F natural minor scale ascending and descending. Play (help·info)
F harmonic minor scale ascending and descending. Play (help·info)
F melodic minor scale ascending and descending. Play (help·info)
F minor is a minor scale based on F, consisting of the pitches F, G, A♭, B♭, C, D♭, and E♭. The harmonic minor raises the E♭ to E♮. Its key signature has four flats (see below: Scales and keys).
Its relative major is A-flat major, and its parallel major is F major.
F minor is a key often associated with passion. Two famous pieces in the key of F minor are Beethoven's Appassionata Sonata, and Haydn's Symphony No. 49 in F minor, La Passione.
Glenn Gould once said if he could be any key, he would be F minor, because "it's rather dour, halfway between complex and stable, between upright and lascivious, between gray and highly tinted...There is a certain obliqueness."
In the Baroque period, music in F minor was usually written with a three-flat key signature, and some modern editions of that repertoire retain that convention.
Notable compositions 
- String Quartet No. 11, Op. 95 "Serioso" – Ludwig van Beethoven
- Violin Concerto L'inverno, RV 297, Op. 8, No. 4 – Antonio Vivaldi
- Piano Sonata No. 23, Op. 57 (Appassionata) – Ludwig van Beethoven
- Fantasia in F minor – Franz Schubert
- Fantaisie in F minor, Op. 49 – Frédéric Chopin
- Harpsichord Concerto No. 5, BWV 1056 – Johann Sebastian Bach
- Ballade No. 4, Op. 52 – Chopin
- Piano Quintet, Op. 34 – Johannes Brahms
- Piano Concerto No. 2, Op. 21 – Chopin
Notable songs 
E-sharp minor 
Enharmonic with F minor is E-sharp minor, based on the musical note E-sharp and consisting of the pitches E♯, F, G♯, A♯, B♯, C♯ and D♯. In the harmonic minor, the D♯ is raised to D. Its key signature has six sharps and one double sharp.
For clarity and simplicity, E-sharp minor is usually notated as F minor. However, E-sharp minor could be used on a local level, such as a brief passage in Johann Sebastian Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1, Prelude and Fugue No. 3 in C-sharp major. (E♯ minor is the mediant minor key of C♯ major.)
Scales and keys 
Diatonic scales and keys
|The table indicates the number of sharps or flats in each scale. Minor scales are written in lower case.