FX (TV channel)

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FX International logo.svg
Launched June 1, 1994 (1994-06-01T20 years)
Owned by Fox Entertainment Group
(21st Century Fox)
(FX Networks, LLC)
Picture format 720p (HDTV)
(HD feed downgraded to letterboxed 480i for SDTVs)
Slogan Fearless
Country United States
Language English
Broadcast area National
Headquarters New York City, New York
Formerly called fX, FX: Fox Gone Cable
Sister channel(s) FX Movie Channel
Website www.fxnetworks.com
StarSat 132 SD
Dish Network 136 (HD/SD)
DirecTV 248 (HD/SD)
1248 (VOD)
Verizon FiOS 553 (HD)
53 (SD)
Available on most cable providers Check local listings for channels
AT&T U-verse 1129 (HD)
129 (SD)

FX (originally an initialism of "Fox extended", suggesting "effects") is an American basic cable and satellite television channel that is owned by the Fox Entertainment Group division of 21st Century Fox. In addition to the flagship U.S. network, the "FX" name is licensed to a number of related pay television channels outside of the United States. FX's programming primarily features: original drama and comedy series (which aspire to the standards of premium-cable channels like HBO and Showtime, in regard to adult themes and more unique, higher-quality writing/directing/acting); and, reruns of theatrically released feature films and "broadcast network" sitcoms.

As of August 2013, approximately 97 million American households (85% of households with television) receive FX.[1]



FX (then-stylized as "fX") first launched on June 1, 1994. Broadcasting from a large "apartment" in Manhattan's Flatiron District, fX was one of the first forays into large-scale interactive television. The channel centered around original programming, broadcast live every day from the "fX Apartment", and rebroadcasts of classic television shows from the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, such as Batman, Wonder Woman, Eight Is Enough, Nanny and the Professor and The Green Hornet. fX had two taglines: "TV Made Fresh Daily" and "The World's First Living Television Network".[2] The "f" was lower-case to portray a type of relaxed friendliness. The stylized "X" represented the channel's roots: the crossing searchlights of the 20th Century Fox logo.

The live shows were mostly focused on one broad topic each. Shows included Personal fX (collectibles), The Pet Department (pets), Under Scrutiny with Jane Wallace (news) and Sound fX (music). The channel's flagship show, Breakfast Time (hosted by Laurie Hibberd and Tom Bergeron), was formatted like an informal magazine show, and was an Americanized version of Great Britain's The Big Breakfast. Breakfast Time and Personal fX would regularly feature the channel's "roving reporters" visiting unique places around America live via satellite. Suzanne Whang (now of HGTV), John Burke (now of E!) and Phil Keoghan (now of CBS's The Amazing Race) were some of the roving reporters. Other notable fX personalities included Karyn Bryant and Orlando Jones, who were panelists on "Sound fX."

The channel prided itself on its interactivity with viewers. fX, in 1994, was an early adopter of the internet, embracing e-mail and the World Wide Web as methods of feedback. Most of the shows would feature instant responses to e-mailed questions, and one show, Backchat (hosted by eventual Survivor host Jeff Probst), was exclusively devoted to responding to viewer mail, whether e-mailed or mailed traditionally. Select viewers were allowed to spend a day at the "apartment" and take part in all of the channel's shows. Inside the channel's syndicated programming blocks, channel hosts would frequently appear during commercial breaks to read e-mails from viewers about the episode airing, or to promote upcoming programming.

fX's viewer base was very loyal, but the budget was simply too high for the clearance the channel was receiving. Ironically, the first incarnation of fX was not even available on the local cable system in New York City, where its programming originated. During the time the channel launched in the mid-1990s, cable systems around the United States were upgrading their infrastructures to increase channel capacity and were not regularly adding channels until these upgrades were complete. The same problem plagued Fox News Channel when it launched in October 1996.

The live shows gradually disappeared one by one until only Personal fX remained. Breakfast Time was moved to the Fox network and renamed Fox After Breakfast in mid-1996. It underwent several format changes and never found a substantial audience, it was canceled less than a year later. Eventually, all live programming with the exception of Personal fX was dropped and the channel focused entirely on its classic television shows until its relaunch in mid-1997. Personal fX remained on the refocused FX until May 1, 1998. FX vacated the "apartment" in the summer of 1998 and the channel's operations were streamlined with the other Fox-owned cable channels.


fX was relaunched as "FX: Fox Gone Cable"[3] in early 1997, targeting men aged 18 to 49. The channel became known for original drama series and NASCAR programming.

