Faisal of Saudi Arabia
|Reign||2 November 1964 – 25 March 1975|
|Spouse||Sultana bint Ahmed Al Sudairi
Al Jawhara bint Saud Al Kabir
Haya bint Turki Al Turki
|House||House of Saud|
|Mother||Tarfa bint Abduallah bin Abdulateef al Sheekh|
Riyadh, Emirate of Riyadh
|Died||25 March 1975
|Burial||26 March 1975
Al Oud cemetery, Riyadh
Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (Arabic: فيصل بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود Fayṣal ibn ‘Abd al-‘Azīz Āl Su‘ūd; April 1906 – 25 March 1975) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975. As king, he is credited with rescuing the country's finances and implementing a policy of modernization and reform, while his main foreign policy themes were pan-Islamism, anti-Communism, and pro-Palestinian nationalism. He successfully stabilized the kingdom's bureaucracy and his reign had significant popularity among Saudis. In 1975, he was assassinated by his nephew Faisal bin Musaid.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Early experience
- 3 Crown Prince and Prime Minister
- 4 Struggle with King Saud
- 5 King of Saudi Arabia
- 6 Personal life
- 7 Assassination
- 8 Memorials and legacy
- 9 References
- 10 External links
Faisal bin Abdulaziz was born in Riyadh in April 1906. He is the third son of Saudi Arabia's founder, King Abdulaziz. His mother was Tarfa bint Abdullah bin Abdullatif Al Sheikh, whom Abdulaziz had married in 1902 after capturing Riyadh. She was from the family of the Al ash-Sheikh, descendants of Muhammad bin Abdul-Wahhab. Faisal's maternal grandfather, Abdullah bin Abdullatif, was one of Abdulaziz's principal religious teachers and advisers.
Faisal's mother died in 1912 when he was quite young, and he was raised by his maternal grandfather, who taught him the Quran and the principles of Islam, an education which left an impact on him for the remainder of his life.
Faisal was raised in an atmosphere in which courage was extremely valued and reinforced, unlike that of most of his half brothers.[vague] He was motivated by his mother to develop the values of tribal leadership.
In 1919, the British government invited King Abdulaziz to visit London. However, he could not go, but sent 14-year-old Prince Faisal, making him the first ever Saudi royal to visit the country. His visit lasted for five months, and he met with the British officials. During the same period, he also visited France, again being the first Saudi royal to pay an official visit there.
As one of King Abdulaziz's eldest sons, Prince Faisal was delegated numerous responsibilities to consolidate control over Arabia. After the capture of Hail and initial control over Asir in 1922, he was sent to these provinces with nearly six thousand fighters. He achieved complete control over Asir at the end of the year.
In 1925, Prince Faisal, in command of an army of Saudi loyalists, won a decisive victory in the Hejaz. He and Prince Mohammad were given the responsibility for the Ikhwan. Then, Prince Faisal was appointed viceroy of Hejaz in 1926. He often consulted with local leaders during his tenure.
In 1930, Prince Faisal became minister of foreign affairs, a position he continued to hold even as King. Prince Faisal visited Europe several times in this period, and also Poland in 1932 and Russia in 1933.
Prince Faisal also commanded a section of the Saudi forces that took part in the brief Saudi-Yemeni War of 1934, successfully fighting off Yemeni claims over Saudi Arabia's southern provinces. In September 1943, Prince Faisal and Prince Khalid were invited to the US, and then-vice president Henry Wallace organized a dinner for them at the White House. They stayed at the official government guest house, Blair House, during their visit. They visited the West Coast by a special train that was officially provided by the US government. On 25 April 1945, Prince Faisal, as foreign minister, represented Saudi Arabia at the founding conference of the United Nations in San Francisco.
