False friend

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False friends are pairs of words or phrases in two languages or dialects (or letters in two alphabets)[1] that look or sound similar, but differ significantly in meaning. An example is the English embarrassed and the Spanish embarazada, which means pregnant.

There is however often a partial overlap in meanings, which creates additional complications.

Similar words may also fail to catch all the nuances of each word in both languages. For instance, the French demande simply means a 'request', which is similar to but also very different from a 'demand' in English and 'demandar' in Spanish.

The term should be distinguished from "false cognates", which are similar words in different languages that appear to have a common historical linguistic origin (whatever their current meaning) but actually do not.

As well as producing completely false friends, the use of loanwords often results in the use of a word in a restricted context, which may then develop new meanings not found in the original language. For example, Angst means "fear" in a general sense (as well as "anxiety") in German, but when it was borrowed into English in the context of psychology, its meaning was restricted to a particular type of fear described as 'a neurotic feeling of anxiety and depression'.[2] And gymnasium meant both 'a place of education' and 'a place for exercise' in Latin, but its meaning was restricted to the former in German and to the latter in English, making the expressions into false friends in those languages as well as in Greek, where it started out as 'a place for naked exercise'.[3]

Implications[edit]

False friends can cause difficulty for students learning a foreign language, particularly one that is related to their native language, because students are likely to identify the words wrongly due to linguistic interference. For this reason, teachers sometimes compile lists of false friends as an aid for their students.

False friends are also a frequent source of difficulty between speakers of different dialects of the same language. Speakers of British English and American English sometimes have this problem, which was alluded to in George Bernard Shaw's statement "England and America are two countries separated by a common language".[4] For example, in the UK (and in other Commonwealth countries), to "table" a motion means to place it on the agenda (to bring it to the table for consideration), while in the US it means exactly the opposite—"to remove it from consideration" (to lay it aside on the table rather than hold it up for consideration).[5] Similarly, the Spanish word limón refers to a lemon in some parts of the Spanish-speaking world but a lime in others.

A particularly problematic case with false friends occurs when one of the two words is obscene or derogatory (a cacemphaton,[6] Greek for "ill-sounding").[7] Well-known examples are the words 'fag' (in British English referring to a cigarette, but in American English is an offensive term for a homosexual) and Spanish coger (meaning to take in Spain and parts of Central America, but also to have sex with in Mexico and Argentina). "Fagot" in Dutch and "Fagott" in German both mean a bassoon, cognate to a derogatory English term for a male homosexual. "Neger" used to be the neutral Dutch term for a black person but cognates to "Nigger" in English, which is a highly offensive term for a black person. In some cases this has led to significant controversy, e.g. when Tiger Woods referred to himself as a "spaz" (which in American English simply means a "clumsy person", but in British English is an offensive term for a disabled person).[8]

Causes[edit]

From the etymological point of view, false friends can be created in several ways.

Shared etymology[edit]

If Language A borrowed a word from Language B, or both borrowed the word from a third language or inherited it from a common ancestor, and later the word shifted in meaning or acquired additional meanings in at least one of these languages, a native speaker of one language will face a false friend when learning the other. Sometimes, presumably both senses were present in the common ancestor language, but the cognate words got different restricted senses in Language A and Language B.[citation needed]

For example, the words preservative (English), préservatif (French), Präservativ (German), prezervativ (Romanian, Czech, Croatian), preservativo (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese), prezerwatywa (Polish), презерватив prezervativ (Russian, Serbian, Bulgarian, Ukrainian, Macedonian), prezervatif (Turkish), præservativ (Danish), prezervatyvas (Lithuanian), Prezervatīvs (Latvian) and preservatiu (Catalan) are all derived from the Latin word praeservativum. But in all of these languages except English, the predominant meaning of the word is now 'condom'.[citation needed]

Actual, which in English is usually a synonym of real, has a different meaning in other European languages, in which it means 'current' or 'up-to-date', and has the logical derivative as a verb, meaning 'to make current' or 'to update'. Actualise (or 'actualize') in English means 'to make a reality of'.[9]

The word friend itself has cognates in the other Germanic languages; but the Scandinavian ones (like Swedish frände, Danish frænde) predominantly mean 'relative' . The original Proto-Germanic word meant simply 'someone who one cares for' and could therefore refer to both a friend and a relative, but lost various degrees of the 'friend' sense in Scandinavian languages, while it mostly lost the sense of 'relative' in English. (The plural friends still but rarely may be used for "kinsfolk", as in the Scottish proverb Friends agree best at a distance, quoted in 1721.)

