Facebook's login/signup screen
|Traded as||NASDAQ: FB|
|Founded||February 4, 2004|
|Headquarters||Menlo Park, California, US|
|Area served||United States (2004–05)
|Key people||Mark Zuckerberg
(Chairman and CEO)
|Revenue||US$7.87 billion (2013)|
|Operating income||US$2.80 billion (2013)|
|Net income||US$1.50 billion (2013)|
|Total assets||US$17.89 billion (2013)|
|Total equity||US$15.47 billion (2013)|
|Employees||7,185 (June 2014)|
|Written in||C++, PHP and D language|
|Alexa rank||2 (April 2014[update])|
|Type of site||Social networking service|
|Users||1.28 billion (monthly active, March 2014)|
|Available in||Multilingual (70)|
Facebook is an online social networking service headquartered in Menlo Park, California. Its name comes from a colloquialism for the directory given to students at some American universities. Facebook was founded on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates and fellow Harvard University students Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. The founders had initially limited the website's membership to Harvard students, but later expanded it to colleges in the Boston area, the Ivy League, and Stanford University. It gradually added support for students at various other universities and later to their high-school students. Facebook now allows anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old worldwide to become a registered user of the website, although proof is not required.
After registering to use the site, users may create a personal profile, add other users as friends, exchange messages, post status updates and photos, and receive notifications when others update their profiles. Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups, organized by workplace, school or college, or other characteristics, and categorize their friends into lists such as "People From Work" or "Close Friends". Facebook had over one billion active users as of September 2012, of which approximately 9% were fake. By that point, Facebook was adding about half a petabyte of data every 24 hours, amounting to about 180 petabytes per year. Due to the large volume of data collected about users, the service's privacy policies have faced scrutiny, among other criticisms. Facebook, Inc. held its initial public offering in February 2012 and began selling stock to the public three months later, reaching a peak market capitalization of $104 billion.
- 1 History
- 2 Corporate affairs
- 3 Website
- 4 Reception
- 5 Criticisms and controversies
- 5.1 Electricity usage
- 5.2 Blocked in China, Iran, Pakistan, Syria, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Kurdistan
- 5.3 Event overcrowding in Germany
- 5.4 British office worker blocks
- 5.5 Use by underage children
- 5.6 Accounts hacked in Bangalore, India
- 5.7 Unauthorized wall posting bug
- 5.8 Users quitting
- 5.9 iPhone 'Paper' app
- 5.10 User influence experiments
- 6 Impact
- 7 Most popular accounts
- 8 In popular culture
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Before going public
Zuckerberg wrote a program called Facemash on October 28, 2003 while attending Harvard as a sophomore. According to The Harvard Crimson, the site was comparable to Hot or Not and "used photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the 'hotter' person"
To accomplish this, Zuckerberg hacked into protected areas of Harvard's computer network and copied private dormitory ID images. Harvard did not have a student "Facebook" (a directory with photos and basic information) at the time, although individual houses had been issuing their own paper facebooks since the mid-1980s. Facemash attracted 450 visitors and 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours online.
The site was quickly forwarded to several campus group list-servers,[clarification needed] but was shut down a few days later by the Harvard administration. Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged by the administration with breach of security, violating copyrights, and violating individual privacy. Ultimately, the charges were dropped. Zuckerberg expanded on this initial project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final. He uploaded 500 Augustan images to a website, and each image was featured with a corresponding comments section. He shared the site with his classmates and people started sharing notes.
The following semester, Zuckerberg began writing code for a new website in January 2004. He said he was inspired by an editorial about the Facemash incident in The Harvard Crimson. On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "Thefacebook", originally located at thefacebook.com.
Six days after the site launched, three Harvard seniors (Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra) accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com. They claimed he was instead using their ideas to build a competing product. The three complained to The Harvard Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation. They later filed a lawsuit against Zuckerberg, subsequently settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares (worth $300 million at Facebook's IPO).
Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College; within the first month, more than half the undergraduates at Harvard were registered on the service. Eduardo Saverin (business aspects), Dustin Moskovitz (programmer), Andrew McCollum (graphic artist), and Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help promote the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to the universities of Columbia, Stanford, and Yale. It later opened to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, New York University, MIT, and gradually most universities in Canada and the United States.
In mid-2004, entrepreneur Sean Parker (an informal advisor to Zuckerberg) became the company's president. In June 2004, Facebook moved its operations base to Palo Alto, California. It received its first investment later that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. In 2005, the company dropped the from its name after purchasing the domain name facebook.com for $200,000.
In May 2005, Accel partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, and Jim Breyer added $1 million of his own money. A January 2009 Compete.com study ranked Facebook the most used social networking service by worldwide monthly active users. Entertainment Weekly included the site on its end-of-the-decade "best-of" list, saying, "How on earth did we stalk our exes, remember our co-workers' birthdays, bug our friends, and play a rousing game of Scrabulous before Facebook?"
A high-school version of the site was launched in September 2005, which Zuckerberg called the next logical step. (At the time, high-school networks required an invitation to join.) Facebook expanded membership eligibility to employees of several companies, including Apple Inc. and Microsoft. On September 26, 2006, Facebook was opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address.
In late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 business pages (pages which allowed companies to promote themselves and attract customers). These started as group pages, but a new concept called company pages was planned. Pages began rolling out for businesses in May 2009.
On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced that it had purchased a 1.6% share of Facebook for $240 million, giving Facebook a total implied value of around $15 billion. Microsoft's purchase included rights to place international adverts on the social networking site. In October 2008, Facebook announced that it would set up its international headquarters in Dublin, Ireland. In September 2009, Facebook said that it had turned cash-flow positive for the first time. In November 2010, based on SecondMarket Inc. (an exchange for privately held companies' shares), Facebook's value was $41 billion; it slightly surpassed eBay's to become the third largest American web company after Google and Amazon.com.
Traffic to Facebook increased steadily after 2009. More people visited Facebook than Google for the week ending March 13, 2010.
In March 2011, it was reported that Facebook takes approximately 20,000 profiles offline every day for infractions including spam, inappropriate content and underage use, as part of its efforts to boost cyber security.
According to the Nielsen Media Research study, released in December 2011, Facebook is the second most accessed website in the US (behind Google).
Facebook eventually filed for an initial public offering on February 1, 2012; it is headquartered in Menlo Park, California. Facebook held an initial public offering on May 17, 2012, negotiating a share price of $38 apiece. The company was valued at $104 billion, the largest valuation to date for a newly listed public company. Facebook Inc. began selling stock to the public and trading on the NASDAQ on May 18, 2012. Based on its 2012 income of US$5 billion, Facebook joined the Fortune 500 list for the first time on the list published in May 2013, being placed at position 462.
In 2012, Facebook was valued at $104 billion, and by January 2014 its market capitalization had risen to over $134 billion. At the end of January 2014, 1.23 billion users were active on the website every month, while on December 31, 2013, 945 million of this total were identified by the company as mobile users. The company celebrated its tenth anniversary in the week of February 3, 2014. In each of the first three months of 2014, over one billion logged into their Facebook account on a mobile device.
On January 2014, during the week previous to the company's tenth anniversary, chief operating officer of Facebook, Sheryl Sandberg, clarified: "He [Mark] always said Facebook was started not just to be a company, but to fulfill a vision of connecting the world".
Initial public offering
Facebook filed their S1 document with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 1, 2012. The company applied for a US$5 billion initial public offering (IPO); one of the biggest in the history of technology and the biggest in Internet history. Facebook valued its stock at $38 a share which priced the company at $104 billion – the largest valuation to date for a new public company. The IPO raised $16 billion, making it the third largest in U.S. history. The shares began trading on May 18; the stock struggled to stay above the IPO price for most of the day, but set a record for the trading volume of an IPO (460 million shares). The first day of trading was marred by technical glitches that prevented orders from going through; only the technical problems and artificial support from underwriters prevented the stock price from falling below the IPO price on the day.
It was revealed later[when?] that Facebook's lead underwriters, Morgan Stanley (MS), JP Morgan (JPM), and Goldman Sachs (GS) cut their earnings forecasts for the company in the middle of the IPO roadshow. The stock continued its freefall in subsequent days, closing at 34.03 on May 21 and 31.00 on May 22. A 'circuit breaker' was used in an attempt to slow down the stock price's decline. Securities and Exchange Commission Chairman Mary Schapiro and Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) Chairman Rick Ketchum called for a review of the circumstances surrounding the IPO.
Facebooks' IPO is now under investigation and has been compared to pump and dump schemes. A class-action lawsuit was filed in May 2012 due to the trading glitches, which led to botched orders. Apparently,[according to whom?] the glitches prevented a number of investors from selling the stock during the first day of trading while the stock price was falling – forcing them to incur bigger losses when their trades finally went through.
Lawsuits have been filed alleging that an underwriter for Morgan Stanley selectively revealed adjusted earnings estimates to preferred clients. The other underwriters (MS, JPM, GS) and Facebook's CEO and board are also facing litigation. It is believed that adjustments to earnings estimates were communicated to the underwriters by a Facebook financial officer, who used the information to cash out on their positions while leaving the general public with overpriced shares.
After going public
In July 2012, Facebook added a same-sex marriage icon to its timeline feature. On August 23, 2012, Facebook released an update to its iOS app (version 5.0), which changed how data was collected and displayed to make it faster. On January 15, 2013, Facebook announced Graph Search, which provides users with a "precise answer" rather than a link to an answer by leveraging the data present on its site. Facebook emphasized that the feature would be "privacy-aware," returning only results from content already shared with the user. The company is the subject of a lawsuit by Rembrandt Social Media for patents involving the "Like" button. On April 3, 2013, Facebook unveiled Home, a user-interface layer for Android devices offering greater integration with the site. HTC announced the HTC First, a smartphone with Home pre-loaded. On April 15, 2013, Facebook announced an alliance across 19 states with the National Association of Attorneys General to provide teenagers and parents with information on tools to manage social networking profiles. On April 19, 2013, Facebook officially modified its logo to remove the faint blue line at the bottom of the "F" icon. The letter F moved closer to the edge of the box.
Following a campaign by 100 advocacy groups, Facebook agreed to update its policy on hate speech. The campaign highlighted content promoting domestic and sexual violence against women, and used over 57,000 tweets and more than 4,900 emails that caused withdrawal of advertising from the site by 15 companies, including Nissan UK, House of Burlesque and Nationwide UK. The social media website initially responded by stating that "while it may be vulgar and offensive, distasteful content on its own does not violate our policies". It decided to take action on May 29, 2013 after it "become clear that our systems to identify and remove hate speech have failed to work as effectively as we would like, particularly around issues of gender-based hate."
On June 12, 2013, Facebook announced on its newsroom that it was introducing clickable hashtags to help users follow trending discussions or search what others are talking about on a topic. A July 2013 Wall Street Journal article identified the Facebook IPO as the cause of a change in the U.S.' national economic statistics, as the company home (San Mateo County, California) became the top wage-earning county in the country after the fourth quarter of 2012. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the average weekly wage in the county was US$3,240, 107% higher than the previous year. It noted the wages were "the equivalent of $168,000 a year, and more than 50% higher than the next highest county, New York County (better known as Manhattan), which came in at $2,107 a week, or roughly $110,000 a year."
Russian internet firm Mail.Ru sold its Facebook shares for US$525 million on September 5, 2013, following its initial US$200 million investment in 2009. Partly owned by Russia's richest man Alisher Usmanovhe, the firm owned a total of 14.2 million remaining shares prior to the sale. In the same month, the Chinese government announced that it will lift the ban on Facebook in the Shanghai Free Trade Zone "to welcome foreign companies to invest and to let foreigners live and work happily in the free-trade zone." Facebook has been blocked in China since 2009.
Facebook is part of The Alliance for Affordable Internet (A4AI) (which was launched in October 2013). The A4AI is a coalition of public and private organisations that includes Google, Intel and Microsoft. Led by Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the A4AI seeks to make Internet access more affordable so that access is broadened in the developing world, where only 31% of people are online. Google will help to decrease Internet access prices so that they fall below the UN Broadband Commission's worldwide target of 5% of monthly income.
A Reuters report, published on December 11, 2013, stated that Standard & Poor's announced the placement of Facebook onto its S&P 500 index "after the close of trading on December 20." Facebook announced Q4 2013 earnings of US$523 million (20 cents per share), an increase of $64 million from the previous year.