ARAMCO's development of Saudi oil after World War II nearly sextupled revenue from $10.4 million in 1946 to $56.7 million in 1950. As King Abdulaziz's health declined and his leadership became lax, Prince Faisal comprehended the necessity for better economic management. In the summer of 1951, King Abdulaziz enlarged the government bureaucracy to include many more members of the extended royal family. Prince Faisal's eldest son Prince Abdullah was appointed firstly minister of health and then, of interior at the end of the 1940s and at the beginning of the 1950s.
Crown Prince and Prime Minister
Upon the accession of Prince Faisal's elder brother, King Saud, to the throne in 1953, Prince Faisal was appointed Crown Prince. King Saud, however, embarked on a lavish and ill-considered spending program that included the construction of a massive royal residence on the outskirts of the capital, Riyadh. He also faced pressure from neighboring Egypt, where Gamal Abdel Nasser had overthrown the monarchy in 1952. Nasser was able to cultivate a group of dissident princes led by Prince Talal who defected to Egypt (see Free Princes). Fearing that King Saud's financial policies were bringing the state to the brink of collapse, and that his handling of foreign affairs was inept, senior members of the royal family and the ulema (religious leadership) pressured Saud into appointing Faisal to the position of prime minister in 1958, giving Faisal wide executive powers. In this new position, Faisal set about cutting spending dramatically in an effort to rescue the state treasury from bankruptcy. This policy of financial prudence was to become a hallmark of his era and earned him a reputation for thriftiness among the populace.
A power struggle ensued thereafter between King Saud and Crown Prince Faisal, and on 18 December 1960, Prince Faisal resigned as prime minister in protest, arguing that King Saud was frustrating his financial reforms. King Saud took back his executive powers and, having induced Prince Talal to return from Egypt, appointed him as minister of finance. In 1962, however, Prince Faisal rallied enough support within the royal family to install himself as prime minister for a second time.
It was during this period as head of the Saudi government that Prince Faisal, though still not king, established his reputation as a reforming and modernizing figure. He introduced education for women and girls despite the consternation of many conservatives in the religious establishment. To appease the objectors, however, he allowed the female educational curriculum to be written and overseen by members of the religious leadership, a policy which lasted long after his death.
In 1963, Prince Faisal established the country's first television station, though actual broadcasts would not begin for another two years. As with many of his other policies, the move aroused strong objections from the religious and conservative sections of the country. Faisal assured them, however, that Islamic principles of modesty would be strictly observed, and made sure that the broadcasts contained a large amount of religious programming.
Crown Prince Faisal helped establish the Islamic University of Madinah in 1961. In 1962, Prince Faisal helped found the Muslim World League, a worldwide charity to which the Saudi royal family has reportedly since donated more than a billion dollars.
Struggle with King Saud
The struggle with King Saud continued in the background during this time. Taking advantage of the king's absence from the country for medical reasons in early 1963, Faisal began amassing more power for himself. He removed many of Saud's loyalists from their posts and appointed like-minded princes in key military and security positions, such as his brother Prince Abdullah, to whom he gave command of the National Guard in 1962. Upon King Saud's return, Prince Faisal demanded that he be made regent and that King Saud be reduced to a purely ceremonial role. In this, he had the crucial backing of the ulema, including a fatwa (edict) issued by the grand mufti of Saudi Arabia, a relative of Prince Faisal on his mother's side, calling on King Saud to accede to his brother's demands. In other words, Prince Faisal was backed by the religious establishment, which is headed by the Al Shaykh the descendants of Muhammad bin Abd al Wahab. In addition, Prince Faisal sought authority through significant Sudairi backing which he cemented by his marriage to a Sudairi.
King Saud refused, however, and made a last-ditch attempt to retake executive powers, leading Prince Faisal to order the National Guard to surround King Saud's palace. His loyalists outnumbered and outgunned, King Saud relented, and on 4 March 1964, Prince Faisal was appointed regent. A meeting of the elders of the royal family and the ulema was convened later that year, and a second fatwa was decreed by the grand mufti, calling on King Saud to abdicate the throne in favor of his brother. The royal family supported the fatwa and immediately informed King Saud of their decision. King Saud, by now shorn of all his powers, agreed, and Prince Faisal was proclaimed king on 2 November 1964. Shortly thereafter, Saud bin Abdulaziz went into exile in Greece.
