|This article relies on references to primary sources. (January 2013)|
|Release date(s)||December 12, 1998|
|Genre(s)||Combat flight simulator|
|Mode(s)||Single player, Multiplayer|
Falcon 4.0 is a combat flight simulator video game released on December 12, 1998 by MicroProse. The game is based around a realistic simulation of the Block 50/52 F-16 Fighting Falcon jet fighter in a full-scale modern war set in the Korean Peninsula. Among many notable features, Falcon 4.0's dynamic campaign engine runs autonomously.
The game is the ultimate development in the Falcon series from Spectrum HoloByte that started in 1984. HoloByte had acquired MicroProse in 1993, and started using that name for all their titles in 1996. After MicroProse was purchased by Hasbro, official development ended. In April 2000 a source code leak allowed continued development of the game, including bug fixes and new campaigns, through the game community itself. Many of these additions were collected by Lead Pursuit, who arranged an official license of the original code base from the owner Atari, and published as Falcon 4.0: Allied Force on June 28, 2005.
The Falcon 4.0 series is one of the longest running game series using the same code base in PC history spanning well over a decade.
The game's war starts in the early 1990s with North Korean forces invading the Southern Republic of Korea. The United States deploys extensive support to the South, including military aircraft, armored forces and naval vessels. The rest of the game's war plays out depending on the player's actions, potentially involving China and Russia. Japan has an airbase, but plays no role in the conflict itself. Due to the game's story which involves war in the Korean Peninsula, the game was banned in Republic of Korea until 2003.
Falcon 4.0's gameplay parallels actual fighter pilot combat operations. First, over 30 training scenarios acquaint the player with F-16 maneuvering, avionics operation and various USAF protocols. After training, the player may start the primary gameplay mode in the campaign, which simulates participation in a modern war. Alternatively he or she may engage in dogfight mode which provides an individual air engagement without any continuous context, or create what are effectively miniature campaigns, known as "Tactical Engagements".
The results of the players performance while using Falcon 4.0 are used to generate a 'logbook'. This contains such details as flight hours, air-to-air and air-to-ground kills, decorations, a name and photo and the current rank of the player. Good performance (such as eliminating large numbers of enemy ground units or surviving a difficult engagement) during a mission may lead to the award of a decoration or promotion, while conversely, poor performance (destroying friendly targets or ejecting from the aircraft for no good reason) can lead to court-martial and demotion.
Campaign gameplay has two primary stages, briefings and missions. The briefing section is used to handle planning of flights and packages (a number a flights grouped together for mutual support in obtaining a military objective), assignment of steerpoints for determining the route of a given flight and the weapons loadout used by the aircraft. It is also possible to issue instructions to each ground unit manually, overriding the AI's handling of the war. As is the situation for real life pilots, it is of the utmost importance that the player closely examines all of the data presented here to perform well during the mission, in order to best formulate a plan of action when actually flying the jet. Failing to note the location and abilities of enemy SAM sites or CAP aircraft and account for methods of defeating these will almost certainly result in a short flight.
The mission section of the simulator encompasses the actual mechanics of flying the aircraft, radar and weapons operation, threat evaluation, radio communications and navigation. Everything is done in such a manner as to model the aircraft in use as closely as possible, while on the highest realism settings.
The initial release of the software came with three pre-set scenarios for the player use in campaign mode. 'Tiger Spirit' depicted a war where ROK and Allied forces had repelled the initial DPRK assault and moved onto the offensive. 'Rolling Fire' depicted a closely matched situation where DPRK forces had overrun the DMZ and made small gains, while 'Iron Fortress' simulated a scenario where the North had overwhelmed the South and pushed them back to their last line of defense.
Unlike its static counterpart, a dynamic campaign has no set game path. Missions and the rest of the game world develop as the game progresses, affected in part by the player's behavior. Dynamic campaigns can present a more random and diverse game experience, but are more difficult for programmers to implement. The AI controlling the activity of the Falcon 4.0 campaign engine can be influenced by a wide range of configurable settings, all of which can be adjusted to meet changing objectives as the scenario progresses.
A Tactical Engagement (or TE) is a small scale hand-built 'one-shot' mission with a pre-defined objective. The same engine handles the activity of an AI controlled units. One of the advantages of building this style of mission is that it allows experienced pilots to practice attacks on high value, well defended targets, which are often eliminated from campaigns early on as the planning AI assigns packages to eliminate these early during the war, in order to maximise the effect on enemy combat readiness.
The Instant Action mode of operation places the user in a F-16 currently in flight, armed with an infinite number of missiles. Progressively more capable waves of enemy aircraft then move in and engage the player aircraft. Many different options are available to customise this mode, including disabling SAM and AAA defenses, setting unlimited fuel and the difficulty of the first wave of inbound hostiles.
Falcon 4.0 originally featured 3D graphics with multitexturing support. It was one of the very first multi-threaded programs on the market and was designed to take advantage of dual x86 processors. The game used two threads: one for graphics and primary simulation and the other thread for the campaign engine.
The game was originally designed and produced by Steve Blankenship and Gilman Louie and published under the MicroProse label. The game was rushed to the market in order to make the 1998 Christmas selling season. Unfortunately, Falcon 4.0's first release contained numerous bugs. The final official patch (version 1.08) fixed most of them. After completion of 1.08 patch, the original development team was laid off by Hasbro Interactive. Nevertheless, Falcon fans still sought further improvements of the game. Early modifications altered the game's multimedia and the executable by directly patching the compiled code.