During the first few years after its relaunch, FX was known for little else than airing reruns of such Fox shows as The X-Files and Married... with Children, as well as 20th Century Fox-produced shows such as M*A*S*H and Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Soon after its relaunch, the tagline "Fox Gone Cable" was dropped. When the cable reruns of Ally McBeal and The Practice fumbled in primetime, FX predominantly ran movies in their more high-profile time periods.


The channel has emerged as a major force in original cable programming, gaining both acclaim and notoriety for edgy dramas. This began in 2002 with the debut of its breakout hit, police drama The Shield. This trend continued the following year with Nip/Tuck, a drama about two plastic surgeons, and the Denis Leary-helmed Rescue Me, about the lives of a crew of firemen from the New York City Fire Department post-9/11. Unlike many broadcast networks, FX is willing to take risks with its programming and push the envelope of what can be shown on television, having TV-MA ratings for strong profanity, sexual and violent content. Opinions on these shows are mixed; some organizations, like the Parents Television Council and American Family Association, have asked advertisers to boycott these shows due to their graphic content.[4][5] The shows have also been critically acclaimed for their strong storylines and characters.

Capitalizing on the success of the hit documentary Super Size Me, creator Morgan Spurlock launched a new series, 30 Days, on FX in June 2005. The series puts its subjects in situations uncomfortable to them for 30 days, such as making millionaires work for minimum wage, and having Christians live in a Muslim community.

In the summer of 2005, FX debuted two new comedy series, Starved, about the daily lives of four friends with eating disorders who live in New York City, and It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia, about the usually very politically incorrect comic misadventures of four people who own a bar in the titular city. Both of these shows feature frank sexual dialogue and strong language, pitched as "The Dark Side of Comedy". Starved was derided by groups that sought to publicize eating disorders and was cancelled after its first season due to low ratings. Conversely, Sunny quickly became a critical darling, consistently achieved high viewership, and was picked up for a second season within days of its first season finale. Fox aired an edited version of Sunny for a three-episode run in the summer of 2006, in an effort to further promote it on FX.

In 2006, FX debuted two new series, the reality series Black. White. and the drama Thief but neither were picked up for a second season. After 2006, FX also lost the rights to broadcast NASCAR, as sister channel Speed Channel became the new cable partner for NASCAR on Fox.

Throughout 2007, FX introduced three new dramas, Dirt starring Courteney Cox, The Riches starring Eddie Izzard and Minnie Driver, and Damages starring Glenn Close, Ted Danson and Rose Byrne. All three did well in the ratings and were renewed for second seasons. On October 15, 2007 a high definition feed was launched on DirecTV and many U.S. cable providers. By 2008, the channel was available in 90.6 million U.S. homes.


FX logo used from 2008 until April 2, 2013.

In 2008, the channel launched a new branding campaign built around the theme There Is No Box; it was influenced by the phrase "Thinking outside the box" and refers to how the channel's programming goes beyond the box concept, as well as a pun on the channel's competing against premium channels such as HBO, with its original programming. The channel's logo changed on December 18, 2007, retaining only the FX letters while removing the klieg light logo box that had been placed to its left. The new branding included an advertising campaign featuring a post-game ad for the channel during Fox's coverage of Super Bowl XLII.[6] The promo used the James Morrison song "You Give Me Something".[7]

Over 2008, competition with other cable channels increased, which was evident in the second season ratings for less successful series, Dirt and The Riches, whose ratings decreased significantly since their first seasons. Some weeks viewership barely exceeded 1 million. Both shows were cancelled in 2008; acquired programs Dharma and Greg, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Married... with Children, and Fear Factor were also removed from the schedule.[citation needed]

In 2008, the channel debuted Sons of Anarchy, a drama series created by The Shield executive producer Kurt Sutter about a fictional outlaw motorcycle club bent on protecting their sheltered California town from corporate developers and drug dealers; its September premiere coincided with that of The Shield's final season. SOA was critically and commercially successful, and was renewed for a second season. Other new shows included the Kenny Hotz comedy Testees, which ran from October to December 2008 but was not renewed.[citation needed]