King of Saudi Arabia
In an emotional speech shortly after he came to power on 2 November 1964, Faisal said: "I beg of you, brothers, to look upon me as both brother and servant. 'Majesty' is reserved to God alone and 'the throne' is the throne of the Heavens and Earth." However, it was King Abdulaziz who used family royal titles and his son King Faisal expanded them. Indeed, regulations about royal titles instituted by the Saudi civil service during his reign required that all the direct descendants of King Abdulaziz should be referred to as "His Royal Highness". Those of his brothers and some of his uncles should be referred to as "His Highness", and members of other recognized branches of the Sauds as "His Excellency", a title they share with commoners who held senior governmental positions.
Upon his ascension, King Faisal still viewed the restoration of the country's finances as his main priority. He continued to pursue his conservative financial policies during the first few years of his reign, and his aims of balancing the country's budget eventually succeeded, helped by an increase in oil production.
Faisal embarked on a modernization project that encompassed vast parts of the kingdom and involved various public sector institutions. The pinnacle of his achievements in modernizing the Kingdom was the establishment of a judicial system, a project led and executed by an international lawyer and judge, the former Syrian Minister of Justice, Zafer Moussly. Several universities were established or expanded during his rule, and he continued to send a great number of students to foreign universities, especially in the United States. These students would later form the core of the Saudi civil service.
Many of the country's ministries, government agencies, and welfare programs were begun during Faisal's reign, and he invested heavily in infrastructure. He also introduced policies such as agricultural and industrial subsidies that were later to reach their height under his successors, Prince Khalid and Prince Fahd.
King Faisal also put down protests by Saudi workers employed by the international oil company, Aramco, in the Eastern Province, and banned the formation of labor unions in 1965. In compensation for these actions, however, Faisal introduced a far-reaching labor law with the aim of providing maximum job security for the Saudi workforce. He also introduced pension and social insurance programs for workers despite objections from some of the ulema.
Early in his rule, he issued an edict that all Saudi princes had to school their children inside the country, rather than sending them abroad; this had the effect of making it "fashionable" for upper-class families to bring their sons back to study in the Kingdom. King Faisal also introduced the country's current system of administrative regions, and laid the foundations for a modern welfare system. In 1970, he established the Ministry of Justice and inaugurated the country's first "five-year plan" for economic development.
Television broadcasts officially began in 1965. In 1966, an especially zealous nephew of Faisal attacked the newly established headquarters of Saudi television but was killed by security personnel. The attacker was the brother of Faisal's future assassin, and the incident is the most widely accepted motive for the murder. Despite the opposition from conservative Saudis to his reforms, however, King Faisal continued to pursue modernization while always making sure to couch his policies in Islamic terms.
Steps against coups d'état
The 1950s and 1960s saw numerous coups d'état in the region. Muammar al-Gaddafi's coup that overthrew the monarchy in oil-rich Libya in 1969 was especially ominous for Saudi Arabia due to the similarity between the two sparsely-populated desert countries. As a result, King Faisal undertook to build a sophisticated security apparatus and cracked down firmly on dissent. As in all affairs, King Faisal justified these policies in Islamic terms. Early in his reign, when faced by demands for a written constitution for the country, King Faisal responded that "our constitution is the Quran." In the summer of 1969, King Faisal ordered the arrest of hundreds of military officers, including some generals, alleging that a military coup was being planned. The coup was planned primarily by air force officers and aimed at overthrowing the monarchy and founding a Nasserist regime in the country. The arrests were possibly based on a tip from American intelligence, but it is unclear how serious the threat actually was.
