D-442 FÚG

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D-442 FÚG/D-944 PSzH
FUG.JPG
Polish D-442 FÚG at a museum, 01.07.2007.
Type Amphibious Armoured Scout Car
Place of origin Hungary People's Republic of Hungary
Service history
In service Early 1964 - present[1]
Used by See Operators
Wars See Service History
Production history
Designed Early 1960s (D-442 FÚG)[1]
Late 1960s (D-944 PSzH)
Produced Early 1964 - ?[1]
Specifications
Weight D-442 FÚG: 6.3 t (6.2 long tons; 6.9 short tons)
D-944 PSzH: 7.5 t (7.4 long tons; 8.3 short tons)
Length 5.79 m (19 ft 0 in)
Width 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in)
Height 1.91 m (6 ft 3 in) (D-442 FÚG)
Crew 2 (driver and commander) + 4 scouts (D-442 FÚG)[1]
3 (driver, gunner and commander) + 4 scouts (D-944 PSzH)[1]

Armor welded steel
13 mm maximum (D-442 FÚG)[1]
14 mm maximum (D-944 PSzH)
Main
armament
7.62 mm UK light machine gun (model 59) (D-442 FÚG)
14.5 mm KPVT heavy machine gun (500 rounds) (D-944 PSzH)
Secondary
armament
none (D-442 FÚG)
7.62 mm PKT coaxial general purpose machine gun (2000 rounds) (D-944 PSzH)
Engine Csepel D414.44 in-line 4-cylinder OHV 5.5 liter diesel
101 hp (75 kW)
Power/weight D-442 FÚG: 16 hp/tonne (11.9 kW/tonne)
D-944 PSzH: 13.5 hp/tonne (10 kW/tonne)
Suspension Wheeled 4x4 (+ 4 auxiliary wheels), leaf springs with hydraulic shock absorbers
Ground clearance 340 mm
Fuel capacity 200 l or 2x75 l
Operational
range
D-442 FÚG: 600 km (370 mi)[1]
D-944 PSzH: 500 km (310 mi)
Speed 87 km/h (road) (D-442 FÚG)[1]
81 km/h (50 mph) (road) (D-944 PSzH)
45 km/h (cross country)
9 km/h (water)

The D-442 FÚG (Felderítő Úszó Gépkocsi - "amphibious reconnaissance vehicle") is a Hungarian armoured scout car based on the Soviet BRDM-1 armoured scout car. It is also known under its Czechoslovak designation OT-65.

Description[edit]

The FÚG is similar to the Soviet BRDM-1 armoured scout car, though several differences reflect an independence of the design. It has two waterjets for amphibious propulsion instead of one as in BDRM-1. Due to the similarities with BRDM-1, the D-442 FÚG is sometimes mistaken for a BRDM-1 modification. It is primarily intended for reconnaissance activities, particularly behind the enemy lines. It was converted to be used in a variety of different roles such as an artillery observation post, a mobile command/observation post and NBC reconnaissance. The Hungarian FÚG version can be fitted with a pintle-mounted RPD LMG, but on the OT-65 the main weapon was a 7.62 UK light machine gun (vz. 59) with electromagnetic release.

Polish D-442 FÚG in a museum. The armoured shutters with integral vision blocks on the windshields and a single firing port on the left hand side of the hull are visible