In August 2008, FX launched a new website, making full shows available to view online. As of January 2010, It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia, 30 Days, Sons of Anarchy, and The League are available for viewing through the official FX site. In 2009, reruns of the former ABC sitcom Spin City were removed from the schedule (though it would be restored early the following year), while a sixth season order of 18 episodes was placed for Rescue Me, even though the fifth season had not premiered at the time.[8]

In March 2010, the channel debuted Justified, a drama series created by Graham Yost based on Elmore Leonard's short story "Fire in the Hole" (which was the series' original working title, before being changed to Lawman and then ultimately to Justified). It stars Timothy Olyphant as U.S. Marshal Raylan Givens – a tough, soft-spoken lawman with a rough side – and chronicles his cases and personal life, including unfinished business with an ex-wife and his aging father.[9] FX also picked up Terriers for its fall 2010 lineup and began airing Lights Out in 2011.[citation needed]

In July 2009, FX ordered three new comedy pilots: Archer, an animated series centering around a spy agency that premiered on January 14, 2010;[10] The League, centering around a group of friends that are part of a fantasy football league;[11] and Louie, a sitcom starring stand-up comedian and writer Louis C.K., which "blend[s] stand-up material with what Landgraf described as 'extended vignettes' depicting moments from [the comedian's] offstage experiences."[12] The following year, FX debuted Wilfred, a comedy series starring Elijah Wood that is based on the Australian comedy series of the same name.[13]

On October 1, 2010, then-parent company News Corporation pulled its channels from Dish Network due to a carriage dispute. FX returned to Dish Network's channel lineup on October 29, 2010, after Dish Network and News Corporation signed a long-term carriage agreement. On November 1, 2010, following a similar dispute, FX and its sister channels were restored by New York City-based cable provider Cablevision through a separate carriage agreement.[citation needed]

On October 14, 2011, FX announced that it picked up the rights to develop a series based on Scar Tissue and Lords of the Sunset Strip, the autobiographies of the Red Hot Chili Peppers singer Anthony Kiedis and his father, Blackie Dammett. HBO had originally picked up the series, which was to be titled Spider & Son, a few years before but eventually moved on from the project. Entourage writer/producers Marc Abrams and Mike Benson were tapped as its showrunners and Kiedis would also be involved as a co-producer.[14]Dammett said in 2013 that the show has been "mothballed" and he hopes interest will resume on the project once the Red Hot Chili Peppers wrap up their world tour in that same year however as of 2014 there has been no mention from FX, Kiedis or Dammett on the status of the series.[15] On January 30, 2013, FX premiered the 1980s-set Cold War drama The Americans.

In January 2014, FX began rolling out FXNOW, a streaming video on demand, "TV Everywhere" app similar to HBOGO, Showtime Anytime, and Watch ABC, that makes available content from FX, FXM, and FXX to authenticated cable, satellite, and teleco service subscribers. FXNOW viewers can access the networks' roster of FX originals (available the morning following the premiere[16]), acquired series (such as 530 episodes from the first 24 seasons of The Simpsons, will be syndicated by sister channel FXX), and 165 film titles in 2014, increasing to more than 200 titles in 2015 and beyond.[17][18] FXNOW shows, though free to eligible subscribers, is interrupted by commercials.[19] FXNOW can currently be watched on iOS, Windows 8 desktop and tablet, and Xbox One devices, and online; additional apps will be launched for the Android, Roku, Samsung, and Xbox 360 platforms in the spring.[20][21]

On June 1, 2014, FX celebrated 20 years of programming.


The channel's most popular original shows past and present include The Shield, Nip/Tuck, Damages, Rescue Me, Sons of Anarchy, Justified,The Strain, The Americans and American Horror Story, as well as the comedies Archer, It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia, Louie, The League, Wilfred and Anger Management. The channel also heavily relies on theatrically released feature films from 20th Century Fox and other film studios (with these films taking up much of the primetime and the majority of the channel's weekend schedules), along with repeats of network television sitcoms (such as Two and a Half Men and How I Met Your Mother). From the late 1990s to the mid-2000s, acquired programs broadcast on FX largely consisted of series that were originally broadcast on Fox between the late 1980s and the 2000s (such as That '70s Show, Married... with Children and In Living Color). In 2010, Sons of Anarchy attracted an average of 4.9 million viewers per week, making it FX's highest rated series to date, surpassing other hits The Shield, Nip/Tuck, Rescue Me and Damages.[22]