King Faisal seemed to hold the pluralist view, favouring limited, cautious accommodation of popular demands for inclusive reform, and made repeated attempts to broaden political representation, harking back to King Faisal's temporarily successful national integration policy from 1965 to 1975. King Faisal acknowledged his country's religious and cultural diversity, which includes the predominantly Shia Ahsa in the east; the Asir in the southwest, with tribal affinities to Yemen, especially among the Ismaili tribes of Najran and Jizan; and the Kingdom of the Hejaz, with its capital Mecca. He included non-Wahhabi, cosmopolitan Sunni Hejazis from Mecca and Jeddah in the Saudi government. However, after his reign, discrimination based on sect, tribe, region and gender became the order of the day and has remained as such until today.
Interestingly, the role and authority of the ulema declined after the rise of King Faisal although they helped bring him to the throne in 1964. Despite his piety and biological relationship through his mother to the Al as Shaykh family, and his support for the pan-Islamic movement in his struggle against pan-Arabism, he decreased the ulema's power and influence. Unlike his successor, King Faisal attempted to ensure that the most radical clerics did not hold society's most powerful religious posts. He tried to block extremist clerics from gaining dominion over key religious institutions, such as the Council of Senior Ulema, the kingdom's highest religious body, and from rising to high religious positions such as Grand Mufti, a politically recognized senior expert charged with maintaining the entire system of Islamic law. Still, at least some of the king's advisers warned early on that, once religious zealots were encouraged, they would come back to haunt the kingdom. King Faisal neglected the ulema's opposition to aspects of his accelerated modernization attempts, sometimes even in matters considered by them to be major issues.
Corruption in the royal family was taken very seriously by a religious group which had its basic orientation in the Islamic theological colleges and which challenged some of the accepted theological interpretations adopted by the Saudi regime. One such influential figure was Shaykh bin Baz, then rector of the Al Medina college of theology. King Faisal would not tolerate his criticism and had him removed from his position. But his teachings had already radicalized some of his students. One of them was Juhayman al-Otaybi.
Abolition of slavery
Slavery did not vanish in Saudi Arabia until King Faisal issued a decree for its total abolition in 1962. Peter Hobday stated that about 1,682 slaves were freed at that time, at a cost to the government of $2,000 each. It is argued that the US began to raise the issue of slavery after the meeting between King Abdulaziz and US president Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1945 and that John F. Kennedy finally persuaded the House of Saud to abolish slavery in 1962.
As king, Faisal continued the close alliance with the United States begun by his father, and relied on the U.S. heavily for arming and training his armed forces. King Faisal was also anti-Communist. He refused any political ties with the Soviet Union and other Communist bloc countries, professing to see a complete incompatibility between Communism and Islam, and associating communism with zionism, which he also criticized sharply. He maintained close relationships with western democracies including the United Kingdom: on his state visit in 1967, he presented Queen Elizabeth II with a diamond necklace.
King Faisal also supported monarchist and conservative movements in the Arab world, and sought to counter the influences of socialism and Arab Nationalism in the region by promoting pan-Islamism as an alternative. To that end, he called for the establishment of the Muslim World League, visiting several Muslim countries to advocate the idea. He also engaged in a propaganda and media war with Egypt's pan-Arabist president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, and engaged in a proxy war with Egypt in Yemen that lasted until 1967 (see Yemeni Civil War). Faisal never explicitly repudiated pan-Arabism, however, and continued to call for inter-Arab solidarity in broad terms.
Between 23–25 September 1969, King Faisal convened a conference in Rabat, Morocco, to discuss the arson attack on the Al Aqsa Mosque which occurred a month earlier. The leaders of 25 Muslim states attended and the conference called for Israel to give up territory conquered in 1967. The conference also set up the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and pledges its support for the Palestinians.
