Faith healing is purportedly healing through supernatural or spiritual means. Believers assert that the healing of a person can be brought about by religious faith through prayer and/or rituals that, according to adherents, stimulate a divine presence and power toward healing disease and disability. Belief in divine intervention in illness or healing is related to religious belief. In common usage, faith healing refers to notably overt and ritualistic practices of communal prayer and gestures (such as laying on of hands) that are claimed to solicit divine intervention in initiating spiritual and literal healing.
Claims that prayer, divine intervention, or the ministrations of an individual healer can cure illness have been popular throughout history. Miraculous recoveries have been attributed to many techniques commonly lumped together as "faith healing". It can involve prayer, a visit to a religious shrine, or simply a strong belief in a supreme being. There have been claims that faith can cure blindness, deafness, cancer, AIDS, developmental disorders, anemia, arthritis, corns, defective speech, multiple sclerosis, skin rashes, total body paralysis, and various injuries. Some people interpret the Bible, especially the New Testament, as teaching belief in, and the practice of, faith healing.
Unlike faith healing, advocates of spiritual healing make no attempt to seek divine intervention, instead believing in divine energy. The increased interest in alternative medicine at the end of the twentieth century has given rise to a parallel interest among sociologists in the relationship of religion to health.
Faith healing is classified as an example of paranormal magical thinking. The American Cancer Society states "available scientific evidence does not support claims that faith healing can actually cure physical ailments." "Death, disability, and other unwanted outcomes have occurred when faith healing was elected instead of medical care for serious injuries or illnesses." When parents use faith healing in the place of medical care, some children have died that otherwise would have been expected to live. Similar results are found in adults.
- 1 In various belief systems
- 2 Scientific investigation
- 3 Criticism
- 4 United States law
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 Bibliography
In various belief systems
Faith healing claims have been made by many religions and the sick have visited their shrines in hopes of recovery.
I have visited Lourdes in France and Fatima in Portugal, healing shrines of the Christian Virgin Mary. I have also visited Epidaurus in Greece and Pergamum in Turkey, healing shrines of the pagan god Asklepios. The miraculous healings recorded in both places were remarkably the same. There are, for example, many crutches hanging in the grotto of Lourdes, mute witness to those who arrived lame and left whole. There are, however, not prosthetic limbs among them, no witnesses to paraplegics whose lost limbs were restored.
It is the belief of some Christians that God heals people through the power of the Holy Spirit, often involving the laying on of hands. It is also called supernatural healing, divine healing, and miracle healing, among other things. Healing in the Bible is often associated with the ministry of specific individuals including Elijah, Jesus and Paul.
Christian physician Reginald B. Cherry views faith healing as a pathway of healing in which God uses both the natural and the supernatural to heal. Being healed has been described as a privilege of accepting Christ's redemption on the cross. Pentecostal writer Wilfred Graves, Jr. views the healing of the body as a physical expression of salvation. Matthew 8:17 seems to misquote Isaiah 53:5, "This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophet Isaiah, "He took up our infirmities and carried our diseases."
Some Christian writers believe it extremely rare that God provides a supernatural intervention that actually reverses the natural laws governing the human body. Larry Keefauver cautions against allowing enthusiasm for faith healing to stir up false hopes "so that a sufferer stakes all his or her faith on belief in miraculous healing at this level. We cannot build a water-tight theology promising physical healing, surely, for the most 'miracle-ridden' Christian will die in the end, yielding to the natural processes of senescence." Those who actively lay hands on others and pray with them to be healed are usually aware that healing may not always follow immediately. Proponents of faith healing say it may come later, and it may not come at all.
||This article improperly uses one or more religious texts as primary sources without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them. (January 2014)|
||This section possibly contains original research. (January 2014)|
Parts of the four gospels in the New Testament say that Jesus cured physical ailments well outside the capacity of first-century medicine. Most dramatic perhaps is the case of "a woman who had had a discharge of blood for twelve years, and who had suffered much under many physicians, and had spent all that she had, and was not better but rather grew worse."[Mark 5:26–27] After healing her, Jesus tells her, "Daughter, your faith has made you well. Go in peace! Be cured from your illness."[Mark 5:34] At least two other times Jesus credited the sufferer's faith as the means of being healed: Mark 10:52 and Luke 19:10.
Jesus endorsed the use of the medical assistance of the time (medicines of oil and wine) when he praised the Good Samaritan for acting as a physician, telling his disciples to go and do the same thing that the Samaritan did in the story.
The healing in the gospels is referred to as a "sign"[John 6:2] to prove Jesus' divinity and to foster belief in him as the Christ.[John 4:48] However, when asked for other types of miracles, Jesus refused some[Matthew 12:38-42] but granted others[Luke 9:38–43] in consideration of the motive of the request. Some theologians' understanding is that Jesus healed all who were present every single time. Sometimes he determines whether they had faith that he would heal them.
Jesus told his followers to heal the sick and stated that signs such as healing are evidence of faith. Jesus also told his followers to "cure sick people, raise up dead persons, make lepers clean, expel demons. You received free, give free".[Matthew 10:8][Mark 16:17–18]
Jesus sternly ordered many who received healing from him: "Do not tell anyone!" Jesus did not approve of anyone asking for a sign just for the spectacle of it, describing such as coming from a "wicked and adulterous generation."[Matthew 12:38–39]
The apostle Paul believed healing is one of the special gifts of the Holy Spirit,[1 Corinthians 12:9] and that the possibility exists that certain persons may possess this gift to an extraordinarily high degree.