In February 2014, Facebook announced that it would be buying mobile messaging company Whatsapp for US$19 billion in cash and stock. In June 2014, Facebook announced the acquisition of Pryte, a Finnish mobile data plan firm that aims to make it easier for mobile phone users in underdeveloped parts of the world to use wireless Internet apps. As part of the company's second quarter results, Facebook announced in late July 2014 that mobile accounted for 62% of its advertising revenue, which is an increase of 21% from the previous year.
At the start of July 2014, Facebook announced the acquisition of LiveRail, a San Francisco, California-based online video advertising company. LiveRail's technology facilitates the sale of video inventory across different devices. The terms of the deal were undisclosed, but TechCrunch reported that Facebook paid between US$400 million and $500 million.
- All-Time Closing High: US$72.03 on March 10, 2014
- All-Time Intra-Day High: US$76.74 on July 24, 2014
The ownership percentages of the company, as of 2012[update], are:
- Mark Zuckerberg: 28%,
- Accel Partners: 10%
- Digital Sky Technologies: 10%
- Dustin Moskovitz: 6%
- Eduardo Saverin: 5%
- Sean Parker: 4%
- Peter Thiel: 3%
- Greylock Partners: between 1 to 2%
- Meritech Capital Partners: between 1 to 2% each
- Microsoft: 1.3%
- Li Ka-shing: 0.8%
- Interpublic Group: less than 0.5%
A small group of current and former employees and celebrities own less than 1% each, including Matt Cohler, Jeff Rothschild, Adam D'Angelo, Chris Hughes, and Owen Van Natta, while Reid Hoffman and Mark Pincus have sizable holdings of the company. The remaining 30% or so are owned by employees, an undisclosed number of celebrities, and outside investors. Adam D'Angelo, former chief technology officer and friend of Zuckerberg, resigned in May 2008. Reports claimed that he and Zuckerberg began quarreling, and that he was no longer interested in partial ownership of the company.
Key management personnel consist of: Chris Cox (Chief Product Officer), Sandberg (COO), and Zuckerberg (Chairman and CEO). As of April 2011[update], Facebook has over 7,000 employees, and offices in 15 countries. Other managers include chief financial officer David Wehner and public relations head Elliot Schrage.
Facebook was named the 5th best company to work for in 2014 by company-review site Glassdoor as part of its sixth annual Employees' Choice Awards. The website stated that 93% of Facebook employees would recommend the company to a friend.
Most of Facebook's revenue comes from advertising. Facebook generally has a lower clickthrough rate (CTR) for advertisements than most major Web sites. According to BusinessWeek.com, banner advertisements on Facebook have generally received one-fifth the number of clicks compared to those on the Web as a whole, although specific comparisons can reveal a much larger disparity. For example, while Google users click on the first advertisement for search results an average of 8% of the time (80,000 clicks for every one million searches), Facebook's users click on advertisements an average of 0.04% of the time (400 clicks for every one million pages).
Sarah Smith, who was Facebook's Online Sales Operations Manager until 2012, reported that successful advertising campaigns on the site can have clickthrough rates as low as 0.05% to 0.04%, and that CTR for ads tend to fall within two weeks. By comparison, the CTR for competing social network MySpace is about 0.1%, about 2.5 times better than Facebook's rate, but still low compared to many other sites.
The cause of Facebook's low CTR has been attributed to younger users enabling ad blocking software and their adeptness at ignoring advertising messages, as well as the site's primary purpose being social communication rather than content viewing. According to digital consultancy iStrategy Labs in mid-January 2014, three million fewer users aged between 13 and 17 years were present on Facebook's Social Advertising platform compared to 2011. However, Time Writer and Reporter Christopher Matthews stated in the wake of the iStrategy Labs results:
A big part of Facebook's pitch is that it has so much information about its users that it can more effectively target ads to those who will be responsive to the content. If Facebook can prove that theory to be true, then it may not worry so much about losing its cool cachet.
Zuckerberg, alongside other Facebook executives, have questioned the data in such reports; although, a former Facebook senior employee has commented: "Mark [Zuckerberg] is very willing to recognize the strengths in other products and the flaws in Facebook."
On pages for brands and products, however, some companies have reported CTR as high as 6.49% for Wall posts. A study found that, for video advertisements on Facebook, over 40% of users who viewed the videos viewed the entire video, while the industry average was 25% for in-banner video ads.
The company released its own set of revenue data at the end of January 2014 and claimed: Revenues of US$2.59 billion were generated for the three months ending December 31, 2013; earnings per share were 31 cents; revenues of US$7.87 billion were made for the entirety of 2013; and Facebook's annual profit for 2013 was US$1.5 billion. During the same time, independent market research firm eMarketer released data in which Facebook accounted for 5.7 per cent of all global digital ad revenues in 2013 (Google's share was 32.4 per cent). Revenue for the June 2014 quarter rose to $2.68 billion, an increase of 67 per cent over the second quarter of 2013. Mobile advertising revenue accounted for around 62 per cent of advertising revenue, an increase of approximately 41 per cent over the comparable quarter of the previous year.
Mergers and acquisitions
On November 15, 2010, Facebook announced it had acquired the domain name fb.com from the American Farm Bureau Federation for an undisclosed amount. On January 11, 2011, the Farm Bureau disclosed $8.5 million in "domain sales income", making the acquisition of FB.com one of the ten highest domain sales in history.
In early 2011, Facebook announced plans to move to its new headquarters, the former Sun Microsystems campus in Menlo Park.
All users outside of the US and Canada have a contract with Facebook's Irish subsidiary "Facebook Ireland Limited". This allows Facebook to avoid US taxes for all users in Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa and South America. Facebook is making use of the Double Irish arrangement which allows it to pay just about 2-3% corporation tax on all international revenue.
Facebook, which in 2010 had more than 750 million active users globally including over 23 million in India, announced that its Hyderabad center would house online advertising and developer support teams and provide round-the-clock, multilingual support to the social networking site's users and advertisers globally. With this, Facebook joins other giants like Google, Microsoft, Oracle, Dell, IBM and Computer Associates that have already set up shop. In Hyderabad, it is registered as 'Facebook India Online Services Pvt Ltd'.
Though Facebook did not specify its India investment or hiring figures, it said recruitment had already begun for a director of operations and other key positions at Hyderabad, which would supplement its operations in California, Dublin in Ireland as well as at Austin, Texas.
A custom-built data center with substantially reduced ("38% less") power consumption compared to existing Facebook data centers opened in April 2011 in Prineville, Oregon. In April 2012, Facebook opened a second data center in Forest City, North Carolina, US.
On October 1, 2012, CEO Zuckerberg visited Moscow to stimulate social media innovation in Russia and to boost Facebook's position in the Russian market. Russia's communications minister tweeted that Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev urged the social media giant's founder to abandon plans to lure away Russian programmers and instead consider opening a research center in Moscow. Facebook has roughly 9 million users in Russia, while domestic analogue VK has around 34 million.
The functioning of a woodwork facility on the Menlo Park campus was announced at the end of August 2013. The facility, opened in June 2013, provides equipment, safety courses and woodwork learning course, while employees are required to purchase materials at the in-house store. A Facebook spokesperson explained that the intention of the facility is to encourage employees to think in an innovative manner due to the different environment, and also serves as an attractive perk for prospective employees.
Entrance to Facebook headquarters complex in Menlo Park, California
Open source contributions
Facebook is both a consumer of and contributor to free and open source software. Facebook's contributions include: HipHop for PHP, Fair scheduler in Apache Hadoop, Apache Hive, Apache Cassandra, and the Open Compute Project.
User profile/personal timeline
The format of individual user pages was revamped in late 2011 and became known as either a profile or personal timeline since that change. Users can create profiles with photos and images, lists of personal interests, contact information, memorable life events, and other personal information, such as employment status. Users can communicate with friends and other users through private or public messages, as well as a chat feature, and share content that includes website URLs, images, and video content. A 2012 Pew Internet and American Life study identified that between 20 and 30 percent of Facebook users are "power users" who frequently link, poke, post and tag themselves and others.
In 2007, Facebook launched Facebook Pages (also called "Fan Pages" by users) to allow "users to interact and affiliate with businesses and organizations in the same way they interact with other Facebook user profiles". On November 6, 2007, more than 100,000 Facebook pages were launched.
On February 14, 2014, Facebook added a feature that allows users to choose up to 10 different gender definitions from more than 50 options, including “cisgender,” and "intersex," as a progression from the previous format that only permitted "male" and "female" to be selected as a gender description. An announcement of the addition was made on the "Facebook Diversity" Facebook page alongside a photograph of rainbow-colored pieces of material hanging over a footbridge. The change occurs after Nepal's first openly gay politician Sunil Babu Pant sent a letter to Zuckerberg in early 2012 to request the addition of an "Other" gender option for Facebook users; at that time, Facebook's official statement read: "People can already opt out of showing their sex on their profile. We’re constantly innovating on our products and features and we welcome input from everyone as we explore ways to improve the Facebook experience."
On June 13, 2009, Facebook introduced a "Usernames" feature, whereby pages can be linked with simpler URLs such as
https://www.facebook.com/facebook instead of
https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=20531316728. Many new smartphones offer access to Facebook services through either their Web browsers or applications. An official Facebook application is available for the operating systems Android, iOS, and webOS. Nokia and Research In Motion both provide Facebook applications for their own mobile devices. More than 425 million active users access Facebook through mobile devices across 200 mobile operators in 60 countries.
In May 2014, Facebook announced a new way to ask someone out. If the user does not enter a relationship status to their profiles, other users can use a new 'ask' button to find out.
Comparison with Myspace
The media often compares Facebook to Myspace, but one significant difference between the two Web sites is the level of customization. Another difference is Facebook's requirement that users give their true identity, a demand that MySpace does not make. MySpace allows users to decorate their profiles using HTML and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), while Facebook allows only plain text. Facebook has a number of features with which users may interact. They include the Wall, a space on every user's profile page that allows friends to post messages for the user to see; Pokes, which allows users to send a virtual "poke" to each other (a notification then tells a user that they have been poked); Photos, where users can upload albums and photos; and Status, which allows users to inform their friends of their whereabouts and actions. Depending on privacy settings, anyone who can see a user's profile can also view that user's Wall. In July 2007, Facebook began allowing users to post attachments to the Wall, whereas the Wall was previously limited to textual content only.
On September 6, 2006, News Feed was announced, which appears on every user's homepage and highlights information including profile changes, upcoming events, and birthdays of the user's friends. This enabled spammers and other users to manipulate these features by creating illegitimate events or posting fake birthdays to attract attention to their profile or cause. Initially, the News Feed caused dissatisfaction among Facebook users; some complained it was too cluttered and full of undesired information, others were concerned that it made it too easy for others to track individual activities (such as relationship status changes, events, and conversations with other users).
In response, Zuckerberg issued an apology for the site's failure to include appropriate customizable privacy features. Since then, users have been able to control what types of information are shared automatically with friends. Users are now able to prevent user-set categories of friends from seeing updates about certain types of activities, including profile changes, Wall posts, and newly added friends.
On February 23, 2010, Facebook was granted a patent on certain aspects of its News Feed. The patent covers News Feeds in which links are provided so that one user can participate in the same activity of another user. The patent may encourage Facebook to pursue action against websites that violate its patent, which may potentially include websites such as Twitter.
One of the most popular applications on Facebook is the Photos application, where users can upload albums and photos. Facebook allows users to upload an unlimited number of photos, compared with other image hosting services such as Photobucket and Flickr, which apply limits to the number of photos that a user is allowed to upload. During the first years, Facebook users were limited to 60 photos per album. As of May 2009, this limit has been increased to 200 photos per album.
Privacy settings can be set for individual albums, limiting the groups of users that can see an album. For example, the privacy of an album can be set so that only the user's friends can see the album, while the privacy of another album can be set so that all Facebook users can see it. Another feature of the Photos application is the ability to "tag", or label, users in a photo. For instance, if a photo contains a user's friend, then the user can tag the friend in the photo. This sends a notification to the friend that they have been tagged, and provides them a link to see the photo.
On June 7, 2012, Facebook launched its App Center to its users. It will help the users in finding games and other applications with ease. Since the launch of the App Center, Facebook has seen 150M monthly users with 2.4 times the installation of apps.
Facebook Notes was introduced on August 22, 2006, a blogging feature that allowed tags and embeddable images. Users were later able to import blogs from Xanga, LiveJournal, Blogger, and other blogging services. During the week of April 7, 2008, Facebook released a Comet-based instant messaging application called "Chat" to several networks, which allows users to communicate with friends and is similar in functionality to desktop-based instant messengers.
