Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner

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Metroliner
Perimeter Metroliner II.jpg
Perimeter Aviation C-FUZY SA226-TC Metro II over Winnipeg, Manitoba c. 2007
Role Regional airliner
Manufacturer Fairchild
First flight August 26, 1969
Introduction 1972
Status Out of production, in service
Primary users Ameriflight
Bearskin Airlines
Key Lime Air
Perimeter Aviation
Produced 1968–2001
Number built 600+
Developed from Swearingen Merlin
Variants Fairchild C-26 Metroliner

The Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner or the Fairchild Aerospace Metro is a 19-seat, pressurised, twin-turboprop airliner first produced by Swearingen Aircraft and later by Fairchild at a plant in San Antonio, Texas, United States.

Design and development[edit]

The Metroliner was an evolution of the Swearingen Merlin turboprop-powered business aircraft. Ed Swearingen, a Texas fixed base operator (FBO), started the developments that led to the Metro through gradual modifications to the Beechcraft Twin Bonanza and Queen Air business aircraft, aircraft which he dubbed Excalibur.

A new fuselage (but with a similar nose) and vertical fin were then developed, married to salvaged and rebuilt (wet) Queen Air wings and horizontal tails, and Twin Bonanza landing gear; this became the SA26 Merlin, more-or-less a pressurized Excalibur. Through successive models (the SA26-T Merlin IIA and SA26-AT Merlin IIB) the engines were changed to Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6, then Garrett TPE331 turboprops. These were marketed as business aircraft seating eight to ten passengers.

An all-new aircraft was built and named the SA226-T Merlin III with a new nose, wings, landing gear, cruciform horizontal tail[note 1] and inverted inlet Garrett engines. Ultimately a stretch of the Merlin III was designed, sized to seat 22 passengers and called the SA226-TC Metro. Because FAA regulations limited an airliner to no more than 19 seats if no flight attendant was to be carried, the aircraft was optimized for that number of passengers. The standard engines offered were two TPE331-3UW turboprops driving three-bladed propellers. A corporate version called the SA226-AT Merlin IVA was also marketed and initially sales of this version were roughly double that of the Metro.[1]

Prototype construction of the Metro began in 1968 and the first flight was on August 26, 1969. Swearingen Aircraft encountered financial difficulties at this stage, and late in 1971 Fairchild (which was marketing the Metro[2] and building its wings and engine nacelles), bought 90% of Swearingen and the company was renamed Swearingen Aviation Corporation. It was at this point that the previously cash-strapped company was able to put the Metro into production.[3][4][5]

In 1974, the original Metro models were replaced by the SA226-TC Metro II after about 20 Metros and about 30 Merlin IVAs had been built.[note 2] Among the changes made were larger, squared-oval windows and optional provision for a small Rocket-Assisted Take Off (RATO) rocket in the tail cone, this being offered to improve takeoff performance out of "hot & high" airfields in the event of an engine failure.

The Metro and Metro II were limited to a maximum weight of 12,500 pounds (5,670 kg) in the USA and countries using imperial units, and 5,700 kg in countries using SI units. When this restriction was lifted the Metro II was re-certified as the Metro IIA in 1980 with a maximum weight of 13,100 pounds (5,941 kg) and the Metro II's TPE331-3 engines replaced by -10 engines of increased power.

VH-EEO, a purpose-built SA227-AT Expediter freighter (without cabin windows) in service with Pel-Air, but painted in the Australian air Express livery c. 2007
Jetcraft Aviation SA227-AT Merlin IVC freighter conversion VH-UZA in service, Australia c. 2007

The SA227-AC Metro III followed, also initially certified in 1980 for up to 14,000 pounds (6,350 kg), this increasing to 14,500 pounds (6,577 kg) as engines and structures were upgraded. An option to go as high as 16,000 pounds (7,257 kg) was offered. Externally, improvements incorporated into the Metro III were a 10 ft (3.05 m) increase in wing span, four-bladed props, redesigned "quick-access" engine cowlings and numerous drag-reducing airframe modifications, including landing gear doors that closed after the gear was extended.

Once again a corporate version was offered as the Merlin IVC (the model name was chosen to align with the contemporaneous short-fuselage Merlin IIIC). A version with strengthened floors and the high gross weight option was offered as a cargo aircraft known as the Expediter. Both the Expediter and the Merlin IVC were designated the SA227-AT. Finally, due to reliability problems with Garrett engines in the second half of the 1980s, the Metro IIIA was offered with two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-45R turboprops in place of the Garrett units; however none were actually delivered.[6] A special model was the SA227-BC Metro III built for Mexican airline AeroLitoral, which took delivery of 15 of the 18 of this model that were produced.

