Fair Isle viewed from the west.
|OS grid reference||HZ209717|
|Meaning of name||"Sheep island", from Norse|
|Area and summit|
|Area||768 hectares (2.97 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||Ward Hill 217 metres (712 ft)|
|Population rank||50 out of 101|
Area and population ranks are for all Scottish islands and all inhabited Scottish islands respectively. Population data is from 2001 census.
Fair Isle (from Old Norse Frjóey; Scottish Gaelic Fara) is an island in northern Scotland, lying around halfway between mainland Shetland and the Orkney islands. It is famous for its bird observatory and a traditional style of knitting.
Fair Isle is the most remote inhabited island in the United Kingdom. It is administratively part of Shetland and is roughly equidistant from Sumburgh Head some 38 kilometres (24 mi) to the northeast on the Mainland of Shetland and North Ronaldsay, Orkney some 43 kilometres (27 mi) to the southwest. Fair Isle is 4.8 kilometres (3.0 mi) in length and 2.4 kilometres (1.5 mi) wide. It has an area of 768 hectares (3 square miles), making it the tenth largest of the Shetland Islands. It gives its name to one of the British Sea Areas.
The majority of the seventy islanders live in the crofts on the southern half of the island, with the northern half consisting of rocky moorland. The western coast consists of cliffs of up to 200 metres (660 feet) in height. The population has been decreasing steadily from around four hundred in around 1900. There are no pubs or restaurants on the island and a single primary school. After the age of eleven, children must attend secondary school in Lerwick and stay in a hostel there in term time.
Bird observatory 
Fair Isle has a permanent bird observatory, founded by George Waterston in 1948. Because of its importance as a bird migration watchpoint, it provides most of the accommodation on the island. The first Director of the observatory was Kenneth Williamson. It is unusual amongst bird observatories in providing catered, rather than hostel-style, accommodation.
Many rare species of bird have been found on the island, and it is probably the best place in western Europe to see skulking Siberian passerines such as Pechora Pipit, Lanceolated Warbler and Pallas's Grasshopper Warbler. In spring 2008 a Calandra Lark was identified in April, and in May a Caspian Plover was observed, only the fourth such record for the UK. On June 6 a Citril Finch was found and identified by Islander Tommy Hyndman, a first record for Britain. September was highlighted by Brown Flycatcher, Red-flanked Bluetail and Siberian Thrush. Fair Isle can claim to be the best place to find rare birds in Britain with at least 27 first records. Spring 2009 started well with notable birds including White-tailed Eagle, Green-winged Teal, Red-rumped Swallow and a Brown-headed Cowbird (2nd for Britain). The island is home to an endemic subspecies of Eurasian Wren, the Fair Isle Wren Troglodytes troglodytes fridariensis.
Fair Isle experiences a maritime climate with cool summers and mild winters. This is especially pronounced due to its location far from any sizeable landmass - Fair Isle has the smallest overall temperature range (least continental) of any weather station in the British Isles - an absolute maximum of 20.2 °C (68.4 °F) and an absolute minimum of −5.6 °C (21.9 °F) since 1951. This 60-plus year temperature span is actually smaller than many places in inland southern England will record within a given three-month period. The lowest temperature recorded in recent years was −4.6 °C (23.7 °F) during February 2010. Rainfall, at under 1000mm is lower than one might expect for somewhere often in the main path of Atlantic depressions. This is explained by a lack of heavy convective rainfall during spring and summer months due to the absence of warm surface conditions.
|Climate data for Fair Isle 57m asl, 1951-1980, Extremes 1951-|
|Record high °C (°F)||11.1
|Average high °C (°F)||5.7
|Average low °C (°F)||3.0
|Record low °C (°F)||−4.5
|Precipitation mm (inches)||96
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||27.9||59.3||96.1||150.0||192.2||171.0||136.4||145.7||117.0||71.3||36.0||15.5||1,206|
|Source #1: ScotClim|
|Source #2: Tutiempo|
Fair Isle has been occupied since the Bronze Age which is remarkable because of the lack of raw materials on the island, although it is surrounded by rich fishing waters. There are two known Iron Age sites - a promontory fort at Landberg and the foundations of a house underlying an early Christian settlement at Kirkigeo.
Most of the place-names date from after the ninth-century Norse settlement of the Northern Isles. By that time the croft lands had clearly been in use for many centuries.
On 20 August 1588 the flagship of the Spanish Armada, El Gran Grifón, was shipwrecked in the cove of Stroms Heelor, forcing its 300 sailors to spend six weeks living with the islanders. The wreck was discovered in 1970. The large Canadian sailing ship Black Watch was wrecked on Fair Isle in 1877.