D-442 has much more angular shape than the BRDM-1's boat-like hull. The vehicle shares similarities with both BRDM-1 and BRDM-2. Like the BRDM-1, the standard version has no permanent armament. As in BRDM-1 and BRDM-2, the commander and the driver were sited in the front of the hull, driver on the left and commander on the right. Also as with both the BRDM-1 and the BRDM-2, the D-442 FÚG has four infra-red driving lights in the front. The other similarities with the BRDM-1 include the windshields which in combat situation are replaced by armoured shutters with integral vision blocks and two firing ports on both sides of the troop compartment. However to use the armoured shutters the windshields have to be removed. When the shutters are in their opened position they protect driver and commander from being blinded by the sunlight and ensure that the windscreens won't be blurred by rain or snow. Driver and commander can use episcopes to view the battlefield instead of the windshields. The vehicle however has a hanged layout, unlike the BRDM-1 which had a conventional 4x4 layout. The layout is identical to that of BRDM-2, the engine compartment is in the rear and crew compartment is in the front and center. The transmission is located in the middle. Thanks to this the engine is much better protected from enemy fire. The D-442 FÚG has a roof with two hatches over commander's and driver's stations. While the BRDM-1 and BRDM-2 only had hatches on top of the roof, the D-442 FÚG has a round escape hatch in the floor. The vehicle is powered by a Hungarian-made Csepel six-cylinder diesel engine. The exhaust is located on the right hand side of the hull. The vehicle is equipped with a winch, intended, among others, for self-recovery when stuck in difficult terrain. To improve cross-country capability, central tire-pressure regulation system can also be used to decrease the pressure in all tires before crossing an obstacle and to increase it to the required level after the obstacle has been crossed. The tire pressure can be reduced and controlled by the driver from his post by the means of valves and a pressure indicator. Like the BDRM-1 and BRDM-2, it has four auxiliary belly wheels which the driver can hydraulically lower to assist the vehicle in crossing obstacles and gaps. Speed is sacrificed in this mode of travel, which is accomplished in first gear at a speed of five to eight kilometers per hour. Water obstacles can be crossed by swimming. In water, the vehicle is driven by two water jets controlled by the driver which are steered by reversing the thrust. Stability of the vehicle in water is improved by a trim board which is erected at the front before entering the water. While in its traveling position it serves as additional armour. The armour on the vehicle which is composed of welded steel, protects it fully against small arms fire and small shell fragments but doesn't protect it against big artillery fragments and a .50-calibre machine gun fire which can penetrate D-442 FÚG maximum armour of 13 millimeters and D-944 PSzH maximum armour of 14 millimeters. The D-442 FÚG-series and D-944 PSzH tires are not protected by armour. They are particularly vulnerable to puncture from fire of all kinds. D-442 FÚG armoured scout car has its weak spots however. One of the biggest flaws of the D-442 FÚG armoured scout car is the lack of permanent armament. To operate the pintle-mounted 7.62 mm light machine gun in the front the soldier had to expose himself to enemy fire. This issue was taken care of in D-944 PSzH developed in late 1960s, which had a small two part side door on both sides of the hull and a turret armed with 14.5 mm KPVT heavy machine gun and 7.62 mm coaxial general purpose machine gun. Both weapons can be elevated between -5 and +30 degrees. The turret has two IR spotlights, one next to the armament and the second one on top of the turret. It also has a radio antenna on back of the turret. Like in the BRDM-2 there two hatches over driver's and commander's stations in the front of the turret. Contrary to the popular belief the turret used in D-944 PSzH is different from the BPU-1 turret used in BRDM-2. The vehicle also introduced NBC protection system and infrared night-vision equipment. Even though the D-944 PSzH resembles the BRDM-2, it does not have the flaw related to entering and exiting the vehicle (See BRDM-2 for details) which is present in D-442 FÚG, because the vehicle has side hatches as opposed to the front roof hatches. Because the vehicle uses an only slightly modified hull of D-442 FÚG it also has the round escape hatch in the floor.

Service history[edit]

FÚG armoured scout cars were serving with armies of six Warsaw Pact countries: Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Bulgaria, East Germany and Romania. Poland received small numbers of FÚG armoured scout cars in reconnaissance, command, artillery forward observation post and NBC reconnaissance versions in 1965. Those were probably Czechoslovak OT-65 Otter versions. They were withdrawn from military service in 1980s. After that it was used by internal protection units. No longer in any kind of service. Three were given to museums. Some were given to the proving grounds as targets after they were stripped of all equipment. Hungary also developed the PSzH-IV armored personel carrier from the D-944 PSzH armoured scout car. The PSzH-IV prototype first appeared in 1966 and only took part in a single maneuver parade in Bratislava, mounting an egg-shaped turret and dummy automatic cannon.[2] The prototype and the PSzH-IV were first thought to be an armoured scout cars by the West[3] due to its small size and 4x4 configuration, and thus called FÚG-66 and FÚG-70 after the FÚG 4x4 scout car.[2]

The PSzH-IV is no longer in service with Hungary.[2] However the armoured cars are still in stock. Czechoslovakia sold its OT-65 vehicles to Iraq. Iraq also bought the PSzH-IV APC. The vehicles were probably used during the First Persian Gulf War and the 2003 Invasion of Iraq by Iraqi Army.