In the New Testament Epistle of James,[5:14] the faithful are told that to be healed, those who are sick should call upon the elders of the church to pray over [them] and anoint [them] with oil in the name of the Lord.
The New Testament says that during Jesus' ministry and after his Resurrection, the apostles healed the sick and cast out demons, made lame men walk, raised the dead and did many other miraculous things.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the new Pentecostal movement drew participants from the Holiness movement and other movements in America that already believed in divine healing. By the 1930s, several faith healers drew large crowds and established worldwide followings.
The first Pentecostals in the modern sense appeared in Topeka, Kansas, in a Bible school conducted by Charles Fox Parham, a holiness teacher and former Methodist pastor. Pentecostalism achieved worldwide attention in 1906 through the Azusa Street Revival in Los Angeles led by William Joseph Seymour.
During the Azusa Street meetings, according to witnesses who wrote about them, blind, crippled or other sick people would be healed. Some of the participants would eventually minister extensively in this area. For example, John G. Lake was present during the years of the Azusa Street revival. Lake had earned huge sums of money in the insurance business at the turn of the century but gave away his possessions with the exception of food for his children while he and his wife fasted on a trip to Africa to do missionary work. Certain people he had never met before gave him money and keys to a place to stay which were required to enter South Africa at the dock. His writings tell of numerous healing miracles he and others performed as over 500 churches were planted in South Africa. Lake returned to the U.S. and set up healing rooms in Spokane, Washington.
Smith Wigglesworth was also a well-known figure in the early part of the 20th century. A former English plumber turned evangelist who lived simply and read nothing but the Bible from the time his wife taught him to read, Wigglesworth traveled around the world preaching about Jesus and performing faith healings. Wigglesworth claimed to raise several people from the dead in Jesus' name in his meetings.
During the 1920s and 1930s, Aimee Semple McPherson was a controversial faith healer of growing popularity during the Great Depression. Subsequently, William Branham has been credited as being the founder of the post-World War II healing revivals. By the late 1940s, Oral Roberts was well known, and he continued with faith healing until the 1980s. Roberts discounted faith healing in the late 1950s, stating, "I never was a faith healer and I was never raised that way. My parents believed very strongly in medical science and we have a doctor who takes care of our children when they get sick. I cannot heal anyone – God does that." A friend of Roberts was Kathryn Kuhlman, another popular faith healer, who gained fame in the 1950s and had a television program on CBS. Also in this era, Jack Coe and A. A. Allen were faith healers who traveled with large tents for large open-air crusades.
Oral Roberts's successful use of television as a medium to gain a wider audience led others to follow suit. His former pilot, Kenneth Copeland, started a healing ministry. Pat Robertson, Benny Hinn, and Peter Popoff became well-known televangelists who claimed to heal the sick. Richard Rossi is known for advertising his healing clinics through secular television and radio. Kuhlman influenced Benny Hinn, who adopted some of her techniques and wrote a book about her.
Faith healing is reported by Catholics as the result of intercessory prayer to a saint or to a person with the gift of healing. According to U.S. Catholic magazine, "Even in this skeptical, postmodern, scientific age—miracles really are possible." Three-fourths of American Catholics say they pray for miracles.
According to Notre Dame theology professor John Cavadini, when healing is granted, "The miracle is not primarily for the person healed, but for all people, as a sign of God's work in the ultimate healing called 'salvation,' or a sign of the kingdom that is coming." Some might view their own healing as a sign they are particularly worthy or holy, while others do not deserve it.
The Catholic Church has a special Congregation dedicated to the careful investigation of the validity of alleged miracles attributed to prospective saints. Since Catholic Christians believe the lives of canonized saints in the Church will reflect Christ's, they have come to expect healing miracles. While the popular conception of a miracle can be wide-ranging, the Catholic Church has a specific definition for the kind of miracle formally recognized in a canonization process.
Among the best-known accounts by Catholics of faith healings are those attributed to the miraculous intercession of the apparition of the Blessed Virgin Mary known as Our Lady of Lourdes at the grotto of Lourdes in France and the remissions of life-threatening disease claimed by those who have applied for aid to Saint Jude, who is known as the "patron saint of lost causes".
The Catholic Church has said there have been 67 miracles and 7,000 otherwise inexplicable medical cures since the Virgin Mary was first said to have appeared in Lourdes in February 1858. In a 106 year-old book, it says these cures were subjected to intense medical scrutiny and were only recognized as authentic spiritual cures after a commission of doctors and scientists, called the Lourdes Medical Bureau, had ruled out any physical mechanism for the patient's recovery.
However, the Catholic Church does not believe that attempted faith healing should be used to the exclusion of conventional medical treatment for conditions amenable to such care.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (January 2014)|
Christian Science claims that healing is possible through an understanding of the underlying, spiritual perfection of God's creation. The world as humanly perceived is believed to be a distortion of spiritual reality. Christian Scientists believe that healing through prayer is possible insofar as it succeeds in correcting the distortion. Christian Scientists believe that prayer does not change the spiritual creation but gives a clearer view of it, and the result appears in the human scene as healing: the human picture adjusts to coincide more nearly with the divine reality. Prayer works through love: the recognition of God's creation as spiritual, intact, and inherently lovable.[n 1]
Christian Scientists believe that in the New Testament, Jesus is implying the existence of an underlying spiritual harmony that can be demonstrated through faith in its existence. They look to Luke 8:22–25 where Jesus calmed a storm through prayer and implied that his disciples could have done so also if they had sufficient faith; and to Luke 8:49–50 where Jesus stated that a young girl who had apparently died could be well again if faith was shown.