The Italian word magazzino, Romanian magazin, French magasin, Dutch magazijn, Greek μαγαζί (magazi) comes from Arabic مخزن (makhzān) — Persian مغازه - (magaze) is used for a depot, store, or warehouse, just like the Spanish word almacén, which incorporated the Arabic article (al-mazen). In English the word magazine has also the meaning of 'periodic publication'. The word magazine has the same meaning in French. In Serbian, there are two similar words: magacin, representing the former, and magazin representing the latter meaning. To add confusion, there is an extra meaning of magazine (firearms) in several languages (with accordingly different spellings). Russian магазин (magazin) means 'shop' and 'magazine (firearms)', but not 'periodic publication'.

The Finnish and Estonian languages are both part of the non-Indo-European Uralic languages; they share a similar grammar as well as several individual words, though sometimes as false friends: e.g. the Finnish word for 'south', etelä is close to the Estonian word edel, but the latter means south-west. However, the Estonian word for south, lõuna, is close to the Finnish word lounas, which means south-west.[citation needed]

Homonyms[edit]

False friends in a Dutch advertisement actually meaning "Mama, that one, that one, that one ..." "Please.", In English this could easily sound as though the child is telling her mother to die, although the word is not pronounced the same way in the two languages.

In certain cases, false friends evolved separately in the different languages. Words usually change by small shifts in pronunciation accumulated over long periods and sometimes converge by chance on the same pronunciation or look despite having come from different roots.[citation needed]

For example, German Rat (pronounced with a long "a") (= 'council') is cognate with English read and German and Dutch Rede (= 'speech', often religious in nature) (hence Æthelred the 'Unready' would not heed the speech of his advisors, and the word unready is cognate with the Dutch word onraad meaning trouble, danger), while English and Dutch rat for the rodent has its German cognate Ratte.[citation needed]

In another example, the word bra in the Swedish language means 'good'. Scots also has the word braw, which has much the same use and shares etymology. Swedish has also the word god, which is used primarily to describe food and drink but also in the following expression, which does not need translation into English, en god man, as in "a good song", "a good book" or "Good day!" Bra has the same meaning in Norwegian as in Swedish. In both languages Bara bra (Sw.) or Bare bra (No.) as a response to "How are you?" is very common (likewise Ha det bra as a form of "Good bye"). In English, 'bra' is short for the French brassière, which is an undergarment that supports the breasts. The full English spelling, 'brassiere', is now a false friend in and of itself (the modern French term for brassiere is soutien-gorge).

In Swedish, the word rolig means 'fun' (as in "It was a fun party"), while in the closely related languages Danish and Norwegian it means 'calm' (as in "he was calm despite all the furor around him"). However, the Swedish original meaning of 'calm' is retained in some related words such as ro, 'calmness', and orolig, 'worrisome, anxious', literally 'un-calm'.[citation needed]

Homoglyphs[edit]

For example, Latin P came to be written like Greek rho (written Ρ but pronounced [r]), so the Roman letter equivalent to rho was modified to R to keep it distinct.[10]

An Old and Middle English letter has become a false friend in modern English: the letters thorn (þ) and eth (ð) were used interchangeably to represent voiced and voiceless dental fricatives now written in English as th (as in "thick" and "the"). Though the thorn character (whose appearance was usually similar to the modern "p") was most common, the eth could equally be used. Due to its similarity to an oblique minuscule "y", an actual "Y" is substituted in modern pseudo-old-fashioned usage as in "Ye Olde Curiositie Shoppe"; the first word means and should be pronounced "the", not "ye" (archaic form of "you").[11]

Homoglyphs occur also by coincidence. For example, Finnish tie means "road"; the pronunciation is [tie], unlike English [tai], which in turn means "or" in Finnish.[12][13]

Pseudo-anglicisms[edit]

Pseudo-anglicisms are new words formed from English morphemes independently from an analogous English construct and with a different intended meaning.[citation needed]

For example, in German: Oldtimer refers to an old car (or antique aircraft) rather than an old person, while Handy refers to a mobile phone. Beamer refers to a computer projector or video projector rather than a car or motorcycle manufactured by BMW. In Dutch, the words "oldtimer" and "beamer" are used in the same meaning as in German.

