Falkirk

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This article is about the Town of Falkirk. For the council area, see Falkirk (council area). For other uses, see Falkirk (disambiguation).
Falkirk
Town
Location within Falkirk Council Area
Location within Falkirk Council Area
Falkirk is located in Scotland
Falkirk
Falkirk
Location within Scotland
Coordinates: 56°00′04″N 3°47′01″W / 56.0011°N 3.7835°W / 56.0011; -3.7835Coordinates: 56°00′04″N 3°47′01″W / 56.0011°N 3.7835°W / 56.0011; -3.7835
Sovereign state  United Kingdom
Country  Scotland
Council area Falkirk
Lieutenancy area Stirling and Falkirk
Settled 7th century
Burgh Charter 1600
Government
 • Governing body Falkirk Council
Area
 • Total 11 km2 (4 sq mi)
Elevation [1] 28 m (92 ft)
Population (2010)
 • Total 35,168
 • Density 3,197/km2 (8,280/sq mi)
Time zone GMT (UTC±0)
 • Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Postcode areas FK
Area code(s) 01324
OS grid reference NS936809
Website www.falkirk.gov.uk


Falkirk (Scots: The Fawkirk, Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Bhreac) is a town in the Central Lowlands of Scotland. It lies in the Forth Valley, almost midway between the two most populous cities of Scotland; 23.3 miles (37.5 km) north-west of Edinburgh and 20.5 miles (33.0 km) north-east of Glasgow.

Falkirk had a resident population of 32,422 at the 2001 census. The population of the town had risen to 34,570 according to a 2008 estimate, making it the 20th most populous settlement in Scotland. Falkirk is the main town and administrative centre of the Falkirk council area, which has an overall population of 156,800 [2] and inholds the nearby towns of Grangemouth, Bo'ness, Denny, Larbert and Stenhousemuir.

The town lies at the junction of the Forth and Clyde Canal and the Union Canal, a location which proved key to the growth of Falkirk as a centre of heavy industry during the Industrial Revolution. In the 18th and 19th centuries Falkirk was at the centre of the iron and steel industry, underpinned by the Carron Company in the nearby village of Carron. The company was responsible for making carronades for the Royal Navy and also later many UK pillar boxes. In the last 50 years heavy industry has waned, and the economy of the town relies increasingly on retail and tourism. Despite this, Falkirk remains the home of many international companies like Alexander Dennis, the largest bus production company in the United Kingdom.

Falkirk has a long association with the publishing industry. The company now known as Johnston Press was established in the town in 1846. The company, now based in Edinburgh, produces the Falkirk Herald, the largest selling weekly newspaper in Scotland.

Attractions in and around Falkirk include the Falkirk Wheel, Callendar House and Park and remnants of the Antonine Wall. Soon to be a feature of the town is the Falkirk Helix, a new recreational area with walk and cycle paths with the main attraction being a new boat lift and extension to the Forth and Clyde Canal. In a 2011 poll conducted by STV, it was voted as Scotland's most beautiful town, ahead of Perth and Stirling in 2nd and 3rd place respectively.

History[edit]

An Eaglais Bhreac is a derivative formed from the Scottish Gaelic cognate of the first recorded name Ecclesbrith from the Brittonic for "speckled church",[3] presumably referring to a church building built of many-coloured stones. The Scottish Gaelic name was translated into Scots as Fawkirk (lit. "variegated church"[4]), then later amended to the modern English name of Falkirk. The Latin name Varia Capella also has the same meaning.[3] Falkirk Old Parish Church stands on the site of the medieval church, which may have been founded as early as the 7th century.[5]

The Antonine Wall, which stretches across the centre of Scotland, passed through the town and remnants of it can be seen at Callendar Park. Similar to Hadrian's Wall but built of turf rather than stone so less of it has survived, it marked the northern frontier of the Roman Empire between the Firth of Forth and Firth of Clyde during the AD 140s.[6] Much of the best evidence of Roman occupation in Scotland has been found in Falkirk, including a large hoard of Roman coins and a cloth of tartan, thought to be the oldest ever recorded.[7]