Christian Scientists believe that prayer works through love – in a sense of unselfed, unlimited and unconditional awareness of the inherent worth of another – and that this is the way Jesus Christ healed. Their aim is "to reinstate primitive Christianity and its lost element of healing"  which, they believe, was lost after the early centuries of Christianity. They cite such Bible texts as Mark 16:17–18; Matthew 10:8 in support of their contention that Christian faith demands demonstration in healing. This is a faith in the omnipotence of God, which according to the Christian Science interpretation of the Bible such as Luke 17:5–6, logically rules out any other power. The Christian Science view, citing Matthew 21:22; Matthew 7:7–11, is that Jesus taught that we should claim good as being present, here and now, and that this will result in healing. Christian Scientists point to Jesus' teaching in John 14:12 that his followers would do "greater works" than he did, and that a person who lived in conformity with his teachings would not be subject even to death (John 8:51).
An important point in Christian Science is that effectual prayer and the moral regeneration of one's life go hand-in-hand: that "signs and wonders are wrought in the metaphysical healing of physical disease; but these signs are only to demonstrate its divine origin, to attest the reality of the higher mission of the Christ-power to take away the sins of the world." Christian Science teaches that disease is mental, a mortal fear, a mistaken belief or conviction of the necessity and power of ill-health – an ignorance of God's power and goodness. The chapter on "Prayer" in Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, gives a full account of healing through prayer, while the testimonies at the end of the book are written by people who believe they have been healed through spiritual understanding gained from reading the book. Christian Scientists claim no monopoly on the application of God's healing power through prayer, and welcome it wherever it occurs.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
With claims of being the true and restored Church of Jesus Christ, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS) has had a long history of faith healings. Many members of the LDS Church have told their stories of healing within the LDS publication, the Ensign. The church believes healings come most often as a result of priesthood blessings given by the laying on of hands; however, prayer often accompanied with fasting is also thought to cause healings. Healing is always attributed to be God's power. Latter-day Saints believe that the Priesthood of God, held by prophets (such as Moses) and worthy disciples of the Savior, was restored via heavenly messengers to the first prophet of this dispensation, Joseph Smith.
According to LDS doctrine, even though members may have the restored priesthood authority to heal in the name of Jesus Christ, all efforts should be made to seek the appropriate medical help. Brigham Young stated this effectively, while also noting that the ultimate outcome is still dependent on the will of God.
If we are sick, and ask the Lord to heal us, and to do all for us that is necessary to be done, according to my understanding of the Gospel of salvation, I might as well ask the Lord to cause my wheat and corn to grow, without my plowing the ground and casting in the seed. It appears consistent to me to apply every remedy that comes within the range of my knowledge, and to ask my Father in Heaven, in the name of Jesus Christ, to sanctify that application to the healing of my body.
But suppose we were traveling in the mountains, ... and one or two were taken sick, without anything in the world in the shape of healing medicine within our reach, what should we do? According to my faith, ask the Lord Almighty to … heal the sick. This is our privilege, when so situated that we cannot get anything to help ourselves. Then the Lord and his servants can do all. But it is my duty to do, when I have it in my power.
We lay hands on the sick and wish them to be healed, and pray the Lord to heal them, but we cannot always say that he will.
Many LDS members believe that healing is one of the signs of the true church of Christ, as Christ told his disciples to heal the sick as one of their duties;[Matthew 10:8] however, they also believe that healing is not just restricted to the true church. It is believed that faith in Jesus Christ is the most important thing in a faith healing; however, it is also believed that even the devil has some ability to heal and work other miracles.[Matthew 7:21–23] [Revelation 16:14]
- Reciting the Quran over water or olive oil and drinking, bathing or anointing oneself with it.
- Placing the right hand on a place that is in pain, or placing the right hand on the forehead and reciting Sura Al-Fatiha. Theses methods are referred to as ruqyah.
Spiritualism as a system of belief holds as a tenet the possibility of contact between the living and the spirits of the dead. For this reason, death, as an outcome of disease, may not seem as frightening to Spiritualists as it does to those who practice other religions. According to the 20th-century Spiritualist author Lloyd Kenyon Jones, "This does not mean that sickness is unreal. It is real enough from the mortal viewpoint. The spirit feels the pain, senses the discomfiture of the flesh-body, even though the spirit is not ill." Spiritualism does not promote "mental" cures of the type advocated by New Thought; however, help from the "spirit world" (including advice given by the spirits of deceased physicians) is sought and may be seen as central to the healing process. As with practitioners of New Thought, Spiritualists may combine faith healing with conventional medical therapies. As Jones explained:
"We are not taught to put the burden on our minds. We do not 'will away' illness. But – we do not fear illness. [...] When we ask the spirit-world to relieve us of a bodily ill, we have gone as far as our own understanding and diligence permit. [...] We have faith, and confidence, and belief. [...] If medicine at times will assist, we take it – not as a habit, but as a little push over the hill. If we need medical attention, we secure it."