Improvements beyond the Metro III provided better systems, more power and a further increase in takeoff weight. This design effort resulted in the SA227 CC (for Commuter Category) and SA227-DC models, initially called the Metro IV[6] then renamed Metro 23, so named as they were designed for certification under FAR Part 23 (Amendment 34) standards. A Metro 23 EF with an external pod under the lower fuselage for greater baggage capacity was also offered as well as an Expediter 23 and Merlin 23. The SA227-CC was an interim model with TPE331-11U engines and only a handful were built.[5][7]

Further development[edit]

In the 1960s Swearingen Aircraft developed a prototype SA-28T eight-seat jet aircraft with a flapless delta wing.[2][8] It shared the tail and cockpit with the Merlin/Metro. The two engines were to be Garrett TFE731 turbofans then in development;[9] they were originally to be mounted on the aft fuselage, however during the course of design work their location was moved to under the high-mounted wing.[10] Early flights were to be undertaken with General Electric CJ610 engines fitted. Development continued after Fairchild acquired the company,[11] but the project was shut down nine weeks from first flight. It was later cut up as scrap and the fuselage used as a Metro display at trade shows.[citation needed]

At the 1987 Paris Air Show, Fairchild released details of proposed developments of the Metro designated the Metro V and Metro VI. These versions would have featured a longer fuselage with a taller "stand-up" cabin providing 69 in (180 cm) of interior height for passengers; a redesigned, longer wing; engines moved further out on the wing from the fuselage; a "T-tail" and various system improvements. A Merlin V corporate version of the Metro V was also planned. The Metro V was to be fitted with the same engines as the Metro 23 and the Metro VI was to be fitted with more powerful TPE331-14 engines.[6][12] The Metro VI was shelved within months of being announced due to a lack of customer interest,[13] but Fairchild did not proceed with the Metro V either.

One version that did see the light of day was the Metro 25, which featured an increased passenger capacity of 25 at the expense of the baggage space found in earlier models; the deletion of the left rear cargo door, the addition of a passenger door on the right-hand rear fuselage, and a belly pod for baggage. A Metro III was converted as a Metro 25 demonstrator, it flew in this configuration in October 1989.[14] Also mooted but not built was the Metro 25J, which would have been another jet-powered aircraft with TFE731s in over-wing pods.[12]

The type certificates for Metro and Merlin aircraft are currently held by M7 Aerospace.

Operational history[edit]

Bearskin Airlines C-FXUS SA227 CC model, Winnipeg c.2007
One of the advantages of the Perimeter Aviation modifications was using a four-bladed propeller that was less susceptible to stone chips on gravel runways

Two of the original Metro model were delivered in 1972 to Societe Miniere de Bakwanga (MIBA) in Kinshasa, Zaire, the first customer to put the Metro into service. The first airline to put them into service was Commuter Airlines in January 1973,[4] followed shortly after by Air Wisconsin.

At least one Metro IIA flies in Canada with Perimeter Aviation.[15] Two SA227-CCs are today registered with Canadian operator Bearskin Lake Air Service Ltd.,[16] while another two are operating in New Zealand.[17] A fifth also flew with Bearskin Airlines but was destroyed in a mid-air collision in 1995.[18]

In service with Perimeter Aviation in Canada, this long-term operator of the Metro II made a number of modifications to suit its use in northern and remote Canadian sites where rudimentary gravel "strips" were common. Some of the many innovative changes to the design of the Metro allowed the aircraft to fly more efficiently as well as cutting down on the "noise factor" that was attributed to the early models. The airline installed Garrett engines with quieter and more efficient four-bladed Hartzell propellers. Their Metros are also all equipped with modern avionics suites including certified AlliedSignal KLN 90B GPS.

Many of the improvements resulting in the Metro 23 came about during work to produce the military C-26B model for the United States Air Force.