Following the death of Nasser in 1970, King Faisal drew closer to Egypt's new president, Anwar Sadat, who himself was planning a break with the Soviet Union and a move towards the pro-American camp. During the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, launched by Sadat, King Faisal withdrew Saudi oil from world markets, in protest over Western support for Israel during the conflict. This action increased the price of oil and was the primary force behind the 1973 energy crisis. It was to be the defining act of King Faisal's career, and gained him lasting prestige among many Arabs worldwide. In 1974, he was named Time magazine's Man of the Year, and the financial windfall generated by the crisis fueled the economic boom that occurred in Saudi Arabia after his death. The new oil revenue also allowed Faisal to greatly increase the aid and subsidies begun following the 1967 Arab-Israeli War to Egypt, Syria, and the Palestine Liberation Organization. It is a commonly-held belief in Saudi Arabia, and the wider Arab world that King Faisal's oil boycott was the real cause of his assassination, via a Western conspiracy, his assassin having just returned from the United States (see below).
King Faisal also developed a close alliance with Pakistan, where he is regarded highly for his foreign policy and pan-Islamic ideals. He was a very close friend of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto renowned Prime Minister of Pakistan, as well as General Muhammad Zia ul-Haq.
His first wife, who was the mother of his eldest son Prince Abdullah, was Sultana bint Ahmed Al Sudairi. She was from the Sudairi family and younger sister of Hassa bint Ahmed who was the mother of the Sudairi brothers.
His second and most prominent wife was Iffat Al-Thuniyyan. She was born and raised in Turkey, and was a descendant of the Al Saud family who were taken to Istanbul or Cairo by Egyptian forces in 1818 (see First Saudi State). They first met in Istanbul around 1932 while he were officially visiting Turkey. Prince Faisal took Iffat to Jeddah where they wed in 1932. Iffat is credited with being the influence behind many of her late husband's reforms, particularly with regards to women.
His third wife was Al Jawhara bint Saud bin Abdulaziz Al Saud Al Kabir and they had a daughter, Munira. She was the daughter of his aunt, Nuora bint Abdul Rahman. They married in October 1935.
Faisal's sons received exceptional education compared to other princes born to Saudi monarchs. Prince Turki received formal education at prestigious schools in New Jersey, and later attended Georgetown University, while Prince Saud is an alumnus of Princeton University. King Faisal's sons have held and continue to hold important positions within the Saudi government. His eldest son Prince Abdullah was born in 1922 and held some governmental positions for a while. Prince Khalid was the governor of Asir Province in southwestern Saudi Arabia for more than three decades before becoming governor of Makkah Province in 2007. Prince Saud has been the Saudi foreign minister since 1975. Prince Turki served as head of Saudi intelligence, ambassador to the United Kingdom, and later ambassador to the United States.
King Faisal's daughter, Haifa bint Faisal, is married to Bandar bin Sultan. Prince Bandar had been all but disowned by his father Prince Sultan at the time due to his perceived inferior lineage. King Faisal, however, forced Prince Sultan to recognize Bandar as a legitimate prince by giving Prince Bandar his own daughter's hand in marriage. Another daughter, Lolowah bint Faisal is a prominent activist for women's education in Saudi Arabia. In 1962, his daughter Princess Sara founded one of the first charitable organizations, Al Nahda, which won the first Chaillot prize for human rights organisations in the Gulf in 2009. One of his daughters and Prince Khalid's full sister, Princess Mishail, died at the age of 72 in October 2011.
King Faisal was fluent in English and French.
On 25 March 1975, King Faisal was shot point-blank and killed by his half-brother's son, Faisal bin Musaid, who had just come back from the United States. The murder occurred at a majlis (literally ‘a place for sitting’), an event where the king or leader opens up his residence to the citizens to enter and petition the king.