A study of beliefs about miraculous healing among the more religiously committed has indicated that there are significant differences in belief about miraculous healing even among people within the same denomination (Anglican). Researchers found that positive belief in faith healing was mainly a characteristic of conservative Christians, most especially those with charismatic experience. Belief about miraculous healing was seen as a subset of belief about health and well-being in general. Older people had less belief in miraculous healing or the sovereignty of God over illness, while those with experience of higher education had more inclusive beliefs about miraculous healing and saw human input as less important in the healing process. The study further showed that people with degrees or post-graduate qualifications can and do believe in the possibility of miraculous healing. No significant gender differences were noted.
A study in the British Medical Journal investigated spiritual healing, therapeutic touch and faith healing. In a hundred cases that were investigated, no single case revealed that the healer's intervention alone resulted in any improvement or cure of a measurable organic disability.
A Cochrane review of intercessory prayer found "although some of the results of individual studies suggest a positive effect of intercessory prayer, the majority do not". The authors concluded,
We are not convinced that further trials of this intervention should be undertaken and would prefer to see any resources available for such a trial used to investigate other questions in health care.
A 2006 study found that intercessory prayer had no effect on complication-free recovery from heart surgery, but curiously the group certain of receiving intercessory prayer experienced higher rates of complications.
A group at Johns Hopkins published a study in 2011 reporting no significant effects on pain, mood, health perceptions, illness intrusiveness, or self-efficacy, but a small improvement in reported energy in a double-blind study to test the efficacy of spiritual exercise in chronically ill adults.
Following a Kathryn Kuhlman 1967 fellowship in Philadelphia, Dr. William A. Nolen conducted a case study of 23 people who claimed to have been cured during her services. Nolen's long-term follow-ups concluded there were no cures in those cases. Furthermore, "one woman who was said to have been cured of spinal cancer threw away her brace and ran across the stage at Kuhlman's command; her spine collapsed the next day, according to Nolen, and she died four months later." In 1976, Kuhlman died in Tulsa, Oklahoma, following open-heart surgery.
In addition, at least one study has suggested that adult Christian Scientists, who generally use prayer rather than medical care, have a higher death rate than other people of the same age.
According to the American Cancer Society:
... available scientific evidence does not support claims that faith healing can actually cure physical ailments... One review published in 1998 looked at 172 cases of deaths among children treated by faith healing instead of conventional methods. These researchers estimated that if conventional treatment had been given, the survival rate for most of these children would have been more than 90 percent, with the remainder of the children also having a good chance of survival. A more recent study found that more than 200 children had died of treatable illnesses in the United States over the past thirty years because their parents relied on spiritual healing rather than conventional medical treatment.
Skeptics of faith healing offer primarily two explanations for anecdotes of cures or improvements, relieving any need to appeal to the supernatural.[n 3] The first is post hoc ergo propter hoc, meaning that a genuine improvement or spontaneous remission may have been experienced coincidental with but independent from anything the faith healer or patient did or said. These patients would have improved just as well even had they done nothing. The second is the placebo effect, through which a person may experience genuine pain relief and other symptomatic alleviation. In this case, the patient genuinely has been helped by the faith healer or faith-based remedy, not through any mysterious or numinous function, but by the power of their own belief that they would be healed.[n 4] In both cases the patient may experience a real reduction in symptoms, though in neither case has anything miraculous or inexplicable occurred. Both cases, however, are strictly limited to the body's natural abilities.
There are also some cases of fraud (faking the condition) or ineffective healing (believing the condition has been healed immediately after the "healing" and later finding out it has not). These are discussed in following sections.
Negative impact on public health
Reliance on faith healing to the exclusion of other forms of treatment can have a public health impact when it reduces or eliminates access to modern medical techniques.[n 5][n 6][n 7] This is evident in both higher mortality rates for children and in reduced life expectancy for adults. Critics have also made note of serious injury that has resulted from falsely labelled "healings", where patients erroneously consider themselves cured and cease or withdraw from treatment.[n 8] For example, at least six people have died after faith healing by their church and being told they had been healed of HIV and could stop taking their medications. It is the stated position of the AMA that "prayer as therapy should not delay access to traditional medical care".
Christian theological criticism of faith healing
Christian theological criticism of faith healing broadly falls into two distinct levels of disagreement.
The first is widely termed the "open-but-cautious" view of the miraculous in the church today. This term is deliberately used by Robert L. Saucy in the book Are Miraculous Gifts for Today?. Don Carson is another example of a Christian teacher who has put forward what has been described as an "open-but-cautious" view. In dealing with the claims of Warfield, particularly "Warfield's insistence that miracles ceased," Carson asserts, "But this argument stands up only if such miraculous gifts are theologically tied exclusively to a role of attestation; and that is demonstrably not so." However, while affirming that he does not expect healing to happen today, Carson is critical of aspects of the faith healing movement, "Another issue is that of immense abuses in healing practises.... The most common form of abuse is the view that since all illness is directly or indirectly attributable to the devil and his works, and since Christ by his cross has defeated the devil, and by his Spirit has given us the power to overcome him, healing is the inheritance right of all true Christians who call upon the Lord with genuine faith."