A Metro III aircraft was modified for the Colombian Air Force for counternarcotics reconnaissance purposes.[19] The Colombian National Police also operates several Metro 23 aircraft for counternarcotics reconnaissance purposes.[20][21] In addition, the Peruvian Air Force operates a Metro 23 and the Trinidad and Tobago Coast Guard operates a Metro III, both similarly configured.[22][23] A "Regional Security System" Metro III with a large belly radome has been seen in the Caribbean.[24][25]

In civilian service the type has proved to be popular, with sales in the 19-seat airliner market rivalled only by the Beechcraft 1900.[note 3] It is especially popular in Australia. Since the first example (a Merlin IVA) arrived in 1975, almost 20% of the fleet has operated in that country. As of December 2008, 61 Metros and Expediters are registered in Australia, more than all of its market rivals combined.[26]

Metro production ended in 1998, however by this time Regional Jets were in vogue and turboprop types were out of favour with airlines, and several airframes remained unsold at the factory. The final aircraft, Metro 23 c/n DC-904B, was not delivered (to air charter company National Jet Aviation Services of Zelienople, Pennsylvania) until 2001.[4] A total of 703 Metro, Expediter, Merlin IV series and C-26 series aircraft were built.[5] In addition, 158 other SA226 and SA227 series aircraft were built as short-fuselage Merlin IIIs, IIIAs and IIIBs.[note 4]

Variants[edit]

VH-KDO, a Metro 23 of Australian regional airline Regional Express (REX). The REX Metros have since been sold or transferred to subsidiary company Pel-Air.
This Metro III was used in Sweden for Erieye/FS-890 AEW trials.

SA226 Series[edit]

Perimeter Aviation C-FTNV SA226-TC Metro II landing at Tadoule Lake, Manitoba c.2006
  • 198 SA226-TC Metro and Metro II
  • 56 SA226-AT Merlin IVA

SA227 Series[edit]

  • 291 Metro III
    • 273 SA227-AC (11 to US Armed Forces as C-26As)
    • 18 SA227-BC (3 to US Armed Forces as C-26Bs)
  • 43 SA227-AT
    • 21 Merlin IVC
    • 22 Expediter
  • 115 Metro 23
    • 5 SA227 CC
    • 110 SA227-DC (37 to U.S. Armed Forces as C-26Bs)

Military[edit]

  • TP88 - Metro III (two aircraft) delivered to the Swedish Air Force for use as a VIP transports. The first was delivered in 1984, and this was replaced by the second (TP88B) in 1986 and remained in use until 1993. A third dubbed TP88C, was acquired in 1987 and was used for Erieye/FS-890 AEW trials.

Operators[edit]

Bearskin Airlines C-FFZN SA227-AC Metroliner operating out of Red Lake, Ontario, c. 2007

Civil operators[edit]

As of July 2012 a total of 342 Fairchild Metro/Merlin aircraft (all variants) remained in airline service.[27] As of a year later (July 2013), this number had dropped to 253.[28] Major operators include:

Almost 30 other airlines also operate smaller numbers of the type.[28]

Military Operators[edit]

 Argentina
 Colombia
 El Salvador
 Mexico
 Peru
 Trinidad and Tobago
 Venezuela

Former Military Operators[edit]

