Fall of Caesarea

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The Crusader fortress of Caesarea fell to the Mamluks in 1265. In 1251, Louis IX had fortified the city, ordering the construction of high walls (parts of which are still standing) and a deep moat. However, strong walls could not keep out the Mamluk sultan Baybars, who ordered his troops to scale the walls in several places simultaneously, enabling them to penetrate the city.