014.879690. 
  5. ^ Patrick Le Boeuf, ed. (March 2013). PRESSoo (PDF) (Report) (0.1 ed.). p. 5. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  • Riva, Doerr, and Zumer, FRBRoo: enabling a common view of information from memory institutions, WORLD LIBRARY AND INFORMATION CONGRESS: 74TH IFLA GENERAL CONFERENCE AND COUNCIL, 10–14 August 2008, Québec, Canada

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