Facebook launched Gifts on February 8, 2007, which allows users to send virtual gifts to their friends that appear on the recipient's profile. Gifts cost $1.00 each to purchase, and a personalized message can be attached to each gift. On May 14, 2007, Facebook launched Marketplace, which lets users post free classified ads. Marketplace has been compared to Craigslist by CNET, which points out that the major difference between the two is that listings posted by a user on Marketplace are seen only by users in the same network as that user, whereas listings posted on Craigslist can be seen by anyone.
On July 20, 2008, Facebook introduced "Facebook Beta", a significant redesign of its user interface on selected networks. The Mini-Feed and Wall were consolidated, profiles were separated into tabbed sections, and an effort was made to create a "cleaner" look. After initially giving users a choice to switch, Facebook began migrating all users to the new version starting in September 2008. On December 11, 2008, it was announced that Facebook was testing a simpler signup process.
A new Messaging platform, codenamed "Project Titan", was launched on November 15, 2010. Described as a "Gmail killer" by some publications, the system allows users to directly communicate with each other via Facebook using several different methods (including a special email address, text messaging, or through the Facebook website or mobile app)—no matter what method is used to deliver a message, they are contained within single threads in a unified inbox. As with other Facebook features, users can adjust from whom they can receive messages from—including just friends, friends of friends, or from anyone. Email service was terminated in 2014 due to low uptake.
Since April 2011, Facebook users have had the ability to make live voice calls via Facebook Chat, allowing users to chat with others from all over the world. This feature, which is provided free through T-Mobile's new Bobsled service, lets the user add voice to the current Facebook Chat as well as leave voice messages on Facebook.
On September 14, 2011, Facebook added the ability for users to provide a "Subscribe" button on their page, which allows users to subscribe to public postings by the user without needing to add them as a friend. In conjunction, Facebook also introduced a system in February 2012 to verify the identity of certain accounts. Unlike a similar system used by Twitter, verified accounts do not display a special verification badge, but are given a higher priority in a user's "Subscription Suggestions".
In December 2012, Facebook announced that due to user confusion surrounding its function, the Subscribe button would be re-labeled as a "Follow" button—making it more similar to other social networks with similar functions.
To allay concerns about privacy, Facebook enables users to choose their own privacy settings and choose who can see specific parts of their profile. The website is free to users, and generates revenue from advertising, such as banner ads. Facebook requires a user's name and profile picture (if applicable) to be accessible by everyone. Users can control who sees other information they have shared, as well as who can find them in searches, through their privacy settings.
According to comScore, an internet marketing research company, Facebook collects as much data from its visitors as Google and Microsoft, but considerably less than Yahoo!. In 2010, the security team began expanding its efforts to reduce the risks to users' privacy, but privacy concerns remain. On November 6, 2007, Facebook launched Facebook Beacon, which was an ultimately failed attempt advertise to friends of users using the knowledge of what purchases friends made. As of March 2012, Facebook's usage of its user data is under close scrutiny.
In August 2013 High-Tech Bridge published a study showing that links included in Facebook messaging service messages were being accessed by Facebook for its own purposes. In January 2014 two users filed a lawsuit against Facebook alleging that their privacy had been violated by this practice.
The website's primary color is blue as Zuckerberg is red-green colorblind, a realization that occurred after a test undertaken around 2007; he explained in 2010: “blue is the richest color for me—I can see all of blue.” Facebook is built in PHP which is compiled with HipHop for PHP, a 'source code transformer' built by Facebook engineers that turns PHP into C++. The deployment of HipHop reportedly reduced average CPU consumption on Facebook servers by 50%.
Facebook is developed as one monolithic application. According to an interview in 2012 with Chuck Rossi, a build engineer at Facebook, Facebook compiles into a 1.5 GB binary blob which is then distributed to the servers using a custom BitTorrent-based release system. Rossi stated that it takes approximately 15 minutes to build and 15 minutes to release to the servers. The build and release process is zero downtime and new changes to Facebook are rolled out daily.
Facebook used a combination platform based on HBase to store data across distributed machines. Using a tailing architecture, new events are stored in log files, and the logs are tailed. The system rolls these events up and writes them into storage. The User Interface then pulls the data out and displays it to users. Facebook handles requests as AJAX behavior. These requests are written to a log file using Scribe (developed by Facebook).
Data is read from these log files using Ptail, an internally built tool to aggregate data from multiple Scribe stores. It tails the log files and pulls data out (thus the name). Ptail data is separated out into three streams so they can eventually be sent to their own clusters in different data centers (Plugin impression, News feed impressions, Actions (plugin + news feed)). Puma is used to manage periods of high data flow (Input/Output or IO). Data is processed in batches to lessen the number of times needed to read and write under high demand periods (A hot article will generate a lot of impressions and news feed impressions which will cause huge data skews). Batches are taken every 1.5 seconds, limited by memory used when creating a hash table.
After this, data is output in PHP format (compiled with HipHop for PHP). The backend is written in Java and Thrift is used as the messaging format so PHP programs can query Java services. Caching solutions are used to make the web pages display more quickly. The more and longer data is cached the less realtime it is. The data is then sent to MapReduce servers so it can be queried via Hive. This also serves as a backup plan as the data can be recovered from Hive. Raw logs are removed after a period of time.
On March 20, 2014 Facebook announced a new open source programming language called Hack. Prior to public release, a large portion of Facebook was already running and "battle tested" using the new language.
The like button is a social networking feature, allowing users to express their appreciation of content such as status updates, comments, photos, and advertisements. It is also a social plug-in of the Facebook Platform – launched on April 21, 2010 – that enables participating Internet websites to display a similar like button.
Following the termination by the sheriff of Hampton, Virginia, US of employees who liked the Facebook page of an adversary, a federal appeals court in Virginia handed down a decision that the US Constitution protects the rights of US citizens to like any Facebook page of their choosing. US Circuit Judge William Traxler likened the practice to displaying a "political sign in one's front yard."
Patents relating to the "Like" button and other social features held by deceased Dutch programmer Joannes Jozef Everardus van Der Meer are subject of a lawsuit brought against Facebook by Rembrandt Social Media. Rembrandt is represented by the Fish & Richardson Law Firm that stated "We believe Rembrandt's patents represent an important foundation of social media as we know it, and we expect a judge and jury to reach the same conclusion based on the evidence." As of April 2, 2013, further information about the case is unknown in the public sphere.
Facebook Bug Bounty Program
On July 29, 2011, Facebook announced its Bug Bounty Program in which security researchers will be paid a minimum of $500 for reporting security holes on Facebook website. Facebook's Whitehat page for security researchers says: "If you give us a reasonable time to respond to your report before making any information public and make a good faith effort to avoid privacy violations, destruction of data, and interruption or degradation of our service during your research, we will not bring any lawsuit against you or ask law enforcement to investigate you."
Facebook started paying researchers who find and report security bugs by issuing them custom branded “White Hat” debit cards that can be reloaded with funds each time the researchers discover new flaws. “Researchers who find bugs and security improvements are rare, and we value them and have to find ways to reward them,” Ryan McGeehan, former manager of Facebook’s security response team, told CNET in an interview. “Having this exclusive black card is another way to recognize them. They can show up at a conference and show this card and say ‘I did special work for Facebook.’”
India, which has the second largest number of bug hunters in the world, tops the Facebook Bug Bounty Program with the largest number of valid bugs. "Researchers in Russia earned the highest amount per report in 2013, receiving an average of $3,961 for 38 bugs. India contributed the largest number of valid bugs at 136, with an average reward of $1,353. The USA reported 92 issues and averaged $2,272 in rewards. Brazil and the UK were third and fourth by volume, with 53 bugs and 40 bugs, respectively, and average rewards of $3,792 and $2,950", Facebook quoted in a post.
According to comScore, Facebook is the leading social networking site based on monthly unique visitors, having overtaken main competitor MySpace in April 2008. ComScore reports that Facebook attracted 130 million unique visitors in May 2010, an increase of 8.6 million people. According to Alexa, the website's ranking among all websites increased from 60th to 7th in worldwide traffic, from September 2006 to September 2007, and is currently 2nd. Quantcast ranks the website 2nd in the U.S. in traffic, and Compete.com ranks it 2nd in the U.S. The website is the most popular for uploading photos, with 50 billion uploaded cumulatively. In 2010, Sophos's "Security Threat Report 2010" polled over 500 firms, 60% of which responded that they believed that Facebook was the social network that posed the biggest threat to security, well ahead of MySpace, Twitter, and LinkedIn.
Facebook is the most popular social networking site in several English-speaking countries, including Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. However, Facebook still receives limited adoption in countries such as Japan, where domestically created social networks are still largely preferred. In regional Internet markets, Facebook penetration is highest in North America (69 percent), followed by Middle East-Africa (67 percent), Latin America (58 percent), Europe (57 percent), and Asia-Pacific (17 percent). Some of the top competitors were listed in 2007 by Mashable.
The website has won awards such as placement into the "Top 100 Classic Websites" by PC Magazine in 2007, and winning the "People's Voice Award" from the Webby Awards in 2008. In a 2006 study conducted by Student Monitor, a New Jersey-based company specializing in research concerning the college student market, Facebook was named the second most popular thing among undergraduates, tied with beer and only ranked lower than the iPod.
In 2010, Facebook won the Crunchie "Best Overall Startup Or Product" for the third year in a row and was recognized as one of the "Hottest Silicon Valley Companies" by Lead411. However, in a July 2010 survey performed by the American Customer Satisfaction Index, Facebook received a score of 64 out of 100, placing it in the bottom 5% of all private-sector companies in terms of customer satisfaction, alongside industries such as the IRS e-file system, airlines, and cable companies. The reasons why Facebook scored so poorly include privacy problems, frequent changes to the website's interface, the results returned by the News Feed, and spam.
|Days later||Monthly growth[N 2]|
|August 26, 2008||100||1,665||178.38%|
|April 8, 2009||200||225||13.33%|
|September 15, 2009||300||160||9.38%|
|February 5, 2010||400||143||6.99%|
|July 21, 2010||500||166||4.52%|
|January 5, 2011||[N 3]600||168||3.57%|
|May 30, 2011||700||145||3.45%|
|September 22, 2011||800||115||3.73%|
|April 24, 2012||900||215||1.74%|
|September 14, 2012||1,000||143||2.33%|
|March 31, 2013||1,110||198||1.5%|
|December 31, 2013||1,230||275||0.97%|
In December 2008, the Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory ruled that Facebook is a valid protocol to serve court notices to defendants. It is believed to be the world's first legal judgement that defines a summons posted on Facebook as legally binding. In March 2009, the New Zealand High Court associate justice David Gendall allowed for the serving of legal papers on Craig Axe by the company Axe Market Garden via Facebook. Employers (such as Virgin Atlantic Airways) have also used Facebook as a means to keep tabs on their employees and have even been known to fire them over posts they have made.
By 2005, the use of Facebook had already become so ubiquitous that the generic verb "facebooking" had come into use to describe the process of browsing others' profiles or updating one's own. In 2008, Collins English Dictionary declared "Facebook" as its new Word of the Year. In December 2009, the New Oxford American Dictionary declared its word of the year to be the verb "unfriend", defined as "To remove someone as a 'friend' on a social networking site such as Facebook. As in, 'I decided to unfriend my roommate on Facebook after we had a fight.'"
In early 2010, Openbook was established, an avowed parody (and privacy advocacy) website that enables text-based searches of those Wall posts that are available to "Everyone", i.e. to everyone on the Internet.
Writers for The Wall Street Journal found in 2010 that Facebook apps were transmitting identifying information to "dozens of advertising and Internet tracking companies". The apps used an HTTP referrer which exposed the user's identity and sometimes their friends'. Facebook said, "We have taken immediate action to disable all applications that violate our terms".
In January 2013, the countries with the most Facebook users were:
- United States with 168.8 million members
- Brazil with 64.6 million members
- India with 62.6 million members
- Indonesia with 51.4 million members
- Mexico with 40.2 million members
All of the above total 309 million members or about 38.6 percent of Facebook's 1 billion worldwide members. As of March 2013, Facebook reported having 1.11 billion monthly active users, globally.
In regards to Facebook's mobile usage, per an analyst report in early 2013, there are 192 million Android users, 147 million iPhone users, 48 million iPad users and 56 million messenger users, and a total of 604 million mobile Facebook users.
Facebook popularity. Active users of Facebook increased from just a million in 2004 to over 750 million in 2011.