In the 18th century the area served as the cradle of Scotland's Industrial Revolution, becoming the earliest major centre of the iron-casting industry. James Watt cast some of the beams for his early steam engine designs at the Carron Iron Works in 1765. The area was at the forefront of canal construction when the Forth and Clyde Canal opened in 1790.[8] The Union Canal (1822) provided a link to Edinburgh and early railway development followed in the 1830s and 1840s.[9] The canals brought economic wealth to Falkirk and helped with the town's growth. Through time, trunk roads and motorways followed the same canal corridors through the Falkirk area, linking the town with the rest of Scotland. Many companies set up work in Falkirk due to its expansion. A large brickworks was set up at this time, owned by the Howie family. During the 19th century, Falkirk became the first town in Great Britain to have a fully automated system of street lighting, designed and implemented by a local firm, Thomas Laurie & Co Ltd.[10]

Battles of Falkirk[edit]

Two important battles have taken place at Falkirk:

Government and politics[edit]

A map showing the boundaries of the Falkirk Council area, one of the 32 Unitary authorities of Scotland. The town of Falkirk sits at the heart of the council area.

Today, like all towns in Scotland, Falkirk has a well-defined structure of governance from local government down to representation at European Union (EU) level.

In terms of local government the town sits at the heart of Falkirk Council area, one of the 32 Unitary Authorities of Scotland formed by the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994. The headquarters of the council are located in the Municipal Buildings, adjacent to Falkirk Town Hall, on West Bridge Street in the centre of town.[11] The Council has been a Labour Party (UK) (LAB), independent and Conservative alliance since 2007.[12] The current Leader of the Council is Cllr Craig Martin.[13]

Falkirk is located within the Scottish parliamentary constituency of Falkirk West which elects one Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) under the first past the post system.[14] The current MSP is Michael Matheson, who won the 2007 Scottish Parliament General Election by a margin of just 3%, less than the number of spoilt ballot papers, narrowly defeating his rival, Dennis Goldie, former Provost and well known for his refusal to back the Labour Party's pro-gay rights stance. The previous MSP, Dennis Canavan, who sat as an Independent, was elected with the largest majority in the Scottish parliament representing Falkirk's electorate's displeasure with New Labour, but stepped down in 2007 for family reasons.[14] Canavan, who announced in an open letter to his constituents in January 2007, that he was stepping down from representative politics at the Scottish Parliament election, 2007 has been an MSP or MP for the area for over 30 years.[15] The constituency of Falkirk West also sits in the Central Scotland Scottish Parliament electoral region which returns seven MSPs under the additional member system used to elect Members of the Scottish Parliament.[16]

Minor fringe parties (on both sides of the political spectrum) are relatively popular in Falkirk compared with the rest of Scotland. Parties right of the Conservative Party won 6.2% of the vote in Central Scotland in total (including the Scottish Christian Party, United Kingdom Independence Party and others). Left of Labour parties won 5.9% in total (including the Scottish Green Party, the Scottish Socialist Party, Solidarity and others). None of these parties won a seat, however. Five seats were won by the SNP, one by the Conservatives and one by the Liberal Democrats.

In the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the town is entirely contained within the UK parliamentary constituency of Falkirk which elects one member to the House of Commons under the plurality system.[17] The constituency also takes in surrounding villages and is currently represented by the now Independent (former Labour) Member of Parliament (MP) Eric Joyce.[17] Joyce is to step down in 2015, with the Constituency Labour Party selecting a new candidate in 2013. Traditionally, Falkirk has been seen as a stronghold for the Labour Party, but an SNP majority in the 2007 Scottish elections suggest a change of public opinion.[17]

At EU level, Falkirk is part of the pan-Scotland European Parliament constituency which elects seven Members of the European Parliament (MEP)s using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.[18] Currently, Scotland returns two Labour MEPs, two Conservative and Unionist MEPs, two SNP MEPs and one Liberal Democrat MEP, to the European Parliament.[18]

Geography[edit]

Falkirk is located in an area of undulating topography between the Slamannan Plateau and the upper reaches of the Firth of Forth. The area to the north of Falkirk is part of the floodplain of the River Carron. Two tributaries of the River Carron - the East Burn and the West Burn flow through the town and form part of its natural drainage system.[19] Falkirk sits at between 50 metres (164 ft) and 125 metres (410 ft) above sea level.[20]

The underlying geology of the town of Falkirk is characterised by glacial deposits. Elevations above 100 metres (328 ft) are covered by a mixture of glacial till and boulder clay with low lying areas covered by sandy soils and loams.[20] As Falkirk is not far from the coast, post-glacial features akin to raised beaches are particularly predominant to the north of the town centre, and this gives rise to differing elevations within the town.[20]