Variants[edit]

Hungary[edit]

  • D-442.00 FÚG (early 1960s) - Basic armoured scout car without the turret. It had an R-113 or R-114 radio.
    • D-442.01 PK-FÚG (parancsnoki) - Converted into a command vehicle with R-113 or R-114 and an additional R-114M or R-112 radio for platoon and company commanders. Later a R-403 or R-407 relay was built in for company and battalion commanders.
    • D-442.03 VS-FÚG (vegyi sugárfelderítö úszó gépkocsi) - NBC reconnaissance vehicle based on D-442 FÚG with specialized radiation, chemical and biological detection devices as well as flag dispensers used to mark the contaminated areas.
    • D-442.01 MRP-FÚG (páncélozott repülőirányító pont) - Forward air controller post, based on D-442 PK-FÚG with an R-114 and an R-159 radio.
    • D-442.02 MÜ-FÚG (műszaki) - Engineer reconnaissance vehicle with special equipment.
  • FÚG-66 (1966) - Four prototypes built for D-944 PSzH without turret in 1966.
  • FÚG-70 (1970) - Pre-series built prototypes for D-944 PSzH (Wheeled Amphibious Armoured Personnel Carrier) able to carry six fully equipped soldiers, who exit the vehicle through small two-part doors on the each side of the hull. The turret was different from the D-944.00. The main weapon was a 20mm caliber aircraft machine cannon, cannibalized from Il-10 aircraft in the middle 1950s. Only 7 were built.

PSzH APC[edit]

PSzH in Hungarian police livery
  • D-944.00 PSzH (1970–1979) - Armoured personnel carrier with a small two part side door on both sides of the hull and a turret armed with 14.5 mm KPVT heavy machine gun and 7.62 mm KGKT coaxial general purpose machine gun. Both weapons can be elevated between -5 and +30 degrees and for aiming there was a KM-1 sight. The turret has two TVN-2 IR spotlights, one next to the armament and the second one on top of the turret. It also has a radio antenna on back of the turret for the R-113 radio and a R-142 phonia. Like in the BRDM-2 there two hatches over driver's and commander's stations in the front of the turret. The motor was a 100HP D-414.44 diesel.
  • D-944.00M PSzH-M (1988) - Rebuilt original D-944.00 with an R-123 radio and a PKT machine gun instead of the old KGKT. The motor was a 110 hp D-414.44/2 diesel.
    • D-944.00 PSzH-F - Armoured personnel carrier for reconnaissance platoons and companies.
    • D-944.77 PSzH - Armoured personnel carrier for the Hungarian border guard and internal security police troops. It was developed from the basic APC version with minor changes and it had a turret, unlike the German PSzH-IV-10.
    • D-944.31 SzDPK-PSzH - Command vehicle for mechanized company commanders, based on D-944.00 PSzH with two R-123 radios and an antenna. It has an additional R-107 radio in the troop compartment. In there was only two place for personnel, one for the radiomen and one place plus a map-desk for the commander.
    • D-944.21 ZPK-PSzH (zászlóaljparancsnoki) - Command vehicle for mechanized battalion commanders and for reconnaissance company commanders, based on D-944 PSzH with additional radios and additional radio antenna on right hand side of the hull. It has two R-123 and one R-130 radios, plus two additional R-107 in the troop compartment.
    • D-944.22 ZTÖF-PSzH - Command vehicle for mechanized battalion staff chiefs and for reconnaissance platoon commanders, based on D-944 PSzH with additional radios and additional radio antenna on right hand side of the hull. It has one R-123 and one R-130 radio, plus two additional R-107 in the troop compartment.
    • D-944.21 OPK-PSzH - Command vehicle for towed artillery battalion commanders with three R-123MT radios and artillery recce equipment (ET-68 laser-rangefinder in the turret in place of the KPVT gun, VOP recce instrument on the right side of the hull and others). The armament consisting only one PKT machine gun.[3]

Former Czechoslovakia[edit]