Criticisms and controversies
On April 21, 2011, Greenpeace released a report showing that of the top ten big brands in cloud computing, Facebook relied the most on coal for electricity for its data centers. At the time, data centers consumed up to 2% of all global electricity and this amount was projected to increase. Phil Radford of Greenpeace said "we are concerned that this new explosion in electricity use could lock us into old, polluting energy sources instead of the clean energy available today." On Thursday, December 15, 2011, Greenpeace and Facebook announced together that Facebook would shift to use clean and renewable energy to power its own operations. Marcy Scott Lynn, of Facebook's sustainability program, said it looked forward "to a day when our primary energy sources are clean and renewable" and that the company is "working with Greenpeace and others to help bring that day closer."
Blocked in China, Iran, Pakistan, Syria, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Kurdistan
Facebook has been blocked intermittently in several countries including the People's Republic of China, Iran, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Syria Bangladesh and Vietnam on different bases. For example, it was banned in many countries of the world on the basis of allowed content judged as anti-Islamic and containing religious discrimination. It has also been banned at many workplaces to prevent employees from using it during work hours. The privacy of Facebook users has also been an issue, and the safety of user accounts has been compromised several times. Facebook has settled a lawsuit regarding claims over source code and intellectual property. In May 2011 emails were sent to journalists and bloggers making critical allegations about Google's privacy policies; however it was later discovered that the anti-Google campaign, conducted by PR giant Burson-Marsteller, was paid for by Facebook in what CNN referred to as "a new level skullduggery" and which Daily Beast called a "clumsy smear". Facebook is blocked temporarily in Kurdistan's capital Arbil, for security reasons.
Event overcrowding in Germany
In July 2011, German authorities began to discuss the prohibition of events organized on Facebook. The decision is based on several cases of overcrowding by people not originally invited. In one instance, 1,600 "guests" attended the 16th birthday party for a Hamburg girl who accidentally posted the invitation for the event as public. After reports of overcrowding, more than a hundred police were deployed for crowd control. A policeman was injured and eleven participants were arrested for assault, property damage and resistance to authorities. In another unexpectedly overcrowded event, 41 young people were arrested and at least 16 injured.
British office worker blocks
In 2007, it was reported that 43% of British office workers were blocked from accessing Facebook at work, due to concerns including reduced productivity and the potential for industrial espionage.
Use by underage children
A 2011 study in the online journal First Monday, "Why Parents Help Their Children Lie to Facebook About Age: Unintended Consequences of the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act," examines how parents consistently enable children as young as 10 years old to sign up for accounts, directly violating Facebook's policy banning young visitors. This policy technically allows Facebook to avoid conflicts with a United States federal law, the 1998 Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA), which requires minors aged 13 or younger to gain explicit parental consent to access commercial websites. Of the more than 1,000 households surveyed for the study, more than three-quarters (76%) of parents reported that their child joined Facebook when they were younger than 13, the minimum age in the site's terms of service. The study notes that, in response to widespread reports of underage users, a Facebook executive has said that "Facebook removes 20,000 people a day, people who are underage." The study's authors also note, "Indeed, Facebook takes various measures both to restrict access to children and delete their accounts if they join." The findings of the study raise questions primarily about the shortcomings of United States federal law, but also implicitly continue to raise questions about whether or not Facebook does enough to publicize its terms of service with respect to minors. Only 53% of parents said they were aware that Facebook has a minimum signup age; 35% of these parents believe that the minimum age is a site recommendation (not a condition of site use), or thought the signup age was 16 or 18, and not 13.
Accounts hacked in Bangalore, India
In November 2011, several Facebook users in Bangalore, India reported that their accounts had been hacked and their profile pictures replaced with pornographic images. For more than a week, users' news feeds were spammed with pornographic, violent and sexual content, and it was reported that more than 200,000 accounts were affected. Facebook described the reports as inaccurate, and Bangalore police speculated that the stories may have been rumors spread by Facebook's competitors.
On August 19, 2013, Facebook's guest service treatment was widely decried. That day, it was reported that a Facebook user from Yatta, West Bank Khalil Shreateh had found a bug that allowed him to post material to other users' Facebook Walls. Users are not supposed to have the ability to post material to the Facebook Walls of other users unless they are approved friends of those users that they have posted material to. To prove that he was telling the truth, Shreateh posted material to Sarah Goodin's wall, a friend of Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg. Following this, Shreateh contacted Facebook's security team with the proof that his bug was real, explaining in detail what was going on. Facebook has a bounty program in which it compensates people a $500 USD fee for reporting bugs instead of using them to their advantage or selling them on the black market. However, it was reported that instead of fixing the bug and paying Shreateh the fee, Facebook originally told him that "this was not a bug" and dismissed him. Shreateh then tried a second time to inform Facebook, but they dismissed him yet again. On the third try, Shreateh used the bug to post a message to Mark Zuckerberg's Wall, stating "Sorry for breaking your privacy ... but a couple of days ago, I found a serious Facebook exploit" and that Facebook's security team was not taking him seriously. Within minutes, a security engineer contacted Shreateh, questioned him on how he performed the move and ultimately acknowledged that it was a bug in the system. Facebook temporarily suspended Shreateh's account and fixed the bug after several days. Facebook refused to pay out the bounty to Shreateh, stating that by posting to Zuckerberg's account, Shreateh had violated one of their terms of service policies and therefore "could not be paid." Facebook also noted that in Shreateh's initial reports, he had failed to provide technical details for Facebook to act on the bug.
On August 22, 2013, Yahoo News reported that Marc Maiffret, a chief technology officer of the cybersecurity firm BeyondTrust, is prompting hackers to support in raising a $10,000 reward for Khalil Shreateh. On August 20, Maiffret stated that he had already raised $9,000 in his efforts, including the $2,000 he himself contributed. He and other hackers alike have denounced Facebook for refusing Shreateh compensation. Stated Maiffret, "He is sitting there in Palestine doing this research on a five-year-old laptop that looks like it is half broken. It's something that might help him out in a big way." Facebook representatives have since responded, "We will not change our practice of refusing to pay rewards to researchers who have tested vulnerabilities against real users." Facebook representatives also claimed they'd paid out over $1 million to individuals who have discovered bugs in the past.
A 2013 study in the journal CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, "Who Commits Virtual Identity Suicide? Differences in Privacy Concerns, Internet Addiction, and Personality Between Facebook Users and Quitters" points to the fact that there is a rising number of Facebook users who are discontent with Facebook and finally decide to quit Facebook. The number one reason for users to quit Facebook was privacy concerns (48%), being followed by a general dissatisfaction with Facebook (14%), negative aspects regarding Facebook friends (13%) and the feeling of getting addicted to Facebook (6%). Facebook quitters were found to be more concerned about privacy, more addicted to the Internet and more conscientious.
iPhone 'Paper' app
Following the release of the Facebook iPhone app "Paper" at the beginning of February 2014, developer company FiftyThree sent a correspondence to the social media company regarding its own app, also entitled Paper and trademarked in 2012, asking Facebook to cease using an app name that they consider their own. In response, Facebook stated that it will continue to use the Paper title but conceded that it should have informed FiftyThree at an earlier point in time. FiftyThree articulated its desired outcome in a blog post: "There's a simple fix here. We think Facebook can apply the same degree of thought they put into the app into building a brand name of their own. An app about stories shouldn't start with someone else's story. Facebook should stop using our brand name."
User influence experiments
Academic and Facebook researchers have collaborated to test if the messages people see on Facebook can influence their behavior. For instance, in "A 61-Million-Person Experiment in Social Influence And Political Mobilization," during the 2010 elections, Facebook users were given the opportunity to "tell your friends you voted" by clicking on an "I voted" button. Users were 2% more likely to click the button if it was associated with friends who had already voted.
Much more controversially, a 2014 study of "Emotional Contagion Through Social Networks" manipulated the balance of positive and negative messages seen by 689,000 Facebook users. The researchers concluded that they had found "some of the first experimental evidence to support the controversial claims that emotions can spread throughout a network, [though] the effect sizes from the manipulations are small." 
Unlike the "I voted" study, which had presumptively beneficial ends and raised few concerns, this study was criticized for both its ethics and methods/claims. As controversy about the study grew, Adam Kramer, a lead author of both studies and member of the Facebook data team, defended the work in a Facebook update. A few days later, Sheryl Sandburg, Facebook's COO, made a statement while traveling abroad. While at an Indian Chambers of Commerce event in New Delhi she stated that "This was part of ongoing research companies do to test different products, and that was what it was. It was poorly communicated and for that communication we apologize. We never meant to upset you." 
Shortly thereafter, on July 3, 2014, USA Today reported that the privacy watchdog group Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) had filed a formal complaint with the Federal Trade claiming that Facebook had broken the law when it conducted the study on the emotions of its users without their knowledge or consent. In its complaint the EPIC alleged that Facebook had deceived it users by secretly conducting a psychological experiment on their emotions: "At the time of the experiment, Facebook did not state in the Data Use Policy that user data would be used for research purposes. Facebook also failed to inform users that their personal information would be shared with researchers."
Beyond the ethical concerns, other scholars criticized the methods and reporting of the study's findings. John Grohol, writing at PsycCentral, argued that despite its title and claims of "emotional contagion," this study did not look at emotions at all. Instead, its authors used an application (called "Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count" or LIWC 2007) that simply counted positive and negative words in order to infer users' sentiments. He wrote that a shortcoming of the LIWC tool is that it does not understand negations. Hence, the tweet "I am not happy" would be scored as positive: "Since the LIWC 2007 ignores these subtle realities of informal human communication, so do the researchers." Grohol concluded that given these subtleties, the effect size of the findings are little more than a "statistical blip."
Kramer et al. (2014) found a 0.07% — that's not 7 percent, that's 1/15th of one percent!! — decrease in negative words in people's status updates when the number of negative posts on their Facebook news feed decreased. Do you know how many words you'd have to read or write before you've written one less negative word due to this effect? Probably thousands.
The consequences of the controversy are pending (be it FTC or court proceedings) but it did prompt an "Editorial Expression of Concern" from its publisher, the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, as well as an attention-seeking blog posting from OkCupid that "We experiment on human beings!"
In the UK, the study was also criticised by the British Psychological Society which said, in a letter to The Guardian, "There has undoubtedly been some degree of harm caused, with many individuals affected by increased levels of negative emotion, with consequent potential economic costs, increase in possible mental health problems and burden on health services. The so-called 'positive' manipulation is also potentially harmful."
In April 2011, Facebook launched a new portal for marketers and creative agencies to help them develop brand promotions on Facebook. The company began its push by inviting a select group of British advertising leaders to meet Facebook's top executives at an "influencers' summit" in February 2010. Facebook has now been involved in campaigns for True Blood, American Idol, and Top Gear. News and media outlets such as the Washington Post, Financial Times and ABC News have used aggregated Facebook fan data to create various infographics and charts to accompany their articles. In 2012, the beauty pageant Miss Sri Lanka Online was run exclusively using Facebook.
Facebook has affected the social life and activity of people in various ways. With its availability on many mobile devices, Facebook allows users to continuously stay in touch with friends, relatives and other acquaintances wherever they are in the world, as long as there is access to the Internet. It can also unite people with common interests and/or beliefs through groups and other pages, and has been known to reunite lost family members and friends because of the widespread reach of its network. One such reunion was between John Watson and the daughter he had been seeking for 20 years. They met after Watson found her Facebook profile. Another father–daughter reunion was between Tony Macnauton and Frances Simpson, who had not seen each other for nearly 48 years.
Many Facebook users, especially adolescents, display references to alcohol and substance use on their Facebook profiles. One study of alcohol displays on underage college Facebook users found that 35.7% participant profiles displayed alcohol. This can include photos of underage drinking, or status updates describing alcohol or substance use. This is particularly concerning because new social media such as Facebook can influence adolescents by acting as a "superpeer," promoting norms of behavior among other adolescents. Regardless of whether these displays represent real offline behavior or are posted just to make the Facebook user "look cool", displaying these references may lead to an expectation by friends that the adolescent does or will drink alcohol in the future.
Recent studies have shown that Facebook causes negative effects on self-esteem by triggering feelings of envy, with vacation and holiday photos proving to be the largest resentment triggers. Other prevalent causes of envy include posts by friends about family happiness and images of physical beauty—such envious feelings leave people lonely and dissatisfied with their own lives. A joint study by two German universities discovered that one out of three people were more dissatisfied with their lives after visiting Facebook, and another study by Utah Valley University found that college students felt worse about their own lives following an increase in the amount of time spent on Facebook.