The second level of theological disagreement with Christian faith healing goes further. Commonly referred to as cessationism, its adherents either claim that faith healing will not happen today at all, or may happen today, but it would be unusual. Richard Gaffin argues for a form of cessationism in an essay alongside Saucy's in the book Are Miraculous Gifts for Today? In his book Perspectives on Pentecost Gaffin states of healing and related gifts that "the conclusion to be drawn is that as listed in 1 Corinthians 12(vv. 9f., 29f.) and encountered throughout the narrative in Acts, these gifts, particularly when exercised regularly by a given individual, are part of the foundational structure of the church... and so have passed out of the life of the church." Gaffin qualifies this, however, by saying "At the same time, however, the sovereign will and power of God today to heal the sick, particularly in response to prayer (see e.g. James 5:14,15), ought to be acknowledged and insisted on."
Skeptics of faith healers point to fraudulent practices either in the healings themselves (such as plants in the audience with fake illnesses), or concurrent with the healing work supposedly taking place and claim that faith healing is a quack practice in which the "healers" use well known non-supernatural illusions to exploit credulous people in order to obtain their gratitude, confidence and money. James Randi's The Faith Healers investigates Christian evangelists such as Peter Popoff, who claimed to heal sick people and to give personal details about their lives, but was receiving radio transmissions from his wife, Elizabeth, who was off-stage reading information that she and her aides had gathered from earlier conversations with members of the audience. The book also questioned how faith healers use funds that were sent to them for specific purposes.[n 9] Physicist Robert L. Park and doctor and consumer advocate Stephen Barrett have called into question the ethicality of some exorbitant fees.
There have also been legal controversies. For example, in 1955 at a Jack Coe revival service in Miami, Florida, Coe told the parents of a three-year-old boy that he healed their son who had polio. Coe then told the parents to remove the boy's leg braces. However, their son was not cured of polio and removing the braces left the boy in constant pain. As a result, through the efforts of Joseph L. Lewis, Coe was arrested and charged on February 6, 1956 with practicing medicine without a license, a felony in the state of Florida. A Florida Justice of the Peace dismissed the case on grounds that Florida exempts divine healing from the law. Later that year Coe was diagnosed with bulbar polio, and died a few weeks later at Dallas' Parkland Hospital on December 17, 1956.
United States law
The 1974 Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) required states to grant religious exemptions to child neglect and child abuse laws in order to receive federal money. The CAPTA amendments of 1996 42 U.S.C. § 5106i state:
(a) In General. – Nothing in this Act shall be construed –
"(1) as establishing a Federal requirement that a parent or legal guardian provide a child any medical service or treatment against the religious beliefs of the parent or legal guardian; and "(2) to require that a State find, or to prohibit a State from finding, abuse or neglect in cases in which a parent or legal guardian relies solely or partially upon spiritual means rather than medical treatment, in accordance with the religious beliefs of the parent or legal guardian.
"(b) State Requirement. – Notwithstanding subsection (a), a State shall, at a minimum, have in place authority under State law to permit the child protective services system of the State to pursue any legal remedies, including the authority to initiate legal proceedings in a court of competent jurisdiction, to provide medical care or treatment for a child when such care or treatment is necessary to prevent or remedy serious harm to the child, or to prevent the withholding of medically indicated treatment from children with life threatening conditions. Except with respect to the withholding of medically indicated treatments from disabled infants with life threatening conditions, case by case determinations concerning the exercise of the authority of this subsection shall be within the sole discretion of the State.
Thirty-one states have child-abuse religious exemptions. These are Alabama, Alaska, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia, and Wyoming. In six of these states, Arkansas, Idaho, Iowa, Louisiana, Ohio and West Virginia, the exemptions extend to murder and manslaughter. Of these, Idaho is the only state accused of having a large number of deaths due to the legislation in recent times. In February 2015, controversy was sparked in Idaho over a bill believed to further reinforce parental rights to deny their children medical care.
Reckless homicide convictions
|This section requires expansion. (January 2014)|
Parents have been convicted of child abuse and felony reckless negligent homicide and found responsible for killing their children when they withheld lifesaving medical care and chose only prayers.
- This is not "intercessory" prayer, but recognition of the good believed to be already present behind the illusory appearance, and gratitude for that good. While Christian Scientists are under no compulsion to choose prayer in preference to material medicine, they normally choose not to combine the two, in the belief that they tend to work against each other if used simultaneously.
- "The "faith" in faith healing refers to an irrational belief, unsupported by evidence, that mysterious supernatural powers can eradicate disease. Science deals with evidence, not faith." Bruce Flamm.
- "Benefits may result because of the natural progression of the illness, rarely but regularly occurring spontaneous remission or through the placebo effect." UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center
- "Patients who seek the assistance of a faith healer must believe strongly in the healer’s divine gifts and ability to focus them on the ill." UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center
- "Faith healing can cause patients to shun effective medical care." Bruce Flamm
- "It is often claimed that faith healing may not work but at least does no harm. In fact, reliance on faith healing can cause serious harm and even death." Bruce Flamm
- "Faith-healers take from their subjects any hope of managing on their own. And they may very well take them away from legitimate treatments that could really help them." James Randi
- "These [discarded medications] are substances without which those people might well die."James Randi
- "[Some] faith-healers have been less than careful in their use of funds sent to them for specific purposes."James Randi
- Village, Andrew (2005). "Dimensions of belief about miraculous healing". Mental Health, Religion & Culture 8 (2): 97–107. doi:10.1080/1367467042000240374.