Unsorted glacial till gives rise to such features of glacial deposition as eskers, and drumlins which are predominant over much of the area. Such elements provide natural transport routes and it is this complex underlying geology that the town is built upon.[20]

Climate[edit]

Like much of the rest of Scotland, Falkirk has a temperate maritime climate, which is relatively mild despite its northerly latitude. Winters are especially mild given that Moscow and Labrador lie on the same latitude, with daytime temperatures rarely falling below freezing, or 0 °C (32 °F). Summer temperatures are comparatively cool, with daily upper maxima rarely exceeding 23 °C (73 °F). The proximity of the town to the sea mitigates any large variations in temperature or extremes of climate. The prevailing wind direction is from the south-west, which is associated with warm, unstable air from the Gulf Stream that gives rise to rainfall. Winds from an easterly direction are usually drier but colder. Rainfall is distributed fairly evenly throughout the year. Vigorous Atlantic depressions - sometimes called European windstorms can affect the town between October and March. The highest recorded temperature was 31.5C in August 2010.

Climate data for Falkirk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6
(43)
7
(45)
9
(48)
12
(54)
16
(61)
17
(63)
20
(68)
19
(66)
17
(63)
13
(55)
9
(48)
7
(45)
13
(55)
Average low °C (°F) −1
(30)
1
(34)
2
(36)
3
(37)
6
(43)
9
(48)
11
(52)
11
(52)
8
(46)
5
(41)
3
(37)
−1
(30)
5
(41)
Precipitation mm (inches) 100
(3.94)
70
(2.76)
77
(3.03)
56
(2.2)
62
(2.44)
56
(2.2)
62
(2.44)
76
(2.99)
77
(3.03)
101
(3.98)
81
(3.19)
107
(4.21)
925
(36.42)
Source: Met Office [21]

Demography[edit]

The United Kingdom Census 2001 identified the town as having a total resident population of 32,422.[22] The population was estimated at 34,570 in 2008[23] which makes the town the 20th most populous settlement in Scotland. The wider Falkirk area which includes Grangemouth, Larbert and Stenhousemuir has an overall population of 98,940 making this the 5th largest urban area after Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Dundee.[24] The population of the town and surrounding area is forecast to grow over the next ten years, primarily due to net in migration from other parts of Scotland and the UK.[25] Unemployment in the Falkirk area is low at 2.5%, below the Scottish average, but average household income and gross weekly pay are below the comparative Scottish and UK averages.

Economy[edit]

Falkirk High Street with the Falkirk Steeple dominating the centre of the picture. Shops to the left and right are visible with many shoppers on the pedestrianised street.
The pedestrianised High Street, dominated by the Steeple (1814) is the retail centre of Falkirk.

Today, the economy of Falkirk is focused on retail and services, in contrast to the heavy industries and manufacturing sectors which contributed to the growth of the town over the last 300 years. Falkirk is a large retail centre catering to the town itself and a wide surrounding area, stretching from Cumbernauld in the west to Bo'ness in the east.[26] The flagship retailer Marks and Spencer opened a store in Falkirk in 1936.[26] The High Street was pedestrianised in the late 1980s and the Howgate Shopping Centre opened in [26] 1989. A number of supermarkets including Tesco, Asda, Morrisons and Scottish Co-op have developed on peripheral sites surrounding the town centre in recent years.[27]

The public sector and public services also have a foothold in the Falkirk area. Falkirk Council is one of the largest employers in this sphere, with a workforce of over 7,000, many based at the council headquarters in the town centre.[11] One of the principal offices of the UK Child Support Agency, covering Scotland and the north east of England, is located in the Callendar Business Park on the outskirts of Falkirk.[28] Similarly the National Health Service (NHS) and Department for Work and Pensions have a presence in the town and employ local residents.