Facebook's role in the American political process was demonstrated in January 2008, shortly before the New Hampshire primary, when Facebook teamed up with ABC and Saint Anselm College to allow users to give live feedback about the "back to back" January 5 Republican and Democratic debates. Charles Gibson moderated both debates, held at the Dana Center for the Humanities at Saint Anselm College. Facebook users took part in debate groups organized around specific topics, register to vote, and message questions.
ABCNews.com reported in 2012 that the Facebook fanbases of political candidates have relevance for the election campaign, including:
- Allows politicians and campaign organizers to understand the interests and demographics of their Facebook fanbases, to better target their voters.
- Provides a means for voters to keep up-to-date on candidates' activities, such as connecting to the candidates' Facebook Fan Pages.
Over a million people installed the Facebook application "US Politics on Facebook" in order to take part, and the application measured users' responses to specific comments made by the debating candidates. This debate showed the broader community what many young students had already experienced: Facebook as a popular and powerful new way to interact and voice opinions. An article by Michelle Sullivan of Uwire.com illustrates how the "Facebook effect" has affected youth voting rates, support by youth of political candidates, and general involvement by the youth population in the 2008 election.
In February 2008, a Facebook group called "One Million Voices Against FARC" organized an event in which hundreds of thousands of Colombians marched in protest against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, better known as the FARC (from the group's Spanish name). In August 2010, one of North Korea's official government websites and the official news agency of the country, Uriminzokkiri, joined Facebook.
In January 2011, Facebook played a major role in generating the first spark for the 2011 Egyptian revolution. On January 14, the Facebook page of "We are all khaled Said" was started by Wael Ghoniem Create Event to invite the Egyptian people to "peaceful demonstrations" on January 25. As in Tunisia, Facebook become the primary tool for connecting all protesters, which led the Egyptian government of Prime Minister Nazif to ban Facebook, Twitter and another websites on January 26 then ban all mobile and Internet connections for all of Egypt at midnight January 28. After 18 days, the uprising forced President Mubarak to resign.
In 2011, Facebook filed paperwork with the Federal Election Commission to form a political action committee under the name FB PAC. In an email to The Hill, a spokesman for Facebook said "FB PAC will give our employees a way to make their voice heard in the political process by supporting candidates who share our goals of promoting the value of innovation to our economy while giving people the power to share and make the world more open and connected."
Unfriending psychological impact
Although Facebook has an upside of friending people, there is also the downside of having someone unfriend or reject another person, according to psychologist Susan Krauss Whitbourne. Whitbourne refers to unfriended persons on Facebook as victims of estrangement. Unfriending someone is seldom a mutual decision and the person often does not know they have been unfriended.
Most popular accounts
In July 2014, Shakira became the first celebrity to cross over 100 million likes, ahead of Rihanna and Eminem, who had 91.9 million and 89 million likes respectively. Mark Zuckerberg posted a congratulatory message on the artist's wall.
In popular culture
- American author Ben Mezrich published a book in July 2009 about Zuckerberg and the founding of Facebook, titled The Accidental Billionaires: The Founding of Facebook, A Tale of Sex, Money, Genius, and Betrayal.
- The Social Network, a drama film directed by David Fincher and adapted from Mezrich's book, was released October 1, 2010. Zuckerberg has claimed that The Social Network is inaccurate.
- In response to the Everybody Draw Mohammed Day controversy and the banning of the website in Pakistan, an Islamic version of the website was created, called MillatFacebook.
- "You Have 0 Friends", an April 2010 episode of the American animated comedy series, South Park, explicitly parodied Facebook.
- At age 102, Ivy Bean of Bradford, England joined Facebook in 2008, making her one of the oldest people ever on Facebook. At the time of her death in July 2010, she had 4,962 friends on Facebook and more than 56,000 followers on Twitter.
- On May 16, 2011, an Israeli couple named their daughter after the Facebook "like" feature.
- Major competitors of Facebook are qzone(qq.com) and renren in China; Cyworld in South Korea; VK and Odnoklassniki in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Ukraine, Uzbekistan; Draugiem.lv in Latvia; Cloob in Iran; Zing in Vietnam; mixi in Japan.
In 2014, efforts began to persuade Facebook to improve its content controls, after Facebook was accused of allowing hate content too readily.
- An "active user" is defined by Facebook as a user who has visited the website in the last 30 days.
- "Monthly growth" is the average percentage growth rate at which the total number of active users grows each month over the specified period.
- This value is from an investment document. The date is from when the document was revealed to the public, not the actual date that the website reached this many users.
- "10-K Annual Report". SEC Filings. Facebook. January 31, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
- "Company Info". Facebook. June 30, 2014. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
- Clarke, Gavin (February 2, 2010). "Facebook re-write takes PHP to an enterprise past". The Register (London).
- Bridgwater, Adrian (October 16, 2013). "Facebook Adopts D Language". Dr Dobb's (San Francisco).
- "Facebook.com Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved April 1, 2014.
- "Facebook Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2013 Results". Facebook. January 29, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
- Eldon, Eric (December 18, 2008). "2008 Growth Puts Facebook In Better Position to Make Money". VentureBeat (San Francisco). Retrieved December 19, 2008.
- Carlson, Nicholas (March 5, 2010). "At Last – The Full Story Of How Facebook Was Founded". Business Insider.
- "Information For Parents and Educators". Facebook. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- "Facebook Tops Billion-User Mark". The Wall Street Journal (New York). October 4, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2012.
- "Facebook: About 83 million accounts are fake". USA Today. August 3, 2012. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- Sharwood, Simon (November 9, 2012). "Facebook warehousing 180 PETABYTES of data a year". The Register. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
- Locke, Laura (July 17, 2007). "The Future of Facebook". Time (New York). Retrieved November 13, 2009.
- Tabak, Alan J. (February 9, 2004). "Hundreds Register for New Facebook Website". The Harvard Crimson (Cambridge, MA). Archived from the original on April 3, 2005. Retrieved November 7, 2008.
- McGirt, Ellen (May 1, 2007). "Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg: Hacker. Dropout. CEO". Fast Company (New York). Retrieved November 5, 2009.
- Kaplan, Katherine (November 19, 2003). "Facemash Creator Survives Ad Board". The Harvard Crimson (Cambridge, MA). Retrieved February 5, 2009.
- Hoffman, Claire (June 28, 2008). "The Battle for Facebook". Rolling Stone (New York). Archived from the original on July 3, 2008. Retrieved February 5, 2009.
- Seward, Zachary M. (July 25, 2007). "Judge Expresses Skepticism About Facebook Lawsuit". The Wall Street Journal (New York). Retrieved April 30, 2008.
- Carlson, Nicolas (March 5, 2010). "In 2004, Mark Zuckerberg Broke Into A Facebook User's Private Email Account". Business Insider (New York). Retrieved March 5, 2010.
- Stone, Brad (June 28, 2008). "Judge Ends Facebook's Feud With ConnectU". New York Times blog.
- Rushe, Dominic (February 2, 2012). "Facebook IPO sees Winklevoss twins heading for $300m fortune". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on October 15, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- Phillips, Sarah (July 25, 2007). "A brief history of Facebook". The Guardian (London). Retrieved March 7, 2008.
- "Company Timeline" (Press release). Facebook. January 1, 2007. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- Rosmarin, Rachel (September 11, 2006). "Open Facebook". Forbes (New York). Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- Nguyen, Lananh (April 12, 2004). "Online network created by Harvard students flourishes". The Tufts Daily (Medford, MA). Archived from the original on October 15, 2013. Retrieved August 21, 2009.
- Rosen, Ellen (May 26, 2005). "Student's Start-Up Draws Attention and $13 Million". The New York Times. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
- "Why you should beware of Facebook". The Age (Melbourne). January 20, 2008. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
- Williams, Chris (October 1, 2007). "Facebook wins Manx battle for face-book.com". The Register (London). Retrieved June 13, 2008.|
- "Jim Breyer (via Accel Partners)". CNBC. May 22, 2012.
- Kazeniac, Andy (February 9, 2009). "Social Networks: Facebook Takes Over Top Spot, Twitter Climbs". Compete Pulse blog. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
- Geier, Thom; Jensen, Jeff; Jordan, Tina; Lyons, Margaret; Markovitz, Adam (December 11, 2009). "The 100 Greatest Movies, TV Shows, Albums, Books, Characters, Scenes, Episodes, Songs, Dresses, Music Videos, and Trends that entertained us over the 10 Years". Entertainment Weekly ((1079/1080):74–84) (New York).
- Dempsey, Laura (August 3, 2006). "Facebook is the go-to Web site for students looking to hook up". Dayton Daily News (Ohio).
- Lerer, Lisa (January 25, 2007). "Why MySpace Doesn't Card". Forbes (New York). Retrieved May 13, 2011.
- Lacy, Sarah (September 12, 2006). "Facebook: Opening the Doors Wider". BusinessWeek (New York). Retrieved March 9, 2008.
- Abram, Carolyn (September 26, 2006). "Welcome to Facebook, everyone". The Facebook Blog. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
- Richmond, Riva (November 27, 2007). "Enterprise: Facebook, a Marketer's Friend; Site Offers Platform To Tout Products, Interact With Users". Wall Street Journal (New York). p. B4.
- Howard Greenstein2009-05-27 10:01:18 -0400 (2009-05-27). "Facebook Pages vs Facebook Groups: What's the Difference?". Mashable.com. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
- "Facebook and Microsoft Expand Strategic Alliance" (Press release). Microsoft. October 24, 2007. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
- "Facebook Stock For Sale". BusinessWeek (New York). Retrieved August 6, 2008.
- "Facebook to Establish International Headquarters in Dublin, Ireland" (Press release). Facebook. October 2, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- "Facebook 'cash flow positive,' signs 300M users". CBC News (Toronto). September 16, 2009. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- Womack, Brian (November 15, 2010). "Facebook Becomes Third Biggest US Web Company". The Jakarta Globe.
- Dougherty, Heather (March 15, 2010). "Facebook Reaches Top Ranking in US". Experian Hitwise (blog).
- "Facebook deletes 20,000 underage profiles daily". IBN Live (Noida, Uttar Pradesh). Press Trust of India. March 24, 2011. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
- Parr, Ben (February 7, 2011). "These Are Facebook's New Offices [PHOTOS]". Mashable (New York). Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- Brundage, Sandy (February 8, 2011). "Facebook moving headquarters to Menlo Park: Social-networking giant to move into former Sun/Oracle campus". The Almanac (Menlo Park, CA).
- Titlow, John Paul (August 24, 2011). "Facebook Hits 1 Trillion Pageviews". ReadWriteWeb. Archived from the original on September 11, 2011. Retrieved November 17, 2011.
- Fernandes, Rossi (December 31, 2011). "Facebook second most accessed sit behind Google in the US".
- "Facebook, Inc. Financial Statements". Securities and Exchange Commission. February 1, 2013. Retrieved February 1, 2013.
- Mark Milian and Marcus Chan (May 18, 2012). "Facebook's Valuation: What $104 Billion Is Worth". Bloomberg Technology. Retrieved January 11, 2014.
- "Birthday boy Mark Zuckerberg to get $100bn gift". The Times of India. Associated Press. May 14, 2012. Archived from the original on May 14, 2012.
- Krantz, Matt (May 6, 2013). "Facebook squeaks onto the Fortune 500". USA Today. Retrieved May 19, 2013.
- "Facebook app store launches amid mobile revenue worries". BBC News. May 10, 2012.
- "Facebook Inc. Overview". Marketwatch. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- Dominic Rushe (January 29, 2014). "Facebook posts record quarterly results and reports $1.5bn profit for 2013". The Guardian. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- McDuling, John. "Facebook’s mobile user base has crossed the 1 billion threshold – Quartz". Qz.com. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- "Facebook Officially Files for $5 Billion IPO". KeyNoodle. February 1, 2012. Archived from the original on October 18, 2013. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
- Kerr, Dara. "Facebook stock hits a record high, since IPO". C|Net News. C|Net. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
- Andrew Tangel and Walter Hamilton (May 17, 2012). "Stakes are high on Facebook's first day of trading". The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on May 18, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
- Evelyn M. Rusli and Peter Eavis (May 17, 2012). "Facebook Raises $16 Billion in I.P.O.". The New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
- Bernard Condon (May 17, 2012). "Questions and answers on blockbuster Facebook IPO". U.S. News. Associated Press. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
- "Facebook Sets Record For IPO Trading Volume". The Wall Street Journal. May 18, 2012. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012. Retrieved May 18, 2012.