Source code leak
On 9 April 2000 a developer of the game leaked the source code of a Falcon 4.0 version between 1.07 and 1.08 on a FTP site. Despite being available there only for a short time, this marked the beginning of the community driven development of Falcon 4.0.
With the source code available, a Falcon 4.0 player optimized the game further by re-programming part of the game. The game's design was deliberately engineered so that further aircraft and terrain data could be installed retroactively. Presumably, this was to allow the release of an add-on pack, much as with Falcon 3.0. The modding community that grew up after unfortunate events befell the original commercial development have gone on to use this to add a great deal of extra content in the form of post installation patches.
Through its lifetime, Falcon 4.0 has received ongoing fixes and enhancements from various groups of volunteers (Community-made patches), which have enhanced the detail and complexity of the simulation over the years to its current state, as well as mended the numerous errors in the original release and its patches. Much of this comes as a result of the source code being available to the developers of modifications.
There have been several groups who have modified different parts of Falcon 4.0. Some groups and many individuals created new "skins" or paint schemes for aircraft, while other modified the data and code to be more realistic. Still others have worked to create new theaters (e.g. a Desert Storm Theater) for Falcon 4.0. Benchmarksim (BMS) being the premier team to take on the task of user modifications. However, game publisher Atari later issued a cease and desist order against all executable modifications, and thus many modifications were not hosted by websites.
A company called Lead Pursuit which has been formed around many known names of the Falcon modding community has gained a license from Atari to continue Falcon 4.0 development. Lead Pursuit, Inc. has been updating the game with new patches, considerably enhancing the functionality of the simulation as they have released them particularly in the multiplayer aspect which now allows smooth close-up formation flying for players across the world. Falcon 4.0: Allied Force was released on June 28, 2005 as result which is largely a compilation and unification of existing community-made modifications of the original Falcon 4.0. As of 2013, the latest version is Falcon BMS 4.32 Update 7.
On January 2013, the code from the FreeFalcon derivative was publicly leaked on GitHub, without prior consent of the current license owner, Atari. Graphsim have actually an exclusive license to publish.
HOTAS and other peripherals
Falcon 4.0 and its evolution BMS 4.32 update 7 (2013) support standard peripherals like the classic HOTAS (Hands on Throttle and Stick) from Thrustmaster, Saitek and other manufacturers, including the rudder paddels and head tracking system (e.g. TrackIR from Natural Point).
The Falcon 4.0 series is one of the longest running game series using the same code base in PC history spanning well over a decade and a half. With Falcon 4.0: Allied Force and other derivatives, like the BMS derivative from 2012, Falcon 4.0 is one of the oldest active code bases in computer gaming history.
Falcon 4 is one of the seldom and earliest known example of a user community taking over a game, enhancing it, maintaining code configuration, and having it re-released as a commercial product several years after the original publication.
- gio (2011-03-12). "Interview with Kevin Klemmick - Lead Software Engineer for Falcon 4.0". Cleared-To-Engage. Retrieved 2012-12-18. "[C2E] In 2000 the source code of Falcon 4.0 leaked out and after that groups of volunteers were able to make fixes and enhancements that assured the longevity of this sim. Do you see the source code leak as a good or bad event? [Klemmick] "Absolutely a good event. In fact I wish I’d known who did it so I could thank them. I honestly think this should be standard procedure for companies that decide not to continue to support a code base.""
- "Critical Acclaim For Falcon 4.0: Allied Force". GamesIndustry International. 2005-10-10. Retrieved 2014-04-16.
- Stone, Tim (2012-06-01). "The Flare Path: God Quicksave The Queen - A Falcon For A Knave". Rock, Paper, Shotgun. Retrieved 2014-04-16. "BMS is basically a free standalone sequel, albeit one that – for legal reasons – won’t install unless it sees an original F4 disc in your CD drive. [...]Radars, targeting systems, HUDs, data link modelling… everything has been reworked by people that either have first-hand experience of fondling Falcons or have access to people that have first-hand experience of fondling Falcons. All this forensic fiddling means that wonderful original manual that’s been bowing your manual shelf for the past 13 years, is next to useless in BMS."
- SPYHAWK (2013). "THE FALCON EPOPEE" (PDF). sites.google.com/site/falcon4history. Retrieved 2013-09-14.
- Dunc (2013-10-13). "Falcon BMS 4.32 Update 7 is available!". Benchmark Sims. Retrieved 2014-04-16.
- Baker, Tracy (2005-08-02). "Falcon 4.0: Allied Force Review". gamespot.com. Retrieved 2014-04-19. "It took seven years, a number of false starts, and one of the most devoted fan communities in existence, but the release of Falcon 4.0: Allied Force shows that its potential has finally been realized."
- Graphsim, the current producer and license holder.
- Benchmark Sims, Falcon 4.0 community derivative
- FFOSP GitHub FreeFalcon Open Source Project or (FFOSP), a Falcon 4.0 restoration & modernization project under a BSD 2-Clause License
- The Falcon Epopee, the history of Falcon 4 series (timeline of Falcon 4 evolution).