 Argentina
 Australia.[note 5]
 South Africa
 Sweden
 Thailand

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On June 12, 1980, a Metro II operating as Air Wisconsin Flight 965 suffered engine failure following massive water ingestion during a thunderstorm; the crew lost control and crashed near Valley, Nebraska. Both crew members and 11 passengers died; two passengers survived with serious injuries.[34]
  • On January 15, 1987, a Metro II operating as Skywest Airlines Flight 1834 collided with a single engine Mooney M-20 near Kearns Utah. All eight people on the Metro II were killed in the accident.[35]
  • On January 19, 1988, a Fairchild Metro III operating as Trans-Colorado Airlines Flight 2286 under the Continental Express brand, crashed near Bayfield, Colorado. Both crew members and seven of the 15 passengers died. Of the surviving passengers, only one was uninjured.[36]
  • On February 8, 1988, a Metro III operating as Nürnberger Flugdienst Flight 108 suffered a lightning strike, following which the electrical system failed. The right wing separated from the aircraft during an uncontrolled descent and the aircraft disintegrated and crashed near Kettwig, Germany. Both crew members and all 19 passengers died.[37]
  • On February 19, 1988, a Fairchild Metro operating as AVAir Flight 3378 crashed one mile from the runway after takeoff from Raleigh-Durham International Airport, North Carolina. Pilot error was found to be the cause.
  • On September 26, 1989, Skylink Airlines Flight 070, a Fairchild Metro III was on a scheduled flight from Vancouver(YVR) to Terrace (YXT), British Columbia with two pilots and five passengers on board. The aircraft crashed one quarter mile to the west of Terrace Airport while the crew was attempting to carry out a missed approach in IFR conditions. The aircraft was destroyed by the impact and a post-crash fire. All seven occupants were fatally injured in the crash.[38]
  • On February 1, 1991, SkyWest Airlines Flight 5569, operated with a Metro III, was waiting on a runway when USAir Flight 1493 collided with it, resulting in the death of the ten passengers and two crew members on board the Metro.
  • On May 1, 1995, a Metro 23 operating as Bearskin Airlines Flight 362 (with a crew of two and one passenger on board) collided at 4,500 feet above sea level with an Air Sandy Piper PA-31 Navajo (with one pilot and four passengers on board) while on approach to Sioux Lookout Airport, destroying both aircraft and killing all persons on both aircraft.[39]
  • On September 16, 1995, a Tamair Metro III, VH-NEJ, crashed shortly after takeoff from Tamworth, NSW, Australia, killing all three on board. The crash occurred following a "V1 cut" at night and raised many questions regarding the safety of asymmetric training operations at night.[40]
  • On June 18, 1998, Propair Flight 420, a Metro II flying from Dorval International Airport (now Montreal-Trudeau International Airport) to Peterborough Airport in Peterborough, Ontario, experienced a wing/engine fire during the initial climb. It attempted an emergency landing at Mirabel, but crashed near the runway threshold, in part due to a landing gear failure. The two pilots and the nine passengers on board were killed.[41]
  • On May 3, 2005, a Metro III operating a cargo flight as Airwork Flight 23 broke up in midair and crashed near Stratford, New Zealand. Both crew members died.
  • On May 7, 2005, a Transair Metro 23 crashed near Lockhart River, north of Cooktown, Queensland in Australia. A total of 15 people died in what is, as of December 2009, the worst airline crash in Australia since the 1960s.[42][43]
  • On February 10, 2011, Manx2 Flight 7100, a Metro III owned by the Spanish airline Air Lada operating on behalf of Manx2, was on a flight from Belfast, Northern Ireland to Cork, Ireland. The aircraft crashed on landing in fog, resulting in the death of six people.[44]
  • On September 6, 2011, Aerocon Flight 238 from El Trompillo Airport, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia to Teniente Jorge Henrich Arauz Airport, Trinidad, Bolivia crashed on approach to Trinidad. The flight was operated by Swearingen SA-227 Metroliner CP-2548. Eight of the nine people on board were killed.[45]
  • On June 6, 2012, a SA227-C metro en route from Montevideo Carrasco, MVD to Buenos Aires Ezeiza (EZE) crashed into the Rio de la Plata close to the coast of Montevideo south of Flores Island. It was registered as CX-LAS operating a freight flight on behalf of DHL.[46]
  • On November 3, 2013, a Metro III, CP-2477 Aerocon airliner crashed when it was trying to land at the airport in Riberalta Airport (northern Bolivia) that killed eight people.[47]
  • On November 10, 2013 a Metroliner operated by Bearskin Airlines under flight number JV311, crashed at 19:34 hrs near its destination, Red Lake, Ontario, Canada en route from Sioux Lookout Ontario, killing two crew and three passengers. A further two passengers sustained injuries. The plane crash took down some power lines and Red Lake experienced a power outage.
  • On December 2, 2013, a Metroliner property of IBC Airways, flying from Las Américas International Airport, Dominican Republic, crashed in the municipality of Arecibo, Puerto Rico. Two people were killed in the accident.[48]

Specifications (Metro III)[edit]

Interior

Data from The Encyclopedia of World Aircraft[49]

General characteristics

  • Crew: Two (pilot & first officer), 1 pilot in cargo only configuration
  • Capacity: 19 passengers or a cargo volume of 143.5 ft³ (4.06 m³)
  • Length: 59 ft 4 in (18.09 m)
  • Wingspan: 57 ft 0 in (17.37 m)
  • Height: 16 ft 8 in (5.08 m)
  • Wing area: 310 ft² (28.71 m²)
  • Empty weight: 8,737 lb (3,963 kg)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 14,500 lb or 16,000 lb, depending on model, The 14500 model may be modified to a max weight of 15000 pounds, but the landing weight for that model remains at 14000 pounds. (6,577 kg or 7,257 kg)
  • Powerplant: 2 × Garrett AiResearch TPE-331[note 6] turboprops with continuous alcohol-water injection (AWI), 1,000 shp (dry), 1,100 shp (with AWI) (745.5 kW, 820 kW) each
  • Propellers: four-bladed McCauley 4HFR34C652 or Dowty Rotol R.321/4-82-F/8 [50]