- Barrett, Stephen (December 27, 2009). "Some Thoughts about Faith Healing". Quackwatch. Retrieved 2014-01-23.
- "Faith Healing". American Cancer Society. January 17, 2013.
- Martin, M (1994). "Pseudoscience, the paranormal, and science education". Science and Education 3 (4): 357–71. doi:10.1007/BF00488452.
Cures allegedly brought about by religious faith are, in turn, considered to be paranormal phenomena but the related religious practices and beliefs are not pseudoscientific since they usually have no scientific pretensions.
- Lesser, R; Paisner, M (March–April 1985). "Magical thinking in Formal Operational adults". Human Development 28 (2): 57–70. doi:10.1159/000272942.
- Asser, Seth M.; Swan, Rita (1998). "Child fatalities from religion-motivated medical neglect". Pediatrics 101 (4): 625–9. doi:10.1542/peds.101.4.625. PMID 9521945.
- Simpson, William F. (1989). "Comparative longevity in a college cohort of Christian Scientists". JAMA 262 (12): 1657–8. doi:10.1001/jama.1989.03430120111031. PMID 2769921.
- Crossan, John Dominic; Watts, Richard G., eds. (1999) [c. 1996]. Who is Jesus?: Answers to Your Questions About the Historical Jesus (reprint ed.). Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox. p. 64. ISBN 9780664258429.
- Cherry, Reginald B. (1999) . The Bible Cure (reprint ed.). HarperOne. ISBN 0062516159.[page needed] Citing: John 9:1–7 and Mark 10:46–52.
- Bosworth 2001, p. 32.
- Graves, Wilfred, Jr.. In Pursuit of Wholeness: Experiencing God's Salvation for the Total Person. Shippensburg, PA: Destiny Image. p. 52. ISBN 9780768437942.
- Keefauver, Larry (June 17, 2009). "The myths of faith healing". Charisma. Archived from the original on 2009-05-11.
- Booth, Craig W. (December 16, 2003). "Faith Healing – God's Compassion, God's Power, and God's Sovereignty: Is a Christian permitted to seek medical assistance and to use medicine?". thefaithfulword.org. Retrieved 2007-05-01.
- Bosworth 2001, p. 61.
- Bosworth 2001,[page needed].
- Matthew 8:4; ; Mark 5:43, , , , ; Luke 5:14
- Price, Charles P. (2009). "Faith Healing". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2009-11-01.
- Synan, Vinson (14 June 2009). "The Origins of the Pentecostal Movement". Holy Spirit Research Center, Oral Roberts University.
- Posner, Sarah; Conason, Joe (2008). God's Profits: Faith, Fraud, and the Republican Crusade for Values Voters. Polipoint Press. p. 67. ISBN 0979482216.
- Reid, Daniel G.; Linder, Robert D.; Shelley, Bruce L. et al., eds. (1990). Dictionary of Christianity In America. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press. p. 182. ISBN 9780830817764.
- Burgess, Stanley M.; McGee, Gary B.; Alexander, Patrick H., eds. (1988). Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. p. 372. ISBN 9780310441007.
- Anderson, Allan (2004). An Introduction to Pentecostalism: Global Charismatic Christianity. Cambridge University Press. p. 58. ISBN 9780521532808.
- Harrell, David E. (1975). All Things Are Possible: The Healing and Charismatic Revivals in Modern America. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. p. 25. ISBN 9780253100900.
- Hollenweger, Walter J. (1997). Pentecostalism: Origins and Developments Worldwide. Hendrickson Publications. p. 229. ISBN 9780943575360.
- Weaver, C. Douglas (2000). The Healer-Prophet: William Marrion Branham: A Study of the Prophetic in American Pentecostalism. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press. p. 139. ISBN 9780865547100.
- Jones, Charles (January 21, 1958). "'I've no secrets to hide,' says evangelist Roberts". The Miami News. p. 5A. Retrieved 2014-01-23.
- "7,000 in evangelistic tent sing when lights go out". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. August 24, 1953. p. 7. Retrieved 2014-01-23.
- "'Faith healer' cleared of illegal practice". The Washington Post. Associated Press. February 21, 1956. p. 3. Retrieved 2007-11-12 – via ProQuest. (subscription required (. ))
- "Evangelist death laid to alcohol". Chronicle-Telegram (Elyria, OH). June 25, 1970. Retrieved 2007-05-17.[dead link]
- Randi 1989, p. 10.
- Nickell, Joe (May–June 2002). "Benny Hinn: Healer or hypnotist?". Skeptical Inquirer 26.3 (Committee for Skeptical Inquiry). Archived from the original on 2013-10-30.
- Scanlon, Leslie (June 2009). "It's a miracle!". U.S. Catholic 74 (6). p. 12.
- Pinches, Charles (2007). "Miracles: A Christian theological overview". Southern Medical Journal 100 (12): 1236–42. doi:10.1097/SMJ.0b013e31815843cd. PMID 18090969.
- Walsh, James J. (1911). "Psychotherapy". The Catholic Encyclopedia: An International Work of Reference on the Constitution, Doctrine, Discipline, and History of the Catholic Church (The Catholic Encyclopedia) 12. Transcribed for New Advent by Potter, Douglas J. (Newadvent.org online ed.). New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
- Bertrin, Georges (1910). "Notre-Dame de Lourdes". The Catholic Encyclopedia 9. Transcribed for New Advent by Scarlett, Victoria T. (newadvent.org online ed.). New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
- "How Lourdes cures are recognized as miraculous". ZENIT Daily Dispatch. Zenit News Agency. February 11, 2004. Retrieved 2007-12-14.
