Factor XIII

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Factor XIII crosslinks fibrin
coagulation factor XIII,
A1 polypeptide
Identifiers
Symbol F13A1
Alt. symbols F13A
Entrez 2162
HUGO 3531
OMIM 134570
RefSeq NM_000129
UniProt P00488
Other data
Locus Chr. 6 p24.2-p23
coagulation factor XIII,
B polypeptide
Identifiers
Symbol F13B
Entrez 2165
HUGO 3534
OMIM 134580
RefSeq NM_001994
UniProt P05160
Other data
Locus Chr. 1 q31-q32.1

Factor XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor is an enzyme (EC 2.3.2.13) of the blood coagulation system that crosslinks fibrin.

Function[edit]

Factor XIII is a transglutaminase that circulates in the plasma as a heterotetramer of two catalytic A subunits and two carrier B subunits. When thrombin has converted fibrinogen to fibrin, the latter forms a proteinaceous network in which every E-unit is crosslinked to only one D-unit. Factor XIII is activated by thrombin into factor XIIIa; its activation into Factor XIIIa requires calcium as a cofactor. A cleavage by thrombin between residue Arg37 and Gly38 on the N-terminus of the A subunit, leads to the release of the activation peptide (MW 4000 da). In the presence of calcium the carrier subunits dissociate from the catalytic subunits, leading to a 3D change in conformation of factor XIII and hence the exposure of catalytic cysteine residue. Upon activation by thrombin, factor XIIIa acts on fibrin to form γ-glutamyl-Є-lysyl amide cross links between fibrin molecules to form an insoluble clot.[citation needed]

Discovery[edit]

FXIII is known also as Laki-Lorand factor, after the scientists who first proposed its existence in 1948.[1] A 2005 conference recommended standardization of nomenclature.[2]

Genetics[edit]

Zymogen factor XIII is a 320kDa glycoprotein tetramer consisting of twice two subunits (2 A and 2 B),[2] the genes for which are on different chromosomes:

  • A subunit (6p25-p24). The transglutaminase part; this adds an alkyl group to the nitrogen on a glutamine residue, which binds in turn with a lysine on the other chain. The molecular weight of the A chain is approximately 83kDa.
  • B subunit (1q31-q32.1). This has no clear enzymatic activity, and may serve as a carrier for the A subunit. The molecular weight of the B chain is approximately 76.5kDa.

Physiology[edit]

Typical concentrations of FXIII in plasma is 10 μg/ml (2A2B heterodimer), while the concentration of free B chain is 22 μg/ml. FXIII has a long half life, ranging from 5–9 days. It is present in plasma, platelets, and monocytes, as well as macrophages and bone marrow precursors of these cell types.[2]

A clot that has not been stabilized by FXIIIa is soluble in 5 mol/L urea, while a stabilized clot is resistant to this phenomenon.[1]

Diagnostic use[edit]

Factor XIII levels are not measured routinely, but may be considered in patients with an unexplained bleeding tendency. As the enzyme is quite specific for monocytes and macrophages, determination of the presence of factor XIII may be used to identify and classify malignant diseases involving these cells.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Laki K, Lóránd L (September 1948). "On the Solubility of Fibrin Clots". Science 108 (2802): 280. doi:10.1126/science.108.2802.280. PMID 17842715. 
  2. ^ a b c d Muszbek L, Ariëns RA, Ichinose A (January 2007). "Factor XIII: recommended terms and abbreviations". J. Thromb. Haemost. 5 (1): 181–3. doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2006.02182.x. PMID 16938124. 

External links[edit]