In the waiting room, Prince Faisal talked to Kuwaiti representatives who were also waiting to meet King Faisal. When the Prince went to embrace him, King Faisal leaned to kiss his nephew in accordance with Saudi culture. At that instant, Prince Faisal took out a pistol and shot him. The first shot hit King Faisal's chin and the second one went through his ear. A bodyguard hit Prince Faisal with a sheathed sword. Oil minister Zaki Yamani yelled repeatedly to not kill Prince Faisal.
King Faisal was quickly taken to the hospital. He was still alive as doctors massaged his heart and gave him a blood transfusion. They were unsuccessful and King Faisal died shortly afterward. Both before and after the assassination the prince was reported to be calm. Following the killing, Riyadh had three days of mourning and all government activities were at a standstill.
One theory for the murder was avenging the death of Prince Khalid bin Musa’id, the brother of Prince Faisal. King Faisal instituted modern and secular reforms that led to the installation of television, which provoked violent protest, one which was led by Prince Khalid, who during the course of an attack on a television station was shot dead by a policeman.
Prince Faisal, who was captured directly after the attack, was officially declared insane. But following the trial, a panel of Saudi medical experts decided that Faisal was sane when he gunned the king down. The nation's high religious court convicted him of regicide and sentenced him to execution. Despite Faisal's dying request that the life of his assassin be spared, he was beheaded in the public square in Riyadh. The public execution took place on 18 June 1975 at 4:30 pm—three hours before sundown—before a throng of thousands at the Al Hukm Palace (Palace of Justice).
Memorials and legacy
After his death, Faisal's family established the King Faisal Foundation, a philanthropic organisation.
King Faisal was a Grateful Dead fan and was eulogized by lyricist Robert Hunter in the title track of the 1975 Blues for Allah album. In 2013, Alexei Vassiliev published a biography, King Faisal of Saudi Arabia: Personality, Faith and Times.
- Lyallpur, the third largest city of Pakistan, was renamed Faisalabad (lit. "City of Faisal") in 1979 in his honor.
- The Faisal Mosque in Islamabad is named after him as well. The main highway in Karachi was renamed Shahrah-e-Faisal and a suburb close to Karachi Airport was also renamed Shah Faisal Colony.
- One of the two major PAF bases in Pakistan's Sindh province's largest city, Karachi, is named "PAF Base Faisal" in honour of King Faisal.
- "King Faisal Ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud, Saudi Arabia". Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Faisal ibn Abd al Aziz ibn Saud Biography. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Retrieved 16 March 2007.
- "King Faisal: Oil, Wealth and Power", TIME Magazine, 7 April 1975.
- Hertog, Steffen. Princes, Brokers, and Bureaucrats: Oil and the State in Saudi Arabia. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2010. Print.
- "The kings of the Kingdom". Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Retrieved 28 July 2012.
- Mouline, Nabil (April–June 2012). "Power and generational transition in Saudi Arabia". Critique Internationale 46: 1–22. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
- Winberg Chai (22 September 2005). Saudi Arabia: A Modern Reader. University Press. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-88093-859-4. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- "Wahhabism – A Unifier or a Divisive Element". APS Diplomat News Service. 7 January 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.
- "The New Succession Law Preserves The Monarchy While Reducing The King's Prerogatives". Wikileaks. 22 November 2006. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- Bligh, Alexander (1985). "The Saudi religious elite (Ulama) as participant in the political system of the kingdom". International Journal of Middle East Studies 17: 37–50. doi:10.1017/S0020743800028750.
- "Riyadh. The capital of monotheism". Business and Finance Group. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- AbuKhalil, As'ad (2004). The Battle for Saudi Arabia. Royalty, fundamentalism and global power. New York City: Seven Stories Press. ISBN 1-58322-610-9.
- Helen Chapin Metz, ed. (1992). Saudi Arabia: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 2 May 2012.