Performance

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This and subsequent Merlin and Metro models have a trimmable horizontal stabilizer (THS) usually used on jet aircraft, one of only a small number of turboprop aircraft to have this design feature (the competing Beechcraft Model 99 being another).
  2. ^ The article "Final Metro Delivery" in Airways magazine Issue 64 states that Metro deliveries totalled 18. The Metro production list shows that by the end of 1974, 22 Merlins had been built.
  3. ^ The long-fuselage SA226/SA227 series has slightly outsold the Beechcraft 1900 series but many were built as Merlin corporate aircraft. The similarly-sized de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter has outsold both types but is a different class of aircraft.
  4. ^ 123 SA226-Ts (of which 31 were Merlin IIIBs built with assigned C/Ns intermingled with those of Metro IIs), and Merlin IIICs and 300s (35 SA227-TTs, of which 25 were IIICs and 10 were 300s; again with assigned C/Ns intermingled with Metros, in this case Metro III/Merlin IVCs). In addition, three SA226-ATs were converted on the production line as SA226-TCs; four SA226-TCs were similarly converted as SA226-ATs; and one short-fuselage SA227-TT was converted as a long-fuselage SA227-AC. These eight aircraft each had two different constructor's numbers of various model names.
  5. ^ Several Metro IIs are used as training aids for instructing aircraft technicians serving in the Australian Defence Forces. They are owned by the RAAF but did not fly in ADF service
  6. ^ -11U-601G, -611G or -612G depending on propeller fitted

