Fairy circle (Africa)
Fairy circles are circular patches of land, barren of plants, though often encircled by a ring of stimulated growth of grass. They typically appear in the arid grasslands of the western part of Southern Africa. Fairy circles are particularly common in Namibia, but also occur in parts of Angola and South Africa.
Fairy circles vary between 2 and 15 metres (7 and 49 ft) in diameter. They typically occur in essentially monospecific grassy vegetation, especially in Namibia, where conditions are particularly arid. Associated grasses commonly are species in the genus Stipagrostis.
Like the causes of heuweltjies and Mima mounds, the origin and history of fairy circles have long been a puzzle and their investigation has proved challenging. One controversially favoured suggestion is that the activity of the sand termite Psammotermes allocerus is adapted to create locally favourable ecosystems that improve the supply of moisture and food.
The circles occur in a band lying about 100 miles (160 km) inland, and extending southward from Angola for some 1,500 miles (2,400 km) down to the Northwestern Cape province of South Africa. It is largely a remote and inhospitable region, much of it over a hundred miles from the nearest village. The circles have been recognised and informally remarked on for many years, first being mentioned in technical literature in the 1920s and intermittently thereafter with the intensity of study increasing during the final quarter of the 20th century.
Studies show that these circles pass through a life cycle of some 30 to 60 years. They become noticeable at a diameter of about 2 metres, achieving a peak diameter of perhaps 12 metres, after which they mature and "die" as they undergo invasion, mainly by grasses.
Examples can be found at.
Formation and controversy
There has long been debate about the causes of the circles. The investigation and development of theories have included numerous theories both mundane and supernatural. One favoured assumption is that the sand termite, Psammotermes allocerus is responsible, but the range of the phenomena is much wider than that of the termite species, and details of the effects vary, so to ascribe all circles to any such single cause would be unrealistic.
In 2004, University of Pretoria's Botany professor Gretel van Rooyen rejected proposals of termite activity, radioactive soil, and of plant toxins. In 2008 Angelique Joubert proposed that residual plant toxins remaining in the soil after the death of Euphorbia damarana plants, might be the cause of the barren interiors of the circles.
In 2012, Eugene Moll suggested the termite species Baucaliotermes hainsei and Psammotermes allocerus as the creator of these circles. All rings have been found to contain termite casts, and radar investigations suggest that a moist layer of soil is situated beneath the fairy circles.
In 2013, this theory was supported by Norbert Juergens. Juergens found evidence that the sand termite, Psammotermes allocerus generates a local ecosystem that profits from and promotes the creation of the fairy circle. The sand termite was found in 80-100% of the circles, and in 100% of newly formed circles and was the only insect to live across the range of the phenomenon. Sand termites create the faerie circle by consuming vegetation, and burrowing in the soil to create the ring. The barren circle allows water to percolate down through sandy soil and accumulate underground, allowing the soil to remain moist even under the driest conditions. Grass growth around the circle is promoted by the accumulated soil water, and in turn the termites feed on the grasses, slowly increasing the diameter of the circle. This behavior on the part of Psammotermes allocerus amounts to creation of a local ecosystem in a manner analogous to behaviour of the common beaver.
Juergens' research aroused interest in the media, but has been criticised. Walter R. Tschinkel, a biologist at Florida State University who also researched the fairy circles, remarked that Juergens, "has made the common scientific error of confusing correlation (even very strong correlation) with causation." Previously, Tschinkel had searched for harvester termites without success. Juergens responded that sand termites differ from harvester termites and live deep beneath the circle; they do not create mounds or nests above ground, and they leave no tracks in the sand. In such respects the sand termite is unusually inconspicuous in its activities.
Unresolved questions remain about the soil from the center of the circle inhibiting plant growth and the interactions of other species in the fairy circle as they relate to the local ecosystem. Furthermore, the received wisdom from about a century ago remarked on the "heuweltjies" being anomalously rich in plant nutrients, raising the question of how many effectively different types or circumstances of circles or heuweltjies there might be.
Later in 2013, Michael Cramer and Nicole Barger suggested that the circles were the consequence of vegetation patterns that arose naturally from competition between grasses. They examined the conditions under which fairy circles arise and found that fairy circles are negatively correlated with precipitation and soil nutrition. This observation is consistent with resource competition being a cause of the crop circles. Grassy landscapes with a mixture of grasses can result in barren spots as a consequence of under-ground competition between different types of grasses. The patches are maintained because they form a reservoir of nutrients for the taller grasses at the periphery and possibly because of the activity of termites, as in the theory above. Using rainfall, biomass and temperature seasonality, they can predict with high accuracy the presence or absence of fairy circles in a region. According to Walter Schinkel, this theory accounts for all the characteristics of fairy circles, including the presence of tall grass species. The argument however is intrinsically inconclusive, and several points remain to be settled, for example by research into differences between the types of circles in various regions and soils, and the effects of excluding termites from participation in the formation of circles.
In the oral myths of the Himba people these barren patches are said to have been caused by the gods, spirits and/or natural divinities. The region's bushmen have traditionally ascribed spiritual and magical powers to them. Of specific beliefs, the Himba people note that their original ancestor, Mukuru was responsible for the creation of the fairy circles, or that they were the footprints of gods.
The Himba people use the fairy circles in their agriculture. Because fairy circles support grasses in otherwise barren land, they provide grazing. Sometimes they erect temporary wooden fences around the circles to corral young cattle for overnight protection against predators.
- BBC News - Enigma of Namibia's 'fairy circles'
- African ‘fairy circles’ back in the mystery books after termite theory turned on its head
- 'Fairy circles' of Africa baffle scientists - Telegraph
- "By building "fairy circles," termites engineer their own ecosystem". Ars Technica. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
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- Investigation on selected biotic and abiotic factors in the maintenance of "fairy circles" (barren patches) in Southern Africa
- Nuwer, Rachel (28 June 2012). "Mysterious Fairy Circles Are ‘Alive’". Wired. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- Njuguna, Wanja (27 November 2012). "Fairy rings – enigmatic features of Namibia". The Namibian.
- Juergens, Norbert (29 March 2013). "The Biological Underpinnings of Namib Desert Fairy Circles". Science.
- Wilford, John Noble (28 March 2013). "African Circle Mystery Solved? Maybe It’s Chewing". NY Times.
- Cramer, Michael; Nicole Barger (Aug 15, 2013). "Are Namibian "Fairy Circles" the Consequence of Self-Organizing Spatial Vegetation Patterning". PLoS ONE. 8 8. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070876.
- Castro, Joseph (September 4, 2013). "Mysterious "Fairy Circles" in African Desert Get New Explanation". livescience.
- Fairy circles - Namibia, South Africa
- 'Fairy circles' of Africa baffle scientists
- Scientist uses satellites to examine circles in African desert
- PLoS ONE: The Life Cycle and Life Span of Namibian Fairy Circles
- Media related to Fairy circles at Wikimedia Commons