Sports programming[edit]

After obtaining the spring broadcast rights to NASCAR, Fox Sports announced that for their inaugural 2001 season, FX would serve as its cable partner. This meant that FX would cover several races in the series then known as the Busch Series and Winston Cup (including the All-Star Race), as well as select qualifying and final practice sessions. The move was meant to promote the channel and cause NASCAR fans to contact their cable providers to add the channel to their lineup. In 2002, then-channel president Peter Liguori praised NASCAR for increasing the number of available homes carrying FX from 58.5 million to 76.6 million.[23] FX also aired Major League Baseball games during this period, initially on Monday nights (for the 1997 season) and then on Saturday nights (from 1998 to 2001). Among the games FX televised was Cal Ripken, Jr.'s final home game with the Baltimore Orioles in 2001.

On April 27, 2011, FX started showing UEFA Champions League games as part of a deal with Fox Sports. In the fall of 2011, FX began broadcasting college football games on Saturdays. FX broadcast 13 games in 2011 as part of Fox Sports' contracts with the Big 12, Pac-12, and Conference USA conferences.[24] In January 2012, FX began broadcasting content from the Ultimate Fighting Championship.[25]

With the August 2013 launch of national sports cable networks Fox Sports 1 and Fox Sports 2, FX no longer serves as a cable outlet for Fox Sports.

Sister channels[edit]

FX Movie Channel[edit]

Main article: FX Movie Channel
FX Movie Channel.jpg

FX Movie Channel (or FXM) launched as fXM: Movies from Fox (though it was originally slated to be titled "Fox Movie Studio" prior to the channel's launch)[26] on October 31, 1994. It was originally launched as a spinoff of FX, that focused on feature films from the 20th Century Fox film library.[27] fXM became a separately branded channel, when it was renamed Fox Movie Channel on March 1, 2000. FX Movie Channel's programming divided into two 12-hour blocks: its main programming schedule, from 3 p.m. to 3 a.m. ET (which launched as a daily film block of what was then primairly Fox Movie Channel on January 1, 2012), is largely advertiser-supported with an expanded film slate of more recent feature films from Fox and other film studios that FX had acquired for broadcast on that channel aimed to draw in a younger audience, while older movies exclusively from 20th Century Fox's film library air in a commercial-free block (which retains the Fox Movie Channel brand) from 3 a.m. to 3 p.m. ET. On March 27, 2013, Fox Entertainment Group announced that FXM would be converted from a programming block on Fox Movie Channel to being a full scale network.[28]


Main article: FXX
FXX Logo.svg

FXX is a general entertainment channel that launched on September 2, 2013 as an offshoot of FX;[29][30] FXX primarily focuses on comedies (resulting in FX and FXX maintaining a genre-based format similar to that of TBS and TNT) and features original and acquired comedy series, though feature films and some drama series will be broadcast on FXX – with first-run episodes of some of the channel's original series being carried over to the channel from FX.

Most providers at the launch of the channel have only included FXX in extra-cost sports packages as an artifact of FXX taking the spot of Fox Soccer, though this is expected to be rectified over time.

International channels[edit]


Main article: FX (Asia)


In 1995, fX launched in Australia, featuring a format of classic television series (often branded as "Golden Years of Television"). fXM was a nightly block of classic 20th Century Fox films, the channel was hosted by Bill Collins (often branded as "Bill Collins' Golden Years of Hollywood", later airing on Fox Classics). In late 1998, fX became FX, a channel aimed at women, featuring shows such as The View and Donny and Marie. In late 2000, FX was again rebranded, officially becoming "Australia's first TV channel for women".[31][32] In November 1, 2003, it was renamed W. as a way to make this focus more apparent. The channel would again rebrand as SoHo.