Many Falkirk residents are also employed within the petrochemicals sector based in neighbouring Grangemouth where there is an agglomeration of such industries underpinned by the Ineos (formerly BP) oil refinery located there.[29] Alexander Dennis, one of the world's largest bus manufacturers, is headquartered in Falkirk with the operations plant located nearby.[30]

Infrastructure[edit]

Health[edit]

Falkirk is administered by NHS Forth Valley, this includes the unitary authorities of Falkirk, Stirling and Clackmannanshire. Following the opening of the new Forth Valley Royal Hospital, the Falkirk and District Royal Infirmary was renamed Falkirk Community Hospital[31] with many of the main services, including the accident and emergency unit being transferred.[31] Falkirk Community Hospital will still provide many services like podiatry and palliative care.[31] The Community Hospital continues to have a Minor Injury Unit, to treat emergency cases of a non life-threatening nature.[32] In-patient and community services at Bonnybridge Hospital will re-locate to Falkirk Community Hospital in 2012,[31] once new modern, en-suite accommodation has been developed. A new purpose built dental centre, Langlees Dental Centre, provides a "teach and treat" dental centre in the Langlees area of Falkirk opened in August 2009.[31] It has seven dental surgeries and is involved in training final year students at Glasgow Dental School.[31]

Transport[edit]

The Falkirk Area occupies a central position in Scotland, with direct access from the key north-south and east-west motorway networks; the M9 from the north and east, and the M876 from the west. Falkirk has main rail and canal routes within easy reach from Edinburgh and Glasgow and is central to access to both Glasgow and Edinburgh airports. Falkirk is well situated both for access by rail from England and for access to other parts of Scotland excluding Fife, which has no direct rail link to Falkirk other than morning and evening commuter services from Kirkcaldy to Glasgow. Road access is to Fife provided by the Kincardine Bridge, Clackmannanshire Bridge and the Forth Road Bridge via the M9.

A view from a bridge down onto the railway tracks of Falkirk Grahamston Station. The main building on the left and a waiting room on the right side of the tracks with another road bridge in the distance
The view from the footbridge at Falkirk Grahamston, looking east.

Falkirk has two railway stations; Falkirk High and Falkirk Grahamston.

Falkirk High is on the main Glasgow-Edinburgh line, with connections to either city running on a 15-minute frequency. At peak times 8 trains per hour stop; 4 for Glasgow Queen Street via Croy and 4 for Edinburgh Waverley via Polmont and Linlithgow. Journey times to Edinburgh vary from 27 minutes to 38 minutes depending on stopping stations and time of day; to Glasgow the journey time is between 23 and 26 minutes.

Falkirk Grahamston lies on the Edinburgh to Dunblane Line. Trains from Glasgow Queen Street on the Cumbernauld Line terminate at Falkirk Grahamston. There is also a daily direct service to London (King's Cross) provided by National Express East Coast, and the Caledonian Sleeper to London Euston also calls here. The main station building was opened in 1985 and serves over 950,000 passenger journeys each year.

Falkirk bus station lies in the town centre and has many bus routes providing frequent links to the cities of Stirling, Edinburgh and Glasgow as well as local routes around the Falkirk area.[33]

Education[edit]

See also:

Further education[edit]

a side view of the Falkirk College Campus building with the main entrance at the bottom right and the road entering the campus at the bottom left
Forth Valley College, Falkirk Campus

Falkirk is home to one of the four campuses of Forth Valley College which was formed on 1 August 2005 from the merger of Falkirk, Stirling and Clackmannan colleges. The Falkirk Campus is by far the largest of the four campuses.

Secondary schools[edit]

Falkirk is served by eight high schools which have all been recently rebuilt.

School Roll Opened Catchment area
Bo'ness Academy Originally 1931, rebuilt 2000 Blackness, Bo'ness Public, Deanburn, Grange, and Kinneil Primary Schools
Braes High School 2000 Avonbridge, California, Drumbowie, Limerigg, Maddiston, Shieldhill, Slamannan, Wallacestone and Whitecross Primary Schools
Denny High School Originally 1959 Denny, Dunipace and Bonnybridge Primary Schools
Falkirk High School 1,200 Originally 1886, rebuilt 2010 Bainsford, Bantaskin, Carmuirs, Comely Park, Easter Carmuirs and Langlees Primary Schools
Graeme High School 1,200 Originally 1930, rebuilt 2000 Hallglen, Laurieston, St. Margaret's, Victoria and Westquarter Primary Schools
Grangemouth High School 810 rebuilt 2009 Bowhouse, Beancross, and Moray Primary Schools
Larbert High School Originally 1885, rebuilt 2000 Airth, Bothkennar, Carron, Carronshore, Kinnaird, Ladeside, Larbert Village and Stenhousemuir Primary Schools
St. Mungo's High School 1,200 Originally 1953, rebuilt 2009 Falkirk area

Culture[edit]