- Tepid honeymoon of Facebook and nasdaq does not deliver the big bang. forbes.com
- MARCY GORDON (May 23, 2012). "Regulators probe banks role Facebook IPO". News.yahoo.com. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- Facebook bankers secretly cut Facebook revenue estimates middle. finance.yahoo.com
- Another Facebook First: Tripping a Circuit-Breake. WSJ Online
- Facebook shares fall valuation doubts. Yahoo! Finance
- Facebook IPO underscores shutting out the masses. sfgate.com
- SEC-FINRA review Facebook issues[dead link]. finance.yahoo.com
- Morgan Stanley sued firm. yahoo.com
- "Listing of Recent Securities Lawsuits Filed Against Facebook". Retrieved July 19, 2013.
- Fury Over Facebook IPO Grows. Lawsuits Mount. finance.yahoo.com
- Heres the inside story of what happened on the Facebook IPO www.businessinsider.com
- "Facebook IPO Facts, Fiction and Flops". The Wall Street Journal.
- Wong, Curtis (July 2, 2012). "Facebook Adds Gay Marriage Timeline Icons For Same-Sex Couples". Huffington Post. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- Tsukayama, Hayley (January 15, 2013). "Facebook introduces social search feature". The Washington Post.
- Claburn, Thomas (January 16, 2013). "Meet Facebook's Graph Search Tool". Information Week.
- "Facebook sued over 'like' button". BBC News. February 11, 2013. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
- "HTC and Facebook announce the First smartphone with AT&T, arriving April 12 for $99.99". The Verge. April 4, 2013.
- "Facebook Links Up With Attorneys General In 19 U.S. States For Teen Social Networking Safety Program". TechCrunch. April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- Murphy, Samantha (November 18, 2011). "New Facebook Logo Made Official". Mashable. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- Nelson, Sara C. (May 28, 2013). "#FBrape: Will Facebook Heed Open Letter Protesting 'Endorsement Of Rape & Domestic Violence'?". The Huffington Post UK. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- Carroll, Rory (May 29, 2013). "Facebook gives way to campaign against hate speech on its pages". The Guardian (London). Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- Dey, Aditya (June 13, 2013). "Facebook Introduces Hashtags to its Users". TechStake-Technology News Blog.
- Thurm, Scott (July 2, 2013). "How Facebook's IPO Created the Best-Paid County In America". Corporate Intelligence blog (The Wall Street Journal). Retrieved July 4, 2013.
- Vladimir Soldatkin; Sophie Walker; Mark Potter (September 5, 2013). "Russia's Mail.Ru Sells Remaining Facebook Stock". The New York Times. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- Heather Timmons (September 24, 2013). "China will unblock Facebook, Twitter and The New York Times to boost its new free trade zone". Quartz. Retrieved September 24, 2013.
- Samuel Gibbs (October 7, 2013). "Sir Tim Berners-Lee and Google lead coalition for cheaper internet". The Guardian. Retrieved October 8, 2013.
- "Facebook to join S&P 500". Reuters. December 11, 2013. Retrieved December 17, 2013.
- "Facebook 4Q Earnings, Revenue Grow Sharply". Associated Press. Retrieved January 29, 2014.
- "Facebook to buy Whatsapp for $19 billion- Reasons for acquisition". Retrieved February 19, 2014.
- ALEXEI ORESKOVIC (3 June 2014). "Facebook acquires mobile data plan firm Pryte". Reuters U.S. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Lewis DVorkin (29 July 2014). "Inside Forbes: Mobile Part II, Or 4 More Charts That Offer a Peek Into the Future of Journalism". Forbes. Forbes LLC. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- Amit Chowdhry (3 July 2014). "Facebook To Improve Video Ads Through LiveRail Acquisition". Forbes LLC. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- Josh Constine (2 July 2014). "Facebook Acquires LiveRail For $400M To $500M To Serve Video Ads Everywhere, Improve Its Own". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved 13 August 2014.
- "Facebook's $5bn IPO falls short of expectations". WhoOwnsFacebook.com. Retrieved September 17, 2012.
- "Facebook's friend in Russia". Fortune. October 4, 2010. Retrieved December 18, 2010.
- Kirkpatrick, David (2010). The Facebook effect: the inside story of the company that is connecting the world. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-0980-9.
- McCarthy, Caroline (May 11, 2008). "As Facebook goes corporate, Mark Zuckerberg loses an early player". CNET.com. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- "Facebook Factsheet". Retrieved April 10, 2011.
- Wolff, Michael, "The Facebook IPO: billion-user ambition at a $1bn price", The Guardian, February 1, 2012. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
- Oconnor, Lydia (December 13, 2013). "The Best Companies To Work For in 2014". The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 15, 2013.
- Arrington, Michael (April 26, 2006). "Facebook Goes Beyond College, High School Markets". TechCrunch. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
- Schonfeld, Erick (January 31, 2008). "Facebook Finances Leaked". TechCrunch. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
- Arrington, Michael (May 19, 2009). "Facebook Turns Down $8 billion Valuation Term Sheet, Claims 2009 Revenues Will Be $550 million". TechCrunch. Retrieved July 13, 2010.
- Tsotsis, Alexia (January 5, 2011). "Report: Facebook Revenue Was $777 Million In 2009, Net Income $200 Million". TechCrunch. Retrieved January 5, 2011.
- Womack, Brian (December 16, 2010). "Facebook 2010 Sales Said Likely to Reach $2 Billion, More Than Estimated". Bloomberg (New York). Retrieved January 5, 2011.
- "Facebook Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2012 Results". Facebook. January 30, 2013. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
- "Facebook Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2013 Results". Facebook. January 29, 2014. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
- January 17, 2011 by Jolie O'Dell 203 (January 17, 2011). "Facebook's Ad Revenue Hit $1.86B for 2010". Mashable.com. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
- Womack, Brian (September 20, 2011). "Facebook Revenue Will Reach $4.27 Billion, EMarketer Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
- "Facebook May Revamp Beacon". BusinessWeek. New York. November 28, 2007. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- "Google AdWords Click Through Rates Per Position". AccuraCast. October 9, 2009. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- Denton, Nick (March 7, 2007). "Facebook 'consistently the worst performing site'". Gawker. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- "How did Sarah Smith get recruited to Quora?". Quora. Quora. October 28, 2012. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- "Facebook Says Click Through Rates Do Not Match Those At Google". TechPulse 360. August 12, 2009. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- Leggatt, Helen (July 16, 2007). "Advertisers disappointed with Facebook's CTR". BizReport. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- DJ Saul (January 15, 2014). "3 Million Teens Leave Facebook In 3 Years: The 2014 Facebook Demographic Report". iStategy Labs. iStategy Labs. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- Matthews, Christopher (January 15, 2014). "More Than 11 Million Young People Have Fled Facebook Since 2011". Business.time.com. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
- Matthews, Christopher (January 15, 2014). "More Than 11 Million Young People Have Fled Facebook Since 2011". Business.time.com. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
- Brad Stone; Sarah Frier (January 30, 2014). "eatures Facebook Turns 10: The Mark Zuckerberg Interview". Bloomberg Businessweek. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- Klaassen, Abbey (August 13, 2009). "Facebook's Click-Through Rates Flourish ... for Wall Posts". Advertising Age (New York). Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- Walsh, Mark (June 15, 2010). "Study: Video Ads On Facebook More Engaging Than Outside Sites". MediaPost (New York). Retrieved July 18, 2010.[dead link]
- "138pc jump in Facebook Q2 net income to $791 mn". Business Sun. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
- "FB.com acquired by Facebook". NameMon News. January 11, 2011.
- Sam Laird2011-12-19 20:53:54 UTC (2011-12-19). "Facebook Completes Move Into New Menlo Park Headquarters". Mashable.com. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
- Drucker, Jesse (October 21, 2010). "Google 2.4% Rate Shows How $60 Billion Lost to Tax Loopholes". Bloomberg (Bloomberg.com).
- PTI (September 30, 2010). "Facebook opens office in India". The Hindu (Chennai, India). Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "Kirthiga Reddy: The face behind Facebook". Businesstoday.intoday.in. May 15, 2011. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- Nikhil Pahwa (July 16, 2010). "Facebook Appoints Kirthiga Reddy As Head Of Indian Operations". Medianama.com. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "Facebook's India face-Meet Kirthiga Reddy, Head and Director Online Operations, Facebook India.". MSN India. November 14, 2011.
- "Facebook's Hyderabad Office Inaugurated – Google vs Facebook Battle Comes To India". Watblog.com. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "City back as investors' top pick". Articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com. February 19, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "Not responsible for user-generated content hosted on website: Facebook India". Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com. February 29, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- Facebook India to court: Not responsible for user-generated content[dead link]
- "Facebook India to court: Not responsible for user-generated content". M.timesofindia.com. February 29, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- Hyderabad, India[dead link]: "At the tech epicenter of India, our Hyderabad office is where we help support the region's growing users base, advertisers, and developers."
- "Zuckerberg at Ore. Facebook data center". The Boston Globe. Associated Press. April 16, 2011. Retrieved April 16, 2011.[dead link]
- Chloe Albanesius (November 11, 2010). "Facebook Building $450M North Carolina Data Center". PC Mag (Ziff Davis). Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- "Zuckerberg in Moscow to boost Facebook's presence". France24.com. October 1, 2012.[dead link]
- "Russia pushes Facebook to open research center". FoxNews. October 1, 2012.
- Zach Miners (August 30, 2013). "Facebook tells employees, 'build something' -- with a table saw". TechHive. IDG Consumer & SMB. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
- "Inside Facebook's Open Source Infrastructure". Developer.com. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "HipHop Compiler for PHP? Transforming PHP into C++". Stanford University.
- White, Tom (2010). Hadoop: The Definitive Guide. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-1-4493-8973-4.
- "Cassandra - A Decentralized Structured Storage System" (PDF). Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "Facebook's Open Compute Project". Stanford University.
- "MySQL at Facebook (Maintained by software developers who work on MySQL at Facebook)". Facebook.com. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- "MySQL at Facebook". Launchpad.net. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
- Charlie White (December 16, 2011). "Facebook Timeline: How to Enable It With One Click [PICS]". Mashable. Mashable. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- "Desktop > HelpPages". Facebook. Facebook. February 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- "Introducing Timeline". Facebook. Facebook. February 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- "Desktop Help". Facebook. Facebook. February 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- Margaret Weigel (February 29, 2012). "Why most Facebook users get more than they give". Journalist's Resource. Harvard Kennedy School. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- Rob Hof (November 6, 2007). "Facebook Declares New Era for Advertising". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- Jordan Crook (February 14, 2014). "Facebook Opens Up LGBTQ-Friendly Gender Identity And Pronoun Options". TechCrunch. AOL Inc. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- "When you come to Facebook to connect with the people, causes, and organizations you care about, we want you to feel comfortable being your true, authentic self ...". Facebook Diversity on Facebook. Facebook. February 14, 2014. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- Torsten Højer (March 30, 2012). "Facebook warned over 'third gender' option". Gay Star News. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- DiPersia, Blaise (June 9, 2009). "Coming Soon: Facebook Usernames". The Facebook Blog. Retrieved June 13, 2009.
- Protalinski, Emil (February 1, 2012). "Facebook has over 425 million mobile users". ZDNet. Retrieved February 4, 2012.
- By Harrison Weber, Venture Beat. "Facebook now lets you ask someone out in the most awkward way possible". May 20, 2014. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- Stone, Brad (May 25, 2007). "Facebook Expands Into MySpace's Territory". The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
- Ciccone, David (May 7, 2009). "Facebook Connect fully integrated into Mobility Today". Mobility Today Fitness. Archived from the original on October 24, 2010. Retrieved September 10, 2010.
- Sullivan, Mark (July 24, 2007). "Is Facebook the New MySpace?". PC World (San Francisco). Retrieved April 30, 2008.
- Der, Kevin. "Facebook is off-the-wall". The Facebook Blog. Retrieved July 30, 2007.
- "Inbox, Messages and Pokes". Facebook. Retrieved March 9, 2008.
- "The Facebook Gifts". Facebook. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- Ramadge, Andrew (November 26, 2007). "Facebook is ... reconsidering the word "is"". news.com.au Technology blog (Sydney). Retrieved March 8, 2008.
- Sanghvi, Ruchi (September 6, 2006). "Facebook Gets a Facelift". The Facebook Blog. Retrieved February 11, 2008.
- "Facebook: Celebrate Your Birthday Every Day". Colnect blog. Retrieved March 9, 2010.
- Lacy, Sarah (September 8, 2006). "Facebook Learns from Its Fumble". BusinessWeek (New York). Retrieved June 28, 2008.