- Leon Hesser (30 November 2004). Nurture the Heart, Feed the World: The Inspiring Life Journeys of Two Vagabonds. BookPros, LLC. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-9744668-8-0. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- Mark Weston (28 July 2008). Prophets and Princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the Present. John Wiley & Sons. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-470-18257-4. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- Al Kahtani, Mohammad Zaid (December 2004). "The Foreign Policy of King Abdulaziz". University of Leeds. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- Jennifer Reed (1 January 2009). The Saudi Royal Family. Infobase Publishing. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-4381-0476-8. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
- Mejcher, Helmut (May 2004). "King Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud in the Arena of World Politics: A Glimpse from Washington, 1950 to 1971". British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 31 (1): 5–23. doi:10.1080/1353019042000203412. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
- Salameh, Ghassane; Vivian Steir (October 1980). "Political Power and the Saudi State". MERIP (91): 5–22. JSTOR 3010946.
- Official website of the Saudi Ministry of Foreign Affairs, , Retrieved 27 March 2007
- McHale, T. R. (Autumn 1980). "A Prospect of Saudi Arabia". International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944–) 56 (4): 622–647. JSTOR 2618170.
- "Seminar focuses on King Faisal’s efforts to promote world peace". Arab News. 30 May 2002. Retrieved 11 August 2013.
- Rizk, Yunan Labib, "Monarchs in War", Al-Ahram Weekly Online, Issue No. 681, 11–17 March 2004, Retrieved 27 March 2007.
- Hertog, Steffen. Princes, Brokers, and Bureaucrats: Oil and the State in Saudi Arabia. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 2010. Print. 
- House of Saud. Time. 21 December 1953. p. 66. ISSN 00243019. Retrieved 10 February 2013.
- King Faisal, Encyclopedia of the Orient, http://lexicorient.com/e.o/faisal.htm, retrieved 27 March 2007.
- Vassiliev, Alexei, The History of Saudi Arabia, London, UK: Al Saqi Books, 1998, p. 358
- Official website of Saudi Arabian TV, , accessed 27 March 2007.
- Bronson, Rachel (2005). "Rethinking Religion: The Legacy of the US-Saudi Relationship". The Washington Quarterly 28 (4): 121–137. Retrieved 8 April 2012.
- Wynbrandt, James, A Brief History of Saudi Arabia, New York: Facts on File, Inc., 2004, p. 221
- Vassiliev, p. 366-7
- Official website of the Saudi National Guard
- Sherifa Zuhur (31 October 2011). Saudi Arabia. ABC-CLIO. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-59884-571-6. Retrieved 6 March 2013.
- Abir, Mordechai (1987). "The Consolidation of the Ruling Class and the New Elites in Saudi Arabia". Middle Eastern Studies 23 (2): 150–171. JSTOR 4283169.
- Nadav Safran (1985). Saudi Arabia: The Ceaseless Quest for Security. Cornell University Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-8014-9484-0. Retrieved 4 April 2013.
- Kostiner, J. "al- Suʿūdiyya, al- Mamlaka al- ʿArabiyya." Encyclopaedia of Islam. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2007. Brill Online. 28 March 2007 <http://www.brillonline.nl/subscriber/entry?entry=islam_SIM-7219>
- Vassiliev, p. 432
- Bergen, Peter, "The Osama bin Laden I Know', 2006.
- Vassiliev, p. 395
- Vassiliev, p. 371
- Official website of the Saudi Deputy Minister of Defense, , quoting from the official Saudi government journal Umm Al-Qura Issue 2193, 20 October 1967.
- Tietelbaum, Joshua, "A Family Affair: Civil-Military Relations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" at the Wayback Machine (archived June 25, 2008), p. 11.
- Alvandi, Roham (2012). "Nixon, Kissinger, and the Shah: the origins of Iranian primacy in the Persian Gulf". Diplomatic history 36 (2): 337–372. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
- Yamani, Mai (February–March 2008). "The two faces of Saudi Arabia". Survival 50 (1): 143–156.