Part of the golf course with a large tree on the left and a bunker at the bottom, there is a large high rise flat visible in the distance
Callendar Park, former host of Big In Falkirk

Falkirk hosted a national arts festival which ran in Callendar Park from 2000-2009 called Big In Falkirk. After its inception in 2000, the festival won Scottish Thistle Award for Events & Festivals in 2005.[34] Consisting of a free weekend of events, the festival was one of the largest cultural events in Scotland, attracting over 100,000 people. Hosted in Falkirk’s historical Callendar Park, the venue covers 180-acre (0.73 km2) with Callendar House as the focal point, the entertainment featured a wide variety of outdoor theatre, pyrotechnic displays, arts, comedy and big name music acts, alongside activities for all ages.

Falkirk hosted the Royal National Mod in 2008.[35] The Gold medals were won by Falkirk resident Lyle Kennedy and Kerrie Finlay from Inverness. Interest in Gaelic has grown in Falkirk since the Mod and there are now five Gaelic organisations active in the Falkirk area: An Clas Gàidhlig (provides Gaelic lessons to adults), An Comunn Gàidhealach Meur na h-Eaglaise Brice (is the local branch of An Comunn Gàidhealach), Fèis Fhoirt (provides traditional music and Gaelic song tuition for children and adults), Falkirk Gaelic Forum (promotes Gaelic in Falkirk) and Falkirk Junior Gaelic Choir (is a long established and successful youth choir).

Media[edit]

Falkirk is served by a weekly newspaper, the Falkirk Herald, which is published by Johnston Press. The company was established by the Johnston family from Falkirk, who have been involved in publishing since 1767. The family acquired the Herald, their first newspaper, in 1846. The publishing company was renamed F Johnston & Co Ltd in 1882, a title it would retain until it was floated on the London Stock Exchange as Johnston Press in 1988. The corporate headquarters of Johnston Press are now in Edinburgh, but the company retains two offices in Falkirk and Grangemouth.

Recreation[edit]

The historical Callendar House is an imposing mansion with a 600-year history which is now a museum. Also located in Callendar Park is, The Park Gallery, a contemporary art gallery in the former Stable Block of the park.[36]

Landmarks[edit]

The Falkirk Wheel, the only rotary canal connector in the world, is located within Falkirk. The attraction was completed in 2002 and it connects the Forth and Clyde Canal to the Union Canal.[37]

In Falkirk High Street lies the Falkirk Steeple, the current building was built in 1814 and is protected as a category A listed building. A stylised image of the steeple appears on the crest of Falkirk Football Club. It is widely regarded as the centre point of the town.

Religion[edit]

The 2001 census[38] showed the majority of the population claim to belong to one of the Christian denominations with 48% of these being Church of Scotland, 12% being Roman Catholic, and 5% belonging to Other Christian denominations. A significant percentage of people (29%) belong to no religion, about 1% above the national figure.

The Church of Scotland's Presbytery of Falkirk includes congregations in Bo'ness, Bonnybridge, Cumbernauld, Grangemouth and Larbert, as well as Falkirk.

Sport[edit]

Football[edit]

Falkirk currently has two football teams that compete in the Scottish Football League system, Falkirk Football Club and East Stirlingshire Football Club.

An evening game at a football stadium. The main stand on the right is filled with spectators and the empty pitch is being prepared for playing on the left
The main stand of the Falkirk Stadium

Falkirk F.C. was founded in 1876 and was elected to compete in the Scottish Football League in 1902. The club's highest ranking came in the 1907–08 season and once again in 1909–10 when the club finished runners-up of Division One, the country's top football division, losing out to Celtic F.C. on both occasions. The club has reached the final of the Scottish Cup on four occasions, emerging victorious twice in 1913 and 1957 respectively. The club currently competes in the Scottish Football League First Division having failed to secure promotion in 2013 and plays their home games at the Falkirk Stadium in the nearby town of Grangemouth.

The town's other club, East Stirlingshire F.C., was founded in 1881 originally as Bainsford Britannia and has competed in the Scottish Football League since 1900. The club has predominantly played in the lower leagues of Scottish football, spending only two whole seasons in the top division after being promoted from Division Two in 1931–32 and 1962–63. The club currently competes in the Scottish Football League Third Division and plays their home games at Ochilview Park, the home ground of local rivals Stenhousemuir F.C.. Firs Park was the home of the club for the majority of the club's existence but was vacated at the end of the 2007/08 season.