  • OT-65 (Obrněný Transportér vz. 65) - Czechoslovak version of D-442 FÚG armoured scout car.
    • OT-65ZDR (zdravotní) - OT-65 converted into an armoured ambulance.
    • OT-65A "Vydra" (Otter) - OT-65 with a turret of the OT-62B TOPAS. The entry hatches have been moved so now they are positioned behind the turret. It also has additional protection on IR driving lights.
    • OT-65Ch (chemický) - Variant with specialized radiation, chemical and biological detection devices as well as flag dispensers used to mark the contaminated areas.
    • OT-65ChV (velitelsko-chemický) - Variant with specialized radiation, chemical and biological detection devices as well as flag dispensers used to mark the contaminated areas.
    • OT-65DP - Armoured artillery forward observation post.
    • OT-65DPP (pohyblivá dělostřelecká pozorovatelna) - Armoured artillery forward observation post.
    • OT-65 R-2 - Communication vehicle with additional radio set R-2.
    • OT-65 R-112 - Communication vehicle with additional radio set R-112.
    • OT-65RL - Variant fitted with a battlefield surveillance radar PSNR-1.
    • OT-65VP - FAC vehicle with additional radios. Similar to the Hungarian MRP-FÚG.
  • OT-66 (Obrněný Transportér vz. 66) - Czechoslovak designation for D-944 PSzH.

Former East Germany[edit]

  • D-944.40 PSzH-IV - Hungarian export designation for APC's of the East-German border guards (Grenztruppen - GT). GT designator: SPW-PSH (Schützenpanzerwagen). The SPW-PSH was also found in some para-military units such as the Bereitschaftspolizei (riot police). Of the 692 SPW's delivered between 1970 and 1976, several were modified into new types by the "Panzerwerkstatt-2" from 1979:
    • SPW-PSH (Ch) - modification of 12 existing vehicles into NBC reconnaissance vehicles with specialized radiation, chemical and biological detection devices as well as two flag dispensers used to mark the contaminated areas.
    • SPW-PSH (Artl) - 39 PSH's were modified into reconnaissance vehicles for artillery units of the border troops. They had additional signals equipment (and three whip antennae at the rear hull) and an optical range finder OEM-2 that was transported in a big box on top of the engine deck.
    • SPW-PSH (Pi) - 28 vehicles of the border troops were converted into combat engineer (Pionier) recce vehicles with a crew of 7 and equipped with portable mine detection systems MSG-46M, a chain saw PS-90, explosives etc.
    • SPW-PSH-Agitprop - agitation and propaganda vehicle.
  • D-944.41 PSzH-IV - Battalion commander's vehicle with telescopic mast HTM-10, GT designator SPW-PSH (K1).
  • D-944.42 PSzH-IV - Company commander's vehicle, GT designator SPW-PSH (K2).
  • PSzH-IV-10 - Turretless PSzH-IV used by the border guards.

Iraq[edit]

  • D-944.50 PSzH-IV - Hungarian export designation for APC's sold to Iraq.
  • D-944.53 PSzH-IV - Hungarian export designation for company commander's vehicle sold to Iraq.

Operators[edit]

  •  Hungary - The remaining vehicles are mostly in stock (Check Hungary section for full list of used variants). PSzH was withdrawn from service.

Former operators[edit]

  •  Czechoslovakia - Passed on to the successor states (Check Former Czechoslovakia section for full list of used variants).
  •  East Germany - 1363 pieces of D-944 PSzH, PSzH-Ch, PSzH-IV and PSzH-IV-10, passed on to the unified German state.
  •  Iraq - OT-65 Otter and 150 pieces of PSzH-IV, all destroyed or scrapped.
  •  Poland - Received small numbers of FÚG armoured scout cars in reconnaissance, command, artillery forward observation post and NBC reconnaissance versions in 1965. Those were probably Czechoslovak OT-65 Otter versions. They were withdrawn from military service in 1980s. After that they were used by internal protection units. No longer in any kind of service. Three were given to the museums. Some were given to the proving grounds as shooting targets after they were stripped of all equipment.
  •  West Germany/ Germany - taken from GDR's army, all scrapped or sold to other countries.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Army Recognition 1"
  2. ^ a b c "PSzH-IV armoured personnel carrier (Hungary)". Jane's Armour and Artillery. Jane's. November 5, 2007. Retrieved 2008-04-08. [dead link]
  3. ^ a b Trewhitt, Philip (1999). Armoured Fighting Vehicles. 216: Dempsey-Parr. ISBN 1-84084-328-4. 
  • Jackowski, Jerzy i Wysocki, Tadeusz. Kołowe środki transportu armii węgierskiej. Nowa Technika Wojskowa. 1993, issue 1, pages 7–9. ISSN 1230-1655.
  • Janusz Magnuski "Wozy Bojowe LWP", Wydawnictwo MON, Warsaw 1985
  • Global Security
  • JED