On October 9, 2011, Fox International Channels released details that FX would relaunch in Australia in early 2012 with programs such as The Walking Dead, Transporter: The Series and Hell on Wheels.[33]


Main article: FX Canada

On August 6, 2011, Rogers Media entered into a licensing agreement with FX Networks to launch FX Canada as a Category B digital cable and satellite specialty channel.[34] Other carriers such as EastLink, Shaw and MTS TV are expected to carry FX, in time for the new channel's launch.[35] The network, which launched on November 1, 2011, features FX original series; U.S. acquired movies and series; and original Canadian programming and sporting events (as required by the CRTC).[36] FX Canada's broadcast license requires that 15 percent of its programming consist of Canadian content in its first year, 20 percent in its second year and 25 percent by its third year. Canadians cannot access content on the FX U.S. website.

Latin America[edit]

Main article: FX Latin America

The FX channel in Latin America, is intended almost entirely aimed at a male audience, as a counterpart of Fox Life, created for the female viewers. In Brazil, it is broadcast mainly by NET TV, TVA, Oi TV, SKY, Embratel TV and GVT TV.

Middle East[edit]

FX Middle East was launched in the summer of 2011 (between June and July) as a new member of the Fox Middle East slate of channels (which also includes Fox and Fox Movies) after many bad responses to dubbing the Fox Middle East channel (previously Fox Series) to Arabic.The Channel is also available in Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and Tajikistan.

The channel broadcasts series such as The Simpsons, Strike Force, UFC Unleashed, Criminal Minds, the Triple Plays of CSI:NY, CSI:Miami, and CSI:Crime Scene Investigation, Nip/Tuck, Bull Run, Life On Mars, The Cleveland Show, The Amazing Race, Legend Of The Seeker, The Wanda Sykes Show, Defying Gravity, TNA Impact Wrestling, Louie and The Walking Dead, along with some movies every night and additional series.[37][38][39][40][41]


FX Portugal launched on the ZON TVCabo satellite and cable platform in September 26, 2007, along with Fox Crime. Also available on MEO, AR Telecom and Cabovisão.

South Africa[edit]

FX was launched as part of the TopTV offering in May 2010 in South Africa.[42]


FX was launched in Turkey on April 14, 2008 on the D-Smart digital platform. It is available on the Digiturk, Teledünya and Tivibu digital platforms.

United Kingdom & Ireland[edit]

Main article: Fox (UK and Ireland)

FX was launched in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland on 12 January 2004 on British Sky Broadcasting's Sky satellite network. It was targeted primarily at the 18-34 years' TV market. From 2004-05, it was branded FX289, in line with its EPG number on Sky. From 2005-2013, it was known as FX, in line with its sister US station, and on 11 January 2013 it was renamed FOX, whilst the demographic of its target viewing audience was widened.[43]

Network slogans[edit]