Rugby[edit]

Falkirk Rugby Club can trace their roots to 1906 when F.R.F.C. was first formed. In the late 1960s/early 70's the club merged with the works team from ICI Grangemouth. Much of the structure and recent success is down to former Scotland National prop, John Manson. They currently compete in Championship League A, the 3rd tier of Scottish club rugby. The team play their home games at CALA Park, Camelon.

Hockey[edit]

Falkirk also has a Hockey team, Falkirk GHG Hockey Club, which was formed from the merger of Graeme High School Former Pupils Hockey Club and Grangemouth Hockey Club in 1999. It now has five men's teams which play in various leagues, with their first team playing in the national league.

Basketball[edit]

Falkirk Fury Basketball Club, currently called Clark Eriksson Fury Basketball Club in a sponsorship deal with local firm Clark Eriksson, represents the town in the sport.[39] The team was established in 1992 and originally consisted of players from Falkirk High School and sports development players.[39] Today the team competes in all 6 Scottish National Age Groups. The men's side currently competes in the Scottish Men's National League, the top league in Scottish basketball and is considered the second tier of British basketball below the BBL and in line with the English Basketball League.[39] The club plays home games at the Mariner Centre in Camelon. Or sometimes at the Grangemouth sports complex.

Archery[edit]

Falkirk has a number of archery clubs in and around the greater Falkirk area:

  • Falkirk Company of Archers was established in 1971 and is affiliated to the Scottish Archery Association (SAA) which is a region of the national governing body; Archery GB. During summer members shoot outdoors on Sunnyside playing feels and during winter members shoot indoors at Woodlands Games Hall. The club is a target archery club with most members shooting recurve bow, though traditional archery has made a resurgence in the club recently with some members shooting barebows, horse bows and longbow.

Twin towns[edit]

Falkirk is twinned with:

Notable people[edit]

Science & technology[edit]

  • John Logie Baird - inventor of the television, collaborated with John Hart of Falkirk and performed his first demonstration of the television set in Falkirk and had family in the town.
  • George Forrest - a Scottish botanist. Famous for bringing back over 30,000 specimens of 10,000 plants mostly from the Yunnan Province of China.
  • Bill Buchanan (professor) - Leading computer security expert and author of many academic books.
  • Eric Vance - Chemist responsible for the coloration of Nomex, the essential fabric of most military uniforms, effectively designing the future of camouflage.
  • John Aitken - physicist and meteorologist, operated from a laboratory in his home in Falkirk, where he first detected atmospheric dust particles using the koniscope, his invention.

Business & industry[edit]

Sport & recreation[edit]

Film & entertainment[edit]

Art & literature[edit]

Politics & society[edit]

  • Tommy Douglas - Scottish-Canadian social democratic politician, who is often cited as "father" of Canada's single-payer public health insurance system. Voted the "greatest Canadian of all time" in a nationwide poll.
  • David Muir - former Director of Political Strategy to former Prime Minister Gordon Brown.
  • Thomas W. Howie - Former Falkirk councillor.
  • Sheila McKechnie - Scottish trade unionist, housing campaigner and consumer activist.