- Bertrin, Georges (2004) . Lourdes: A History of its Apparitions and Cures. Translated by Gibbs, Philip, Mrs. (reprint ed.). Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1417981237.
- Committee on Doctrine, United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (March 25, 2010). "Guidelines for evaluating Reiki as an alternative therapy". Retrieved 2013-11-23.
- Carroll, Robert Todd (January 29, 2014). "Faith Healing". The Skeptic's Dictionary (online ed.). Retrieved 2014-06-25.
- Bergman, Gerald (October 2001). "The Christian Science holocaust". The New England Journal of Skepticism 4 (4) (New England Skeptical Society).
- Eddy, Mary Baker 1875, "Prayer" pp. 1-17.
- MBE [Mary Baker Eddy] (June 29, 2012). "Is there no intercessory prayer?". christianscience.org. Study Tools. Healing Unlimited.
- Eddy, Mary Baker (1910) . "Historical Sketch". Manual of The Mother Church (Mary Baker Eddy Science Institute (mbeinstitute.org) online version of the 88th authorized ed.). Boston: Allison V. Stewart. p. 17.
- Eddy, Mary Baker 1875, "Medicine" p. 150.
- Miller, Brandon J. (September 2001). "I needed a blessing". Latter-day Saint Voices. The Ensign of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Ensign). pp. 64–8.
- Ribeiro, Sérgio (January 2004). "He restoreth my soul". Latter-day Saint Voices. Ensign. pp. 70–3.
- Heal, Simon (April 2010). "Call an ambulance!". Latter-day Saint Voices. Ensign. pp. 60–3.
- Peñate de Guerra, Magdalena (September 2005). "We rejoiced in her healing". Latter-day Saint Voices. Ensign. pp. 66–9.
- "Joseph Smith/Healings and miracles". fairmormon.org. FairMormon. May 23, 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-02-01. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
- "Joseph Smith: Prophet of God". Josephsmith.net. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS).[full citation needed]
- Young, Brigham 1997, Chapter 34: "Strengthening the Saints Through the Gifts of the Spirit." pp. 251–9
- Young, Brigham 1997, Ch, 34. pp. 251–9 Citing: Young, Brigham 1941, p. 163
- Young, Brigham 1997, Ch, 34. pp. 251–9 Citing: Young, Brigham 1941, p. 162
- Haokip, Konkhogin (Hagin) (2007). Increasing Knowledge about Divine Healing Within the Leadership of an Immigrant Asian Baptist Church. ProQuest. pp. 53–4. ISBN 9781109065787.
- William T. Stead Memorial Center; Jones, Lloyd Kenyon; Cook, Cecil M., Mrs. (1919). Healing Forces. Chicago: William T. Stead Memorial Center. OCLC 1045325. Reprinted Chicago: Lormar Press, 1948.[page needed]
- Gould, Stephen Jay (March 1997). "Non-overlapping magisteria". Natural History 106. pp. 16–22. Re-published in Gould, Stephen Jay (1998). "Non-overlapping magisteria". Leonardo's Mountain of Clams and the Diet of Worms. New York: New Harmony. pp. 269–83.
- Flamm, Bruce (September–October 2004). "The Columbia University 'miracle' study: Flawed and fraud". Skeptical Inquirer (Committee for Skeptical Inquiry). Archived from the original on 2009-11-06.
- Rose, Louis (1954). "Some aspects of paranormal healing". The British Medical Journal 2 (4900): 1329–32. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4900.1329. PMC 2080217. PMID 13209112.
- Roberts, L; Ahmed, I; Hall, S (24 January 2007). "Intercessory prayer for the alleviation of ill health.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (1): CD000368. PMID 17253449.
- Benson, Herbert; Dusek, Jeffery A.; Sherwood, Jane B.; Lam, Peter et al. (2006). "Study of the Therapeutic Effects of Intercessory Prayer (STEP) in cardiac bypass patients: A multicenter randomized trial of uncertainty and certainty of receiving intercessory prayer". American Heart Journal 151 (4): 934–42. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2005.05.028. PMID 16569567.
- McCauley, Jeanne; Haaz, Steffany; Tarpley, Margaret J.; Koenig, Harold G. et al. (2011). "A randomized controlled trial to assess effectiveness of a spiritually-based intervention to help chronically ill adults". The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 41 (1): 91–105. doi:10.2190/PM.41.1.h. PMID 21495524.
- Nolen 1975,[full citation needed].
- "Psychic healing? Investigator declares no". The Greenville News. August 16, 1975. Retrieved 2007-11-12.[dead link]
- Carter, Michelle (March 7, 1975). "Dr. Nolen looks at faith healing". The Times (San Mateo). p. 13. Retrieved 2014-01-23 – via Newspapers.com. (subscription required (. ))
- Michaelson, Michael G. (February 2, 1975). "Men of medicine and a medicine man". The New York Times Book Review. The New York Times. p. BR2. Retrieved 2007-11-12. (subscription required (. ))
- Stoler, Peter (March 17, 1975). "Books: Extra-dispensary perceptions". Time. Retrieved 2007-11-12. (subscription required (. ))
- Kinsolving, Lester (November 8, 1975). "Kuhlman tested by MD's probe". Inside Religion. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2007-11-12.