In Norwegian, "trailer" refers to a truck and trailer, or sometimes only the truck, while "truck" means a forklift.

French and German have many pseudo-anglicisms derived from English gerunds. For example, a "parking" in French is a parking lot rather than the act of parking a car, and a "lifting" is a face-lift in both languages.

In Portuguese, "outdoor" refers to billboards, and "smoking" refers to tuxedo.

Japanese is replete with pseudo-anglicisms, known as wasei-eigo ("Japan-made English").

In the SeSotho group of languages spoken in South Africa, pushback refers to a combed-back hairstyle commonly worn by black women with chemically straightened hair; and stop-nonsense refers to pre-fabricated concrete slabs used as fencing.[citation needed]

Semantic change[edit]

In bilingual situations, false friends often result in a semantic change—a real new meaning that is then commonly used in a language. For example, the Portuguese humoroso ('capricious') changed its referent in American Portuguese to 'humorous', owing to the English surface-cognate humorous.[citation needed]

"Corn" was originally the dominant type of grain in a region (indeed "corn" and "grain" are themselves cognates from the same Indo-European root). It came to mean usually cereals in general in the British Isles in the nineteenth century e.g. Corn laws, but maize in North America, and now just maize also in the British Isles.[citation needed]

The Italian word confetti (sugared almonds) has acquired a new meaning in English and French – in Italian, the corresponding word is coriandoli.[14]

The American Italian fattoria lost its original meaning 'farm' in favour of 'factory' owing to the phonetically similar surface-cognate English factory (cf. Standard Italian fabbrica 'factory'). Instead of the original fattoria, the phonetic adaptation American Italian farma (Weinreich 1963: 49) became the new signifier for 'farm'—see "one-to-one correlation between signifiers and referents".[15]

This phenomenon is analysed by Ghil'ad Zuckermann as "(incestuous) phono-semantic matching".

Use by Hemingway[edit]

Ernest Hemingway in For Whom the Bell Tolls made deliberate use of false friends as one of the devices intended to convey to the reader that English conversations in the book in fact represent Spanish. Thus, he used "rare" rather than "strange" to represent the Spanish raro, and "syndicate" rather than "trade union" for the Spanish sindicato.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Italian False Friends". To Be a Travel Agent. 
  2. ^ "German Loan Words in English". About.com. Retrieved 2014-04-28. 
  3. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymolyonline.com. Retrieved 2014-04-28. 
  4. ^ "Quotationspage.com". Quotationspage.com. Retrieved 2012-03-13. 
  5. ^ "Merriam-Webster definition of verb "table"". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2012-03-13. 
  6. ^ Silva Rhetoricae, Cacemphaton.
  7. ^ κακέμφατος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  8. ^ "A Brief History of "Spaz"". Language Log. 2006-04-13. Retrieved 2013-09-24. 
  9. ^ Mollin, Sandra (2006), Euro-English: assessing variety status 
  10. ^ "Language and Linguistics/R". Infoplease.com. 
  11. ^ "Want to meet two extinct letters of the alphabet? Learn what "thorn" and "wynn" sounded like". Blog.dictionary.com. 
  12. ^ "Road". Collinsdictionary.com. 
  13. ^ "Tai". Wordsense.eu. 
  14. ^ "Confetto in Enciclopedia Treccani". Treccani.it. Retrieved 2014-06-23. 
  15. ^ Zuckermann, Ghil'ad (2003). Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, (Palgrave Studies in Language History and Language Change, Series editor: Charles Jones). p. 102. ISBN 1-4039-1723-X. 

External links[edit]