Historical[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Falkirk Forecast (weather and elevation at Stenhousemuir, Falkirk). The Weather Underground, Inc. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  2. ^ "Falkirk factsheet". gro-scotland.gov.uk. Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  3. ^ a b placesnamesF-J, Iain Mac an Tàilleir www.scottish.parliament.uk. Retrieved 2008-07-12
  4. ^ http://www.scots-online.org/dictionary/search_scots.asp
  5. ^ "Old Parish Church and Burial Ground: Listed Building Report". Historic Scotland. 
  6. ^ Frontiers of the Roman Empire - History www.antoninewall.org. Retrieved 2011-04-29
  7. ^ THE ROMAN COIN HOARD AND THE FALKIRK TARTAN www.falkirklocalhistorysociety.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-04-29
  8. ^ Forth and Clyde Canal www.forthandclyde.org.uk. Retrieved 2011-04-29
  9. ^ History of the Union Canal www.scottishcanals.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-04-29
  10. ^ 1.2.5 Civic Administration www.falkirk.gov.uk. Retrieved 2011-04-29
  11. ^ a b "Falkirk Council - About the Council". Falkirk Council. Retrieved 2007-01-30. 
  12. ^ "Falkirk Council - Committee Appointments". Falkirk Council. Retrieved 2009-05-11. 
  13. ^ "Falkirk Council - Council Members". Falkirk Council. Retrieved 2007-01-31. 
  14. ^ a b "Previous Elections - 2003 Scottish Parliamentary Election - Falkirk West". The Scotsman. Retrieved 2007-01-31. 
  15. ^ Louise Gray (2007-01-24). "'I'm filled with regret that I didn't spend more time with family'". The Scotsman. Retrieved 2007-01-31. 
  16. ^ "Scottish Parliament Electoral System" (PDF). Scottish Parliament Information Centre (SPICe). 2006-08-31. Retrieved 2007-01-30. 
  17. ^ a b c "All Scottish Seats - 2005 UK General Election - Falkirk". The Scotsman. Retrieved 2007-01-31. 
  18. ^ a b "UK MEPs - Scotland". European Parliament. Archived from the original on 2006-10-07. Retrieved 2007-01-31. 
  19. ^ Milne et al. (1975) p1
  20. ^ a b c d Milne et al. (1975) p2
  21. ^ "1971-2000 mapped averages". UK gov. Retrieved January 9, 2008. [dead link]
  22. ^ No 3 - 2001 Census Population of settlements and wards www.falkirk.gov.uk. Retrieved 2011-04-29
  23. ^ "Mid-2008 Population Estimates – Localities in alphabetical order" (PDF). 2008. Retrieved 2011-02-13. 
  24. ^ "Mid-2008 Population Estimates – Settlements in alphabetical order" (PDF). 2008. Retrieved 2011-02-13. 
  25. ^ "Falkirk as a Location, Statistical Information on the Council Area" (PDF). Falkirk Council. December 2006. Archived from the original on 2007-08-22. Retrieved 2007-03-22. 
  26. ^ a b c Smith, R (2001) p345
  27. ^ Smith, R (2001) p346
  28. ^ "Falkirk - Scotland and North East England Business Unit". Child Support Agency. Retrieved 2007-01-30. [dead link]
  29. ^ David Gibson (2001-11-13). "BP Grangemouth announcement - Scottish Enterprise Forth Valley reaction". Scottish Enterprise. Retrieved 2007-01-30. [dead link]
  30. ^ "Alexander Dennis, Key facts". Alexander Dennis. Archived from the original on 2007-02-05. Retrieved 2007-01-30. 
  31. ^ a b c d e f Healthcare Strategy - Falkirk Community Hospital www.nhsforthvalley.com. Retrieved 2011-04-30
  32. ^ "NHS Forth Valley Emergency Services". NHS Forth Valley. Retrieved 2007-03-22. 
  33. ^ "South East & Central Scotland timetables". First Group. 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-05. 
  34. ^ "Scottish Thistle Award winners from 1992 - 2009". Scottish Thistle Award. Retrieved 2010-09-05. 
  35. ^ List of Mod's places for each year on Sabhal Mòr Ostaig website
  36. ^ "Park Gallery". Falkirk Council. Retrieved 2009-09-27. 
  37. ^ The Falkirk Wheel - History www.thefalkirkwheel.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-04-30
  38. ^ "Insight 2001 census no2" (PDF). Falkirk Council. 2003-02-01. Retrieved 2008-04-18. 
  39. ^ a b c Clark Eriksson Falkirk Fury Basketball Club, Retrieved 2012-02-10.
  40. ^ a b Falkirk Twinning Association, www.falkirktwinning.org Retrieved 2011-05-07
  41. ^ "British towns twinned with French towns [via WaybackMachine.com]". Archant Community Media Ltd. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 

Notes[edit]

  • Dowds, T (2003): "The Forth and Clyde Canal - A History". Tuckwell Press. ISBN 1-86232-232-5
  • Macleod, I (2004): "The Illustrated Encyclopaedia of Scotland". Lomond Books, Edinburgh. ISBN 1-84204-028-6
  • Milne, D; Leitch, A; Duncan, A; Bairner, J & Johnston, J (1975): "The Falkirk and Grangemouth Area". Paper for the Scottish Association of Geography Teachers' (SAGT) conference, October 1975. Moray House College of Education, Edinburgh.
  • Nimmo W (1880): "The History of Stirlingshire, Third Edition" Vol II. Hamilton, Adams and Company, Glasgow.
  • Smith, R (2001): "The Making of Scotland". Canongate Books, Edinburgh. ISBN 1-84195-170-6

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