Today about 60 crofters work the land on the island. It has 14 scheduled monuments, ranging from the earliest signs of human activity to the remains of a World War II radar station. The two automated lighthouses are protected as listed buildings. The island's historic role as a signal station continues today with its high-technology relay stations carrying vital TV, radio, telephone and military communication links between Shetland, Orkney and the Scottish mainland.
Over the centuries the island changed hands many times. Trading links with northern Europe are reflected in Fair Isle Haa, a traditional Hanseatic trading booth located not far from the South Harbour traditionally used by residents of the southern part of the island. But rent was paid to absentee landlords (who rarely visited) in butter, cloth and fish oil.
Fishing has always been an important industry for the island. In 1702, the Dutch, who were interested in Shetland's herring fisheries, fought a naval battle against the French warships just off the island.
Fair Isle is also famous for its woollen jumpers, with knitting forming an important source of income for the women of the islands. The principal activity for the male islanders is crofting. In January 2004, Fair Isle was granted Fairtrade Island status.
Military role 
The aircraft had been flying on a routine weather reconnaissance flights from its base at Oldenburg in Germany. It was intercepted by RAF Hawker Hurricane fighters from 3 Squadron, based at RAF Sumburgh; both of the aircraft's engines were damaged and several of the five crew were wounded. The pilot managed to make a crash-landing on Fair Isle to avoid ditching his crippled aircraft in the sea. Two crew died and three survived. The dead crew were buried in the island's churchyard; the survivors were detained by the islanders and remained for several days until weather conditions allowed them to be taken off the island by means of the Shetland Lifeboat.
Electricity supply 
Since 1982, two thirds of the community's power has been supplied by wind turbines, and a third by diesel generators. The island has two electrical networks. Standard electricity service is provided on one network, and electric heating is delivered by a second set of cables. The electrical heating is mostly provided by excess electricity from the two wind turbines. Remote frequency-sensitive programmable relays control water heaters and storage heaters in the buildings of the community.
As Fair Isle is not connected to the national grid, electricity is provided by the Fair Isle Electricity Company. Power is generated by two diesel generators and two wind turbines. Diesel generators are automatically switched off if wind turbines provide sufficient power. Excess capacity is distributed through a separate network for home heating or if not enough energy can be dissipated through this, a dump load.
- Fair Isle Airport serves the island with flights to Tingwall Airport near Lerwick, and weekly to Sumburgh.
- The Good Shepherd IV plies between Fair Isle and Grutness.
See also 
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Fair Isle|
- 2001 UK Census per List of islands of Scotland
- Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004). The Scottish Islands. Edinburgh: Canongate. ISBN 978-1-84195-454-7.
- Ordnance Survey
- Iain Mac an Tailleir. "Placenames". Pàrlamaid na h-Alba. Retrieved 2007-07-28.
- Anderson, Joseph (Ed.) (1893) Orkneyinga Saga. Translated by Jón A. Hjaltalin & Gilbert Goudie. Edinburgh. James Thin and Mercat Press (1990 reprint). ISBN 0-901824-25-9
- "Britain's best islands". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-02-09.
- "Unknown: Atlantic" Canmore. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- "Fair Isle" Northlink Ferries. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- Ordnance Survey "Get-a-Map". Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- "Fair Isle". fairisle.org.uk. Retrieved 2008-02-09.
- Okill, David; Shaw, Deryk (2010). "Fair Isle". In Archer, Mike; Grantham, Mark; Howlett, Peter; Stansfield, Steven. Bird Observatories of Britain and Ireland. T & A D Poyser. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011.
- "The History of Fair Isle Bird Observatory". fairislebirdobs.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-08-01.
- Hughes, Mark (5 May 2008). "Rare bird sends twitchers on a wild plover chase". London: The Independent. Retrieved 2009-07-24.
- "2010 temperature". Tutiempo.
- "Fair Isle climate 1951-80". ScotClim. Retrieved 07 Nov 2011.
- "Fair Isle climate 1981-". TuTiempo. Retrieved 08 Nov 2011.
- "Case Study: Wind Power on Fair Isle". National Trust for Scotland. Retrieved 2008-05-07.
- Nicolson, James R (1972). Shetland. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. p. 27.
- "Deutsche Luftwaffe Heinkel He111 H-2 / T5+EU". Air Crash Sites Scotland. Retrieved 2013-04-10.
- Network Control
- Sitefinder.ofcom.org.uk reference 6840 and 6983
- Fair Isle community website
- Fair Isle Blog
- Fair Isle bird observatory
- Latest bird sightings
- Fair Isle Electricity Company Ltd
- Details of its airport
- Photographic tour of the island
- NPR Story on Fair Isle