- "A follow-up study of 23 patients 'cured' in a Kathryn Kuhlman service". St. Petersburg Times. November 2, 1974. Retrieved 2007-11-12.[dead link]
- Randi 1989, p. 228.
- Settle, Gary (February 22, 1976). "Kathryn Kuhlman, evangelist and faith healer, dies in Tulsa". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-11-12. (subscription required (. ))
- "Kathryn Kuhlman, evangelist, dies". The Pittsburgh Press. February 21, 1976. Retrieved 2014-01-23.
- "H-185.987 Prayer Fees Reimbursed As Medical Expenses". American Medical Association. Retrieved 2008-01-17.[dead link]
- "Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Cancer Patients: Faith Healing". UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center, UC San Diego Health System, University of California, San Diego. Archived from the original on 2008-10-06. Retrieved 2008-01-17.
- Carroll, Robert Todd (January 8, 2014). "Faith Healing". The Skeptic's Dictionary.
- Park, Robert L. (2000). Voodoo Science: The Road from Foolishness to Fraud. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 50–1. ISBN 0195135156.
- Flamm, Bruce L. (Fall/Winter 2004–2005). "Inherent Dangers of Faith Healing Studies". Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine 8 (2). Archived from the original on 2007-08-16. Retrieved 2008-01-17. Check date values in:
- Randi 1989, p. 141.
- Lane, Liz (November 25, 2011). "Church tells HIV patients to stop treatment". Sky News.
- Saucy, Robert L. (1996). Grudem, Wayne, ed. Are Miraculous Gifts for Today?. ISBN 0310201551.[full citation needed]
- "D.A. Carson: Biographical Sketch". Monergism.com. Portland, OR: Christian Publication Resource Foundation. Retrieved 2014-01-23.
- Carson 1987, p. 156.
- Carson 1987, pp. 174–5.
- Gaffin 1979,[page needed].
- Gaffin 1979, pp. 113–4.
- Gaffin 1979, p. 114.
- "Faith healer dies – Victim of bulbar polio". Daily Courier (Yavapai County, AZ). December 18, 1956. Retrieved 2007-11-12.[dead link]
- "'Faith-healer' dies of polio". The Salina Journal (Salina, KS). December 17, 1956. p. 5. (subscription required (. ))
- Davis, Mike (February 8, 1956). "Lost faith: Mother's story of healer". The Miami Daily News (Miami, FL). p. 7A. Retrieved 2014-01-23.
- Roberts, Jack (January 19, 1958). "$10,000 dares Oral Roberts to prove faith healing". The Miami News (Miami, FL). Retrieved 2014-01-23.
- "The Week In Religion". Walla Walla Union-Bulletin. July 1, 1956. [full citation needed]
- "Charges against Texas faith healer dismissed". St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, FL). February 21, 1956. p. 9. Retrieved 2014-01-23.
- "Faith healer Jack Coe dies". Corpus Christi Times (Corpus Christi, TX). December 17, 1956. Retrieved 2007-11-12. (subscription required (. ))
- "Jack Coe, evangelist, dies of polio". The Washington Post. December 17, 1956. Retrieved 2007-11-12. (subscription required (. ))
- "Jack Coe is dead at 38; Texas evangelist succumbs to bulbar polio". The New York Times. December 17, 1956. Retrieved 2007-11-12. (subscription required (. ))
- Merrick, Janna C. (2003). "Spiritual healing, sick kids and the law: Inequities in the American healthcare system". American Journal of Law & Medicine 29 (2-3): 269–99. PMID 12961808.
- "Definitions of Child Abuse and Neglect". Child Welfare Information Gateway, Children's Bureau, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. April 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-10-11. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- CHILD ABUSE in IDAHO: Deadly & Legal
- Living on a Prayer: Why Does God Kill So Many Children in Idaho?
- Parental rights bill sparks lengthy testimony
- "US 'prayer cure' couple lose appeal over child's death". BBC News. July 3, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Faith healing.|
- Beyer, Jürgen (2013) "Wunderheilung". In Enzyklopädie des Märchens. Handwörterbuch zur historischen und vergleichenden Erzählforschung, vol. 14, Berlin & Boston: Walter de Gruyter, coll. 1043–1050
- Bosworth, F.F. (2001). Christ the Healer. Grand Rapids, MI: Revell. ISBN 0800757394.
- Carson, Don (1987). Showing the Spirit: A Theological Exposition of 1 Corinthians 12–14. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House. ISBN 0801025214.
- Eddy, Mary Baker (1910) . Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (Concord Express online ed.). sentinel.christianscience.com.
- Gaffin, Richard (1979). Perspectives on Pentecost: New Testament Teaching on the Gifts of the Holy Spirit. Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing. ISBN 0875522696.
- Nolen, William (1975). Healing: A Doctor in Search of a Miracle. Random House. ISBN 0394490959.
- Randi, James (1989). The Faith Healers. Prometheus Books. ISBN 0879755350.
- Thomas, Northcote Whitbridge (1911). "Faith healing". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Young, Brigham (1941). Discourses of Brigham Young. Selected by Widtsoe, John A.
- Young, Brigham (1997). Teachings of Presidents of the Church: Brigham Young (lds.org online ed.). The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). pp. 251–9.