Fairview Training Center
|Fairview Training Center|
|State of Oregon|
LeBreton Cottage at Fairview, built in 1908
|Location||Salem, Oregon, United States|
|Hospital type||Psychiatric hospital|
|Lists||Hospitals in Oregon|
|Other links||Oregon State Hospital|
The Fairview Training Center was a state-run facility for people with developmental disabilities in Salem, Oregon, United States. Fairview was established in 1907 as the State Institution for the Feeble-Minded. The hospital opened on December 1, 1908 with 39 patients transferred from the Oregon State Insane Asylum. Before its closure in 2000, Fairview was administered by the Oregon Department of Human Services (DHS). DHS continued to operate the Eastern Oregon Training Center in Pendleton until October 2009.
In 1907, the Oregon State Institution for the Feeble-Minded was created by the Oregon State Legislature. It was established as a quasi-educational institution charged with educating the "feeble-minded" (today known as people with intellectual disability and various other developmental and learning disabilities) and caring for the "idiotic and epileptic." The facility was overseen by a Board of Trustees consisting of the Governor, Secretary of State and State Treasurer. Construction had progressed enough by 1908 that the first patients were transferred from the Oregon State Insane Asylum (now the Oregon State Hospital). They resided on a 670-acre (270 ha) compound consisting of an administration building (LeBreton Cottage), a dormitory, a laundry and boiler house. By 1913, two more cottages where constructed and the Board of Trustees was replaced by the Oregon State Board of Control.
In 1917, a commitment law was passed that was to standardize admissions to the institution by insuring that valuable space was used for the "feeble-minded" and not for the "insane". It also imposed an age limit on admissions to people five years of age and older. The age limit was removed in 1921.
The institution had a working farm that provided both food and training for its residents. By 1920, most of the land to be used for farming had been cleared. 400 acres (160 ha) were planted in crops and 45 acres (18 ha) in orchards. The farm also raised hogs, chickens, and dairy and beef cattle.
In 1923, the legislature established the Oregon Board of Eugenics, and Fairview's superintendent served as an ex-officio board member. The eugenics legislation provided for the "sterilization of all feeble-minded, insane, epileptics, habitual criminals, moral degenerates, and sexual perverts who are a menace to society." Sterilizations required either the person's consent or a court order. By 1929, 300 residents had been sterilized.
Two types of parole for residents were established in 1931: home parole and industrial parole. Requirements for parole included a surety bond filed by the parolee's guardian or overseer, who had to have a net worth of at least $1000 and have lived in the state for at least six months, the parolee had to be sterilized, and the home or workplace had to be inspected. Two-thirds of residents who had been sterilized were paroled, which freed up beds for new patients.
In 1933 the facility was renamed Oregon Fairview Home.
Changes in care and additions to the facility continued through the 1940s-1960s, and improvements were made to the medical care and nutrition of the residents.
In 1965, Oregon Fairview Home was renamed Fairview Hospital and Training Center.
In the late 1960s, the orchard, raising of beef, and general farm activities were eliminated. The raising of hogs was eliminated in 1975 and poultry processing ended in 1977. These activities had formerly provided all the ham, bacon, sausage, eggs, broiler chickens, and pork chops used by Fairview.
In 1969, the Board of Control was dissolved and the Mental Health Division placed under the newly created Executive Department of the state government.
In 1979, the facility changed its name from Fairview Hospital and Training Center to Fairview Training Center.
Fairview was closed on March 1, 2000.
Pierce Cottage, one of several buildings remaining on the former Fairview site, was gutted by a fire of suspicious origin in January 2010. The building had previously been slated for demolition and recycling. Two men were charged with arson in connection with the fire the next month.
The cottages on the grounds housed both staff and patients. Some of the structures were named after Oregon governors, including:
- Benson Cottage - Frank W. Benson
- Chamberlain Cottage - George Earle Chamberlain
- Lane Cottage - Joseph Lane
- Martin Cottage - Charles Martin
- Meier Cottage - Julius Meier
- Pierce Cottage - Walter M. Pierce (image) Destroyed by fire January 27, 2010
- Smith Cottage - Elmo Smith
- Snell Cottage - Earl Snell
- Withycombe Cottage - James Withycombe
Fairview in the media
- Where's Molly? is a 2007 documentary about Molly Daly who was institutionalized at the Fairview Hospital and Training Center in the 1950s.
- Population: 2 is a post-apocalyptic film that features Fairview heavily as a location and contains the last footage of the Center ever taken before its dismantling began in 2011.
- "Fairview Home". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. November 28, 1980. Retrieved 2010-01-30.
- Salem Online History
- House Bill 3599, Seventy-second Oregon Legislative Assembly (2003)
- "Supports for Adults". Oregon Department of Human Services: Developmental Disabilities Division. Retrieved January 26, 2009.
- "Chapter 427 — Persons With Mental Retardation; Persons With Developmental Disabilities". Oregon Revised Statutes. 2007. Retrieved January 26, 2009.
- "Fairview Training Center: Agency History". Oregon Blue Book. Oregon Secretary of State. 1994.
- Oregon Historic Photograph Collections
- "Planners May Hand Off Fairview". Statesman Journal (pringlecreekcommunity.com). August 20, 2005. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Fairview Plan would Pay Dividends for City". Statesman Journal (pringlecreekcommunity.com). February 16, 2004. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "Pringle Creek Community". Statesman Journal (pringlecreekcommunity.com). August 22, 2005. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- "3-alarm Old Fairview Center fire in Salem". KGW. Retrieved 2010-01-28.
- Guerrero-Huston, Thelma; Michael Rose (January 29, 2010). "Fire raises suspicions". Statesman Journal. Retrieved 2010-01-29.[dead link]
- Guerrero-Huston, Thelma; Michael Rose (January 29, 2010). "Structure that burned, one of 50 at site, was to be demolished anyway". Statesman Journal. Retrieved 26 February 2010.[dead link]
- Russell, Michael (February 18, 2010). "Keizer men arrested in fire at Fairview Training Center in Salem". The Oregonian. Retrieved 19 February 2010.
- "Review: "Where's Molly?"". OregonLive.com. March 9, 2007. Retrieved January 26, 2009.
- Historic images of Fairview from Salem Public Library.
- Images of abandoned structures at Fairview from the University of Oregon digital archives
- Where's Molly official website
- "In Our Care" a 1959 film about Fairview from The Oregonian
- "Away from the Public Gaze": A History of the Fairview Training Center and the Institutionalization of People with Developmental Disabilities in Oregon from The Teaching Research Institute at Western Oregon University
- Photo essay of closed Fairview site from Flickr