- Gonsalves, Antone (September 8, 2006). "Facebook Founder Apologizes In Privacy Flap; Users Given More Control". InformationWeek (New York). Retrieved June 28, 2008.
- US patent 7669123
- "US Patent No. 7669123". Social Media. March 1, 2010. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011. Retrieved March 9, 2010.
- "Facebook's news-feed patent could mean lawsuits". CNN. February 26, 2010. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- Arrington, Michael (May 24, 2007). "Facebook Launches Facebook Platform; They are the Anti-MySpace". TechCrunch. Retrieved June 28, 2008.
- "Share More Memories with Larger Photo Albums". Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- "Upload: 60 or 200 photos in the same album?". Facebook. Retrieved January 25, 2009.[dead link]
- "How can I add more than 60 photos to an album?". Facebook. Retrieved January 25, 2009.[dead link]
- "Example of album from a regular user with a 200-photo limit". Facebook. Retrieved January 25, 2009.
- "Photos". Facebook. Retrieved March 15, 2008.[dead link]
- "Facebook to launch App Center". The Times Of India. June 8, 2012.[dead link]
- "Facebook Says It Now Has 235M Monthly Gamers, App Center Hits 150M Monthly Visitors". TechCrunch. August 14, 2012. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- "EdgeRank". EdgeRank. October 29, 2007. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- Eugene (May 14, 2008). "Facebook Chat". Facebook. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
- "Announcement: Facebook Launches Facebook Chat" (Press release). Facebook. April 6, 2008. Retrieved April 11, 2008.
- "Give gifts on Facebook!". Facebook. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
- "Gifts". Facebook. Retrieved March 15, 2008.[dead link]
- Morgenstern, Jared (May 14, 2007). "The Marketplace Is Open.". The Facebook Blog. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
- McCarthy, Caroline (May 13, 2007). "Hands-on with Facebook Marketplace". CNET. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
- Havenstein, Heather (July 21, 2008). "Facebook Facelift Targets Aging Users and New Competitors". The New York Times.
- Slee, Mark (September 10, 2008). "Moving to the new Facebook". The Facebook Blog. Retrieved September 12, 2008.
- "Facebook Testing Even Simpler Sign Up; Closing The Gap With MySpace In The U.S". TechCrunch. December 11, 2008.
- Gabbatt, Adam; Arthur, Charles (November 15, 2010). "Facebook mail: it might kill Gmail, but 'it's not email'". The Guardian (London).
- "Facebook adds 'social inbox' – with E-mail". San Jose Mercury News. November 16, 2010. Retrieved January 13, 2011.
- Drake, Sarah (February 25, 2014). "Facebook closes down email addresses". Silicon Valley Business Journal. Archived from the original on February 26, 2014.
- "Facebook Messenger for Windows launched". Hindustan Times (New Delhi). March 6, 2012. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
- Swartz, Jon (April 19, 2011). "Facebook hops aboard T-Mobile's Bobsled Service". USA Today (Washington DC).
- Meghan Peters (September 15, 2011). "Facebook Subscribe Button: What It Means for Each Type of User". Mashable.com. Retrieved April 29, 2012.
- "Facebook Launches Verified Accounts and Pseudonyms". TechCrunch. Retrieved March 3, 2012.
- "Facebook snubs 'Subscribe' button in favor of Twitter-esque 'Follow' on all profile pages". The Verge. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
- "Search Privacy". Facebook. Retrieved June 13, 2009.
- Barton, Zoe (April 28, 2006). "Facebook goes corporate". ZDNet News. Archived from the original on May 26, 2008. Retrieved March 9, 2008.
- "Choose Your Privacy Settings". Facebook. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
- Story, Louise (March 10, 2008). "To Aim Ads, Web Is Keeping Closer Eye on You". The New York Times. Retrieved March 9, 2008.
- Cluley, Graham (February 1, 2010). "Revealed: Which social networks pose the biggest risk?". Sophos. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- "Who Commits Virtual Identity Suicide? Differences in Privacy Concerns, Internet Addiction, and Personality Between Facebook Users and Quitters". Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking.
- Sengupta, Somini (February 26, 2012). "Risk and Riches in User Data for Facebook". The New York Times. Retrieved February 29, 2012.
- Simpson, David; Brown, Pamela (September 30, 2013). "NSA mines Facebook, including Americans' profiles". cnn.com. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
- "Social networks: can robots violate user privacy?". August 27, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
- Jacqueline Sahagian (January 4, 2014). "Is Facebook Reading Your ‘Private' Messages?". Wall St. Cheat Sheet. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
- "Facebook Settles FTC Charges That It Deceived Consumers By Failing To Keep Privacy Promises". FTC. November 29, 2011. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
- Zadie Smith (November 25, 2010). "Generation Why?". The New York Review of Books. NYREV, Inc. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- Jose Antonio Vargas (September 20, 2010). "LETTER FROM PALO ALTO: THE FACE OF FACEBOOK". The New Yorker. Condé Nast. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- Haiping Zhao (February 2, 2010). "Developer Blog - HipHop for PHP: Move Fast". Facebook Developers. Facebook. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- Paul, Ryan. "Exclusive: a behind-the-scenes look at Facebook release engineering". Ars Technica. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- "Facebook's New Realtime Analytics System: HBase To Process 20 Billion Events Per Day". Highscalability.com. March 22, 2011. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- Metz, Cade (March 20, 2014). "Facebook Introduces ‘Hack,’ the Programming Language of the Future". Wired.
- Siegler, MG (April 21, 2010). "Facebook: We'll Serve 1 Billion Likes on the Web in Just 24 Hours". TechCrunch. Retrieved December 19, 2011.
- Fletcher, Dan (April 22, 2010). "Facebook Looks to Get Personal". Time. Retrieved December 19, 2011.
- Caitlin McGarry (September 19, 2013). "Rest assured, your Facebook likes are now free speech". TechHive. IDG Consumer & SMB. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
- "Court Docket - Rembrandt Social Media, LP v. Facebook, Inc. et al, 1:13-cv-00158, No. 1 (E.D.Va.)". Docket Alarm, Inc.
- "Facebook sued over 'Like' button". Circa. April 2, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
- "Facebook". Facebook. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
- Researchers, Indian. "Indian Security Researchers tops Facebook Bug Bounty Program". www.dnaindia.com/india/report-dna-special-indians-are-worlds-top-bug-bounty-hunters-1884018. DNA Newspaper.
- Bug Bounty, Facebook. "Facebook Bug Bounty". https://www.facebook.com/notes/facebook-bug-bounty/bug-bounty-highlights-and-updates/818902394790655. Facebook Security. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
- "Facebook: Largest, Fastest Growing Social Network". Techtree.com. August 13, 2008. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
- "Privacy, Schmivacy: Facebook Is Attracting Near-Record Numbers Of New Visitors". TechCrunch. June 7, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2010.
- "Related info for: facebook.com/". Alexa Internet. Retrieved December 10, 2012.
- "Facebook.com Web Site Audience Profile". Quantcast. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
- "We're Number Two! Facebook moves up one big spot in the charts". Compete.com. Retrieved September 9, 2010.
- McGrath, Kristin (July 22, 2010). "Status update: Facebook logs 500 million members". USA Today (Washington DC). Retrieved September 9, 2010.
- Yum, Kenny (May 18, 2007). "Facebook says 'Thanks, Canada'". National Post (Toronto). Retrieved April 30, 2008.[dead link]
- Malkin, Bonnie (September 26, 2007). "Facebook is UK's biggest networking site". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved April 30, 2008.
- Caverly, Doug (June 16, 2009). "comScore: Facebook Catches MySpace in U.S". WebProNews (iEntry Network). Retrieved September 24, 2009.
- Brown, Steven E.F. (June 17, 2009). "Facebook grows as MySpace cuts back". Atlanta Business Chronicle. Retrieved September 24, 2009. "The Conference Board report on first quarter online users in the U.S. showed Facebook with an even larger lead, with 78 percent of social network participants, followed by MySpace (42 percent), LinkedIn (17 percent) and Twitter (10 percent)."
- Hasselback, Drew (June 17, 2009). "Comscore says Facebook has surpassed MySpace for U.S. users". National Post (Toronto). Retrieved September 24, 2009. "Comscore says Facebook surpassed MySpace among U.S. users in May, while Nielsen figures that actually happened back in January."[dead link]
- Wood, Cara (August 31, 2009). "Keeping pace with mainstream social media". Direct Marketing News (New York). Retrieved September 24, 2009. "The giant in the space remains Facebook, which gets 87.7 million unique viewers per month, according to ComScore. MySpace, with nearly 70 million unique monthly visitors, has seen growth stagnate over the past year."
- AKKY AKIMOTO (December 17, 2013). "Looking at 2013′s Japanese social-media scene". The Japan Times. Retrieved December 27, 2013.
- McCarthy, Caroline (July 21, 2010). "Who will be Facebook's next 500 million?". CNET (New York). Retrieved September 23, 2008.
- Ostrow, Adam (July 11, 2007). "Copycats: Top 10 International Facebook Clones". Mashable. Retrieved November 14, 2012.
- "Social Networking". PC Magazine. August 13, 2007. Retrieved May 9, 2008.
- "12th Annual Webby Awards Nominees". International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- "Survey: College Kids Like IPods Better Than Beer". Fox News. June 8, 2006. Retrieved March 10, 2008.
- "FINDINGS OF FACT AND CONCLUSIONS OF LAW AND ORDER APPROVING SETTLEMENT. Signed by Judge Richard Seeborg on 03/17/2010.". Docket Alarm, Inc. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
- Kincaid, Jason (January 8, 2010). "Facebook Takes Best Overall For The Hat Trick". Techcrunch. Retrieved July 8, 2010.
- "Lead411 launches "Hottest Silicon Valley Companies" awards". Lead411.com. May 25, 2010. Retrieved July 8, 2010.
- Fowler, Geoffrey A. (July 20, 2010). "Users Rate Facebook Slightly Above the Tax Man". Digits (Wall Street Journal technology blog). Retrieved July 21, 2010.
- Zuckerberg, Mark (August 26, 2008). "Our First 100 Million". The Facebook Blog. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
- Zuckerberg, Mark (April 8, 2009). "200 Million Strong". The Facebook Blog. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
- Zuckerberg, Mark (September 15, 2009). "300 Million and On". The Facebook Blog. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
- "New navigation for users and 400 million active users announcement". Facebook. February 4, 2010. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
- Zuckerberg, Mark (July 21, 2010). "500 Million Stories". The Facebook Blog. Retrieved July 21, 2010.
- Carlson, Nicholas (January 5, 2011). "Goldman to clients: Facebook has 600 million users". MSNBC. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- Socialbakers employee (May 30, 2011). "Facebook is globally closing in to 700 million users!". Socialbakers.
- Ostrow, Adam (September 22, 2011). "Facebook Now Has 800 Million Users". Mashable. Retrieved September 26, 2011.
- Cohen, Noam (April 24, 2012). "The Breakfast Meeting: Grilling for James Murdoch, and Facebook Tops 900 Million Users". The New York Times. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- Fowler, Geoffrey A. (October 4, 2012). "Facebook: One Billion and Counting". The Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones). Retrieved February 7, 2014. "...reached the milestone of one billion monthly active members on Sept. 14."
- "Facebook Reports First Quarter 2013 Results". Facebook. May 1, 2013. Retrieved May 2, 2013.
- Towell, Noel (December 16, 2008). "Lawyers to serve notices on Facebook". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Kiwi judge follows Australian Facebook precedent". The Age (Melbourne). Agence France-Presse. March 16, 2009.
- Peters, Melanie (April 5, 2009). "Facebook trap criminals in its web". Independent Online (Cape Town).
- Cochran, Jason (November 6, 2008). "Watch out! Bosses are saving money by firing employees over Facebook posts". WalletPop.com. Retrieved May 6, 2010.[dead link]
- McDonald, Soraya Nadia (July 4, 2005). "Facebooking, the rage on college campuses". The Seattle Times. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
- Nicole, Kristen (December 21, 2007). "I Can So "Facebook" You Now (and be gramatically [sic] correct)". Mashable. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- "Unfriend is New Oxford dictionary's Word of the Year". USA Today (Washington DC). November 17, 2009. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- "Openbook – Connect and share whether you want to or not". Youropenbook.org. May 12, 2010. Retrieved June 26, 2010.
- Steel, Emily; Fowler, Geoffrey A. (October 18, 2010). "Facebook in Privacy Breach". The Wall Street Journal (New York). Retrieved October 18, 2010.