- Abir, Mordechai (1987). "The Consolidation of the Ruling Class and the New Elites in Saudi Arabia". Middle Eastern Studies 23 (2): 150–171. JSTOR 4283169.
- Nehme, Michel G. (1994). "Saudi Arabia 1950–80: Between Nationalism and Religion". Middle Eastern Studies 30 (4). JSTOR 4283682.
- Riedel, Bruce (2011). "Brezhnev in the Hejaz". The National Interest 115. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
- King Faisal Ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud. The Saudi Network.
- "Unexpectedly modern". The Economist. 26 January 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- "The King Faisal Diamond Necklace". From Her Majesty's Jewel Vault blog.
- Vassiliev, Alexei (2012) King Faisal of Saudi Arabia. Pesonalitiy, Faith and Times. Saqi. ISBN 978-0-86356-689-9. pp. 333,334
- "Faisal and Oil", TIME Magazine, 6 January 1975.
- Muhammad Hassanein Heykal, "The Saudi Era" (in Arab Reports and Analysis), Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 6 (4).(Summer, 1977), p. 160. Retrieved via JSTOR 
- Halliday, Fred (11 August 2005). "Political killing in the cold war". Open Democracy. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- "Family Tree of Faysal bin Abdulaziz bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud". Datarabia. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- Quandt, William B. (1981). Saudi Arabia in the 1980s: Foreign Policy, Security, and Oil. Washington DC: The Brookings Institution. p. 79.
- Kechichian, Joseph A. (2001). Succession in Saudi Arabia. New York: Palgrave.
- Ghada Talhami (1 December 2012). Historical Dictionary of Women in the Middle East and North Africa. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-8108-6858-8. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "King Faisal Assassinated." Lewiston Evening Journal [Lewiston-Auburn, Maine] 25 March 1975: 1+. Print. 
- Mark Weston (28 July 2008). Prophets and Princes: Saudi Arabia from Muhammad to the Present. John Wiley & Sons. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-470-18257-4. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- "General Index". King Khalid Foundation. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- Georgetown University (2008). "Reflections on US-Saudi Relations". georgetown.edu. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
- "Embassy official: Saudi ambassador to U.S. resigns". CNN. 2006. Archived from the original on 11 January 2007. Retrieved 17 December 2006.
- Ana Echagüe; Edward Burke (June 2009). "‘Strong Foundations’? The Imperative for Reform in Saudi Arabia". FRIDE (Spanish Think-tank organization). pp. 1–23. Retrieved 15 April 2012.
- "Princess Mashael bint Faisal passes away". Life in Riyadh. 3 October 2011. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
- "Man in the news. King Faisal". The Telegraph. 5 November 1964. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- James Wynbrandt (2010). "A" Brief History of Saudi Arabia. Infobase Publishing. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-8160-7876-9. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
- "1975: Saudi's King Faisal assassinated". BBC. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- Commins, David (2006). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. p. 110. ISBN 1-84511-080-3.
- Shaheen, Abdul Nabi (23 October 2011). "Sultan will have simple burial at Al Oud cemetery". Gulf News. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- Ross, Michael (26 March 1975). "Brother of murdered King assumes throne". Times Union. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- Ludington, Nick. "Public Execution Expected." Daily News [Bowling Green, Kentucky] 24 March 1975: 5. Print.
- "The Sounds of the '60s: How Dick Dale, the Doors, and Dylan Swayed to Arab Music". Alternet. 3 December 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2012.
- Active Bases PAF Official Website. Retrieved 8 August 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Faisal of Saudi Arabia.|
Faisal of Saudi ArabiaBorn: 1906 Died: 1975
|Minister for Foreign Affairs of Saudi Arabia
Ibrahim bin Abdullah Al Suwaiyel
Saud of Saudi Arabia
|Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia
Saud of Saudi Arabia
Saud of Saudi Arabia
|Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia
Khalid of Saudi Arabia
|King of Saudi Arabia