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "Metro production dates." fortunecity.com. Retrieved: August 21, 2011.
  2. ^ a b Fricker, John. "At the NBAA Convention, Part 2 - the turboprop types", "Metroliner."Flight International, October 16, 1969, p. 595 (online archive version). Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  3. ^ "Fairchild to Acquire Swearingen", "World News" (online archive version). Flight International, November 11, 1971, p. 751. Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  4. ^ a b c "Final Metro Delivery." Airways magazine Vol. 8, No. 4; Issue 64, June 2001, p. 32. Airways International Inc. ISSN 1074-4320.
  5. ^ a b c "Turboprop Production Lists." fortunecity.com, August 25, 2007.
  6. ^ a b c "Metro IV & V", Commuter Aircraft Directory,(online archive version). Flight International, May 7, 1988, p. 47. Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  7. ^ "SA227-CC/-DC Type Certificate." FAA. Retrieved: December 15, 2008
  8. ^ "Aeronews." Air Progress magazine, July 1969, pp. 19–20.
  9. ^ , "Aero Engines 1970" (online archive version). Flight International, January 1, 1970, p. 15. Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  10. ^ "Hanover review - General-aviation postscript", Flight International, May 7, 1970, p. 761 (online archive version). Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  11. ^ , "Swearingen production restarts, Air Transport: Light Commercial and Business (online archive version)." Flight International, March 2, 1972, p. 318. Retrieved: December 15. 2008.
  12. ^ a b "Fairchild Dornier Metro." Forecast International.com. Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  13. ^ , "NBAA Report - Fairchild launches Metro IV and V" (online archive version). Flight International, October 17, 1987, p. 20. Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  14. ^ , "Fairchild unveils new 25-seat Metro variant" (online archive version). Flight International, October 28, 1989, p. 16. Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  15. ^ "TC-343" (the Fairchild c/n of a Metro IIA formerly registered in Australia). Transport Canada Canadian civil aircraft register, online search. Retrieved: August 27, 2007.
  16. ^ "Canadian civil aircraft register." Transport Canada, August 25, 2007.
  17. ^ "List of SA227-CCs registered in New Zealand." caa.govt.nz. Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  18. ^ "Accident Report." Aviation Safety Database. Retrieved: August 26, 2007.
  19. ^ "Picture of the Fairchild C-26A Metro III (SA-227AC) aircraft." airliners.net. Retrieved: August 21, 2011.
  20. ^ "Picture of the Fairchild SA-227DC Metro 23 aircraft." airliners.net. Retrieved: August 21, 2011.
  21. ^ "Picture of the Fairchild C-26B Metro 23 (SA-227DC) aircraft." airliners.net. Retrieved: August 21, 2011.
  22. ^ "Picture of the Fairchild C-26B Metro 23 (SA-227DC) aircraft." airliners.net. Retrieved: August 21, 2011.
  23. ^ "Picture of the Fairchild C-26A Metro III (SA-227AC) aircraft." airliners.net. Retrieved: August 21, 2011.
  24. ^ "Picture of the Fairchild C-26A(RC) Metro III (SA-227AC) aircraft." airliners.net. Retrieved: August 21, 2011.
  25. ^ "Drug Wars: Barbados Swearingen C-26 Tiger Shark." Barbados Free Press, January 29, 2007. Retrieved: August 21, 2011.
  26. ^ "Search: Metros, Beech 1900s, Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante." CASA Australian civil aircraft register. Retrieved: December 15, 2008.
  27. ^ "2012 World Airliner Census", p. 51.
  28. ^ a b "2013 World Airliner Census", p. 56.
  29. ^ Hoyle Flight International, December 13–19, 2011, p. 36.
  30. ^ Hoyle Flight International, December 13–19, 2011, p. 43.
  31. ^ Hoyle Flight International, December 13–19, 2011, p. 45.
  32. ^ Hoyle Flight International, December 13–19, 2011, p. 49.
  33. ^ Hoyle Flight International, December 13–19, 2011, p. 52.
  34. ^ "Air Wisconsin Flight 965." National Transportation Safety Board. Retrieved: January 1, 2010.
  35. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident Swearingen SA226-TC Metro II N163SW Kearns, UT." Aviation Safety Net. Retrieved: December 31, 2011.
  36. ^ "Trans-Colorado Airlines, Inc., Flight 2286 Fairchild Metro III, SA227 AC, N68TC Bayfield, Colorado I, January 19, 1988." National Transportation Safety Board. Retrieved: April 11, 2008.
  37. ^ "D-CABB accident synopsis". Aviation Safety Database. Retrieved: January 1, 2010.
  38. ^ Crey, Neil C. "Crew Resource Management." Transport Canada, 2005. Retrieved: February 10, 2011.
  39. ^ Report Number A95H0008
  40. ^ BASI Investigation Report 9503057, ISBN 0-642-25638-1.
  41. ^ "C-GQAL accident synopsis." Aviation Safety Database. Retrieved: December 31, 2011.
  42. ^ Summary of Australian Transport Safety Bureau accident report into the crash of Metro 23 VH-TFU Retrieved: April 11, 2008.
  43. ^ Price, Sarah and Mark Todd. "15 killed in our worst air crash in 36 years." Sydney Morning Herald website. Retrieved: April 11, 2008.
  44. ^ "LIVE - Six dead in Cork Airport plane crash." RTe/Ireland, February 10, 2011. Retrieved: February 10, 2011.
  45. ^ Hradecky, Simon. "Accident: Crash: Aerocon SW4 at Trinidad on Sep 6th 2011, missing aircraft found destroyed, one survivor." The Aviation Herald, September 7, 2011.
  46. ^ Hradecky, Simon. "Crash: Air Class SW4 near Flores Island on Jun 6th 2012, aircraft impacted Rio de la Plata." The Aviation Herald, June 7, 2012.
  47. ^ Local Newspaper
  48. ^ El Nuevo Día
  49. ^ Donald 1997, p. 388.
  50. ^ "Metro III UK Type Certificate." CAA. Retrieved: August 25, 2007.
  51. ^ "Fairchild-Swearingen Metro / Metroliner." flugzeuginfo Retrieved: July 18, 2014.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Donald, David, general editor. Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Etobicoke, Ontario, Canada: Prospero Books, 1997. ISBN 1-85605-375-X.
  • Endes, Günter. "Fairchild (Swearingen) Metro/Merlin". The Illustrated Directory of Modern Commercial Aircraft. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1125-0.
  • "World Airliner Census". Flight International, Volume 182, Number 5355, August 28–September 3, 2012, pp. 32–54.
  • "World Airliner Census". Flight International, Volume 184, Number 5403, 13–19 August 2013, pp. 40–58.
  • Frawley, Gerard. "Fairchild Dornier Metro II, III & 23". The International Directory of Civil Aircraft. Canberra: Aerospace Publications Pty. Ltd., 1997. ISBN 1-875671-26-9.
  • Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International, Vol 180, No 5321, December 13–19, 2011, pp. 26–52. ISSN 0015-3710.
  • Palmer, Trisha, ed. "Swearingen Metro and Metro II/III". Encyclopedia of the World's Commercial and Private Aircraft. New York: Crescent Books, 2001. ISBN 0-517-36285-6.
  • Simpson, R.W. Airlife's General Aviation. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing, 1991. ISBN 1-85310-194-X.

External links[edit]