- "Facebook Statistics by country". March 3, 2012.
- "43.1 Million Members of Facebook in Indonesia". February 2, 2012.
- Facebook Reports First Quarter 2013 Results - Facebook. Investor.fb.com (May 1, 2013). Retrieved on July 21, 2013.
- "Facebook Mobile User Counts Revealed: 192M Android, 147M iPhone, 48M iPad, 56M Messenger, 604M total users". TechCrunch. January 4, 2013. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- "Facebook Statistics". Facebook.com. Retrieved December 21, 2011.
- "Dirty Data Report Card". Greenpeace. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- "Facebook and Greenpeace settle Clean Energy Feud". Techcrunch. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- "Facebook Commits to Clean Energy Future". Greenpeace. Retrieved August 22, 2013.
- "China's Facebook Status: Blocked". ABC News blog. July 8, 2009. Retrieved July 13, 2009.
- Shahi, Afshin (July 27, 2008). "Iran's Digital War". Daily Star (Cairo). Archived from the original on August 14, 2008. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
- (Russian) "Uzbek authorities have blocked access to Facebook". Ferghana News. Retrieved October 21, 2010.
- Cooper, Charles (May 19, 2010). "Pakistan Bans Facebook Over Muhammad Caricature Row – Tech Talk". CBS News. Retrieved June 26, 2010.[dead link]
- "Red lines that cannot be crossed". The Economist (London). July 24, 2008. Retrieved August 17, 2008.
- Protalinski, Emil (February 8, 2011). "Facebook and YouTube Unblocked in Syria Today". The Next Web. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- "Vietnam internet restrictions come into effect". BBC. September 1, 2013.
- Benzie, Robert (May 3, 2007). "Facebook banned for Ontario staffers". Toronto Star. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
- Stone, Brad (April 7, 2008). "Facebook to Settle Thorny Lawsuit Over Its Origins". The New York Times (blog). Retrieved November 5, 2009.
- Pepitone, Julianne (May 12, 2011). "Facebook vs. Google fight turns nasty". CNN Money.
- "Twitter / RudawEnglish: Facebook is temporarily blocked". Twitter.com. Retrieved 2014-08-10.
- "Alemanha: Festas convocadas pelo Facebook são "ameaça à ordem pública"". Ptjornal.com. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
- "Alemanha pode proibir festas combinadas pelo Facebook". Destakjornal.com.br. Retrieved October 29, 2011.[dead link]
- "Facebook blunder invites 15,000 to teen's 16th birthday party; 100 cops show up, too – Crimesider". CBS News. June 7, 2011. Retrieved October 29, 2011.[dead link]
- "Alemanha pretende acabar com eventos via Facebook" (in Portuguese). Mtv.uol.com.br. Retrieved October 29, 2011.[dead link]
- "Don't Ban Facebook at Work, Researchers Advise". PC World. September 3, 2007. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
- "Why Parents Help Their Children Lie to Facebook About Age: Unintended Consequences of the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act". Journalist's Resource.org.
- Kurup, Deepa (November 17, 2011). "Facebook feeds spammed globally". The Hindu (Chennai, India).
- Anuradha Shetty (November 18, 2011). "Facebook denies hack in India, assures safety". Tech2.in.com. Retrieved December 21, 2011.[dead link]
- "Palestinian finds Facebook bug, hacks CEO's page - Associated Press". Associated Press. August 19, 2013. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- "£4,700 raised for snubbed researcher who posted on Zuckerberg's wall". Wired Magazine. August 20, 2013. Retrieved September 22, 2013.
- Bort, Julie (April 20, 2011). "Researcher: Facebook Ignored the Bug I Found Until I Used It to Hack Zuckerberg - Yahoo! Finance". Finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- "Zuckerberg's Facebook page hacked to prove security exploit". CNN.com. May 14, 2013. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- "Facebook ignored security bug, researcher used it to post details on Zuckerberg's wall". The Verge. August 1, 2013. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- Reuters – Tue, August 20, 2013 5:03 PM EDT. "Hacker who exposed Facebook bug to get reward from unexpected source - Yahoo! Finance". Finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved August 22, 2013.[dead link]
- Buster Heine (February 3, 2014). "Facebook's New Storytelling App ‘Paper' Lands In The App Store". Cult of Mac. Cul tomedia Corp. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- John Brownlee (February 3, 2014). "FiftyThree Accuses Facebook Of Stealing Their App Name". Cult of Mac. Cultomedia Corp. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- Robert M. Bond, Christopher J. Fariss, Jason J. Jones, Adam D. I. Kramer, Cameron Marlow, Jaime E. Settle, James H. Fowler (2012). A 61-million-person experiment in social influence and political mobilization 489 (7415). pp. 295–298. doi:10.1038/nature11421.
- Robert Booth (2014). "Facebook reveals news feed experiment to control emotions". The Guardian. Retrieved June 30, 2014.
- Adam D. I. Kramer, Jamie E. Guillory. Jeffrey T. Hancock (2014). "Experimental evidence of massive-scale emotional contagion through social networks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (24): 8788–8790. doi:10.1073/pnas.1320040111.
- David Goldman (2014). "Facebook still won't say 'sorry' for mind games experiment". CNNMoney. Retrieved July 3, 2014.
- Guynn, Jessica. "Privacy watchdog files complaint over Facebook study". USA Today. USA Today. Retrieved July 5, 2014.
- Grohol, John. "Emotional Contagion on Facebook? More Like Bad Research Methods". PsycCentral. PsycCentral. Retrieved July 12, 2014.
- "Facebook's 'experiment' was socially irresponsible | Technology". The Guardian. 1 July 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
- "Facebook Marketing Solutions". Facebook. Retrieved January 30, 2011.
- Wells, Emma K. (April 19, 2011). "Move Over Twitter: Facebook Wants a Piece of Social TV, Too". tvgenius: TV Trends Blog. Retrieved May 15, 2011.[dead link]
- "Facebook data reveal what GOP presidential candidates' supporters 'like'". The Washington Post. January 6, 2012.
- Dembosky, April (January 16, 2012). "Romney tags Facebook to build momentum".
- Bingham, Amy (January 10, 2012). "Social Media Opens Trove of Voter Info to Campaigns". ABCNews.com.
- "Seri Miss Sri Lanka Online Unveiled". FT.lk. Retrieved January 9, 2013.
- Half of the World's Online Population Uses Facebook, GlobalWebIndex. May 2013.
- "Father finds daughter on Facebook after 20 years apart". WABC (New York). October 23, 2010. Retrieved May 15, 2011.
- "Facebook reunites father, daughter after 48 years". MSN India (Delhi). January 27, 2010.
- Moreno, Megan A; Briner, LR; Williams, A; Walker, L; Christakis, DA (2009). "Real Use or "Real Cool": Adolescents Speak Out About Displayed Alcohol References on Social Networking Web Sites". Journal of Adolescent Health 45 (4): 420–421. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.04.015. PMID 19766949.
- Egan, Katie G; Moreno, MA (2011). "Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles". Journal of Men's Health 5 (5): 413–20. doi:10.1177/1557988310394341. PMID 21406490.
- Moreno, Megan A; Christakis, DA; Egan, KG; Brockman, LN; Becker, T (February 2012). "Associations between displayed alcohol references on Facebook and problem drinking among college students". Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 166 (2): 157–63. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.180. PMID 21969360.
- Strasburger, VC (2008). Adolescents and the Media. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
- Friedman, Thomas L. (June 9, 2012). "Facebook Meets Brick-and-Mortar Politics". The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
- Sachs, Wendy (February 8, 2012). "Facebook Envy: How Cruising Can Kill Self Esteem". Huffington Post. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
- Goldsmith, Belinda (January 22, 2013). "Facebook Study Says Envy Is Rampant On The Social Network". Huffington Post. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
- Richardson, Michael (May 25, 2013). "Facebook Envy When social networking only brings you down". Healthy Magazine. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
- "ABC News Joins Forces With Facebook". ABC News. December 18, 2007. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- Minor, Doug (November 29, 2007). "Saint Anselm to Host ABC Debates Jan. 5". Saint Anselm College blog. Retrieved July 18, 2010.
- Bradley, Tahman (December 12, 2007). "Republicans Lead off ABC News, WMUR-TV and Facebook Back-To-Back Debates in New Hampshire". Political Radar blog (ABC News). Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- Callahan, Ezra (January 5, 2008). "Tune in to the ABC News/Facebook Debates, Tonight 7 pm/6c on ABC". Facebook Blog. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- Goldman, Russell (January 5, 2007). "Facebook Gives Snapshot of Voter Sentiment". ABC News. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- Sullivan, Michelle (November 3, 2008). "Facebook Effect Mobilizes Youth Vote". CBS News. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- Brodzinsky, Sibylla (February 4, 2008). "Facebook used to target Colombia's FARC with global rally". The Christian Science Monitor (Boston). Retrieved August 1, 2010.
- Roberts, Laura (August 21, 2010). "North Korea joins Facebook". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved August 22, 2010.
- Sutter, John D. (February 21, 2011). "The faces of Egypt's 'Revolution 2.0'". CNN. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- Hauslohner, Abigail (January 24, 2011). "Is Egypt About to Have a Facebook Revolution?". Time (New York). Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- Kessler, Sarah (January 26, 2011). "Facebook & Twitter Both Blocked in Egypt". Mashable. Retrieved June 7, 2013.
- Johnson, Luke (September 26, 2011). "Facebook forms its own Political Action Committee". Huffington Post. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- Nagesh, Gautham (September 26, 2011). "Facebook to form its own PAC to back political candidates". The Hill (Washington DC). Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- Whitbourne, Susan Krauss (June 19, 2012). "Unfriended? Five Ways to Manage Online Rejection". Psychology Today.
- "Shakira reaches 100 million ‘likes': Do Facebook fans and Twitter followers matter?". correspondent. Metro UK. July 25, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- "Shakira is Facebook’s most popular celebrity with 100million likes – enough to fill 1,359 Maracana stadiums". Ella Alexander. Independent UK. 21 July 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- "Mark Zuckerberg Congratulates Shakira, Singer Attains "Most Liked Page on Facebook"". Correspondent. OnoBello.com. July 22, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- Hempel, Jessi (June 25, 2009). "The book that Facebook doesn't want you to read". CNN. Retrieved July 3, 2010.
- "The Social Network (2010)". Internet Movie DataBase. Retrieved July 3, 2010.
- Racheff, Jeffery (October 20, 2010). "Mark Zuckerberg Calls The Social Network Inaccurate". Limelife.
- Hussain, Waqar (May 27, 2010). "Pakistanis create rival Muslim Facebook". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- "South Park parodies Facebook". Guardian media blog (London). April 8, 2010. Retrieved June 7, 2010.
- "Oldest Tweeter talks cuppas and casserole on Twitter at 104". The Daily Telegraph (London). May 15, 2009.
- Gray, Melissa (July 28, 2010). "Ivy Bean, 'world's oldest Twitter user,' dead at 104". CNN. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
- Ehrlich, Brenna (May 17, 2011). "Parents name child after Facebook 'Like' button". CNN.
- Olivarez-Giles, Nathan (May 16, 2011). "Israeli newborn named 'Like' in tribute to Facebook". Los Angeles Times.
- "thetechbook » Countries where facebook is not number #1 social networking website". Woolor.com. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- Mahesh Sharma. "Facebook accused of allowing hate speech". Theage.com.au. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
- Arrington, Michael (April 25, 2012). "The Age Of Facebook". TechCrunch.
- Kirkpatrick, David, "Why Facebook matters: It's not just for arranging dates. And it's not just another social network. Facebook offers sophisticated tools for maintaining social relationships", Fortune, October 6, 2006
- Lee, Newton, Facebook Nation: Total Information Awareness (New York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media, 2012), ISBN 978-1-4614-5307-9.
- Miller, Daniel, Tales from Facebook, Polity 2011, ISBN 978-0-7456-5209-2
|Find more about Facebook at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions and translations from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
- Official website (Mobile)
- Facebook companies grouped at OpenCorporates
- Facebook at iTunes Preview
- Facebook at the BlackBerry World
- Facebook at the Google Play store
- Facebook collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Facebook collected news and commentary at The Guardian
- Facebook collected news and commentary at The Daily Telegraph (London)
- Facebook Founder Finds He Wants Some Privacy, in The New York Times, December 3, 2007
- Facebook Privacy: 10 Settings Every User Needs to Know, by Stan Schroeder, February 7, 2011