  • "fX: The World's First Living Television Network" (primary; 1994–1996)
  • "fX: TV Made Fresh Daily" (secondary; 1994–1996)
  • "fX: TV With You In Mind" (1996–1997)
  • "FX: Fox Gone Cable" (1997–2008)
  • "There Is No Box" (2008–2013)
  • "Fearless" (2013–present)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Seidman, Robert (August 23, 2013). "List of How Many Homes Each Cable Networks Is In - Cable Network Coverage Estimates As Of August 2013". TV by the Numbers. Zap2it. Retrieved August 25, 2013. 
  2. ^ 3.09: Street Cred. Wired.com (January 4, 2009). Retrieved on July 28, 2011.
  3. ^ Schneider, Michael; Martin, Denise. The two faces of Fox. Variety: March 28, 2005
  4. ^ Issue details. One Million Moms.com. Retrieved on July 28, 2011.
  5. ^ Albiniak, Paige. PTC aims at FX's The Shield. Broadcasting & Cable: April 9, 2002
  6. ^ Elliott, Stuart. (December 11, 2007) Box? We Don’t Need No Box. Tvdecoder.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved on July 28, 2011.
  7. ^ Becker, Anne. FX Brands Itself with Slogan 'There Is No Box'. Broadcasting & Cable: December 11, 2007
  8. ^ "Rescue Me": Has This Season Saved the Show?, TV Guide, June 15, 2009
  9. ^ Poniewozik, James (December 1, 2009). "FX's Former Lawman Gets Justified". TIME. Retrieved December 13, 2009. 
  10. ^ Animated Archer Coming to FX, IGN.com, July 14, 2009
  11. ^ New Fantasy Football Comedy Pilot, IGN.com, July 15, 2009
  12. ^ "Louis" Greenlit by FX, Variety.com, August 19, 2009
  13. ^ Brent Lang. "Elijah Wood to the Small Screen, for FX's 'Wilfred'". 
  14. ^ "Anthony Kiedis' Scar Tissue Moves From HBO To FX". Cinemablend.com. 2011-10-14. Retrieved 2013-04-21. 
  15. ^ http://www.mlive.com/entertainment/grand-rapids/index.ssf/2013/04/blackie_dammett_father_of_red.html
  16. ^ Ethan Anderton. "FX Creates New FXX Channel & FXNOW Video On Demand Platform". ScreenRant. Retrieved April 143, 2014. 
  17. ^ Michael O'Connell (2014-01-14). "FX Networks Starts Rolling Out Streaming App FXNOW". The Hollywood Reporter. 
  18. ^ Maane Khatchatourian & Andrew Wallenstein. "FX Networks to Launch App That Could Counter Netflix". Variety. 
  19. ^ Maane Khatchatourian & Andrew Wallenstein. "FX Networks to Launch App That Could Counter Netflix". Variety. 
  20. ^ Christina Warren (January 16, 2014). "FXNow Streaming iOS App Launches Ahead of 'Simpsons' Release". 
  21. ^ Juliana J. Bolden (January 14, 2014). "All 24 Seasons of 'The Simpsons' to Go Mobile on FXNOW; Fans of Sons of Anarchy, American Horror Story and more will watch their FX/FXX favourites anytime, anywhere on FXNOW. Multiplatform app also aims to be the exclusive, ultimate destination for all things Simpsons.". Emmys.com. 
  22. ^ "FX Renews Sons of Anarchy". Entertainment Weekly. October 7, 2010. Retrieved October 7, 2010. 
  23. ^ FX Credits NASCAR for Growth, NASCAR.com, April 11, 2002
  24. ^ Lafayette, Jon (March 27, 2011). "FX Tackles College Football". Broadcasting & Cable. Retrieved March 27, 2011. 
  25. ^ Published August 16, 2011. "UFC Agrees To Deal With Fox That Will See Up To Four Events Per Year On Broadcast TV - SportsBusiness Daily | SportsBusiness Journal | SportsBusiness Daily Global". SportsBusiness Daily. Retrieved 2013-04-21. 
  26. ^ Katz, Richard (July 11, 1994). "fX the sequel: Fox Movie Studio coming soon". Multichannel News. Retrieved January 18, 2013. 
  27. ^ Katz, Richard (October 3, 1994). "Fox flicks: second fX net sets program model". Multichannel News. Retrieved January 18, 2013. 
  28. ^ "FX-FXX-FXM Press Release". News Corp. Retrieved 29 March 2013. 
  29. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (March 28, 2013). "FX Officially Unveils FXX Channel To Launch In September, New Branding Campaign". Deadline.com. Retrieved March 28, 2013. 
  30. ^ "Fox Soccer to relaunch as FXX". Deadline.com. Retrieved 18 January 2013. 
  31. ^ Keogh, Kylie (November 25, 2000). Daily Telegraph (Sydney). p. 14. 
  32. ^ Brown, Pam (September 12, 2001). "pay tv.tv reviews". The West Australian. 
  33. ^ "FX channel to launch - with day and date series: TV Tonight". Retrieved 2011-10-09. 
  34. ^ Rogers Media to launch FX Canada
  35. ^ FX Network heading north
  36. ^ "Canadian content - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 2013-04-21. 
  37. ^ "FX". Fxme.tv. Retrieved 2013-04-21. 
  38. ^ "FX". Fxme.tv. 2011-12-13. Retrieved 2013-04-21. 
  39. ^ "FX". Fxme.tv. 2011-12-02. Retrieved 2013-04-21. 
  40. ^ "TNA Impact on FX Middle East". FX Middle_East. Retrieved 2012-09-18. 
  41. ^ "UFC Unleashed on FX Middle East". FXME.TV. Retrieved 17 September 2012. 
  42. ^ ODM coming in May with 55 TV channels. News.google.co.za. Retrieved on July 28, 2011.
  43. ^ Chapman, Iain (7 September 2004). "FX289 to undergo design revamp". Digital Spy. Hearst Magazines UK. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 

External links[edit]