The Faraizi Movement was founded in 1818 by Haji Shariatullah alongside a number of Bengali Muslims. After returning from Mecca (hence being given the title Hajji) after 20 years, Haji Shariat Ullah, seeing the degraded Muslims of Bengal, called on them to give up un-Islamic practices and act upon their duties as Muslims (Faraiz). This movement also supported Jihad against the non-Muslims which were trying to undermine the true principles of Islam. The movement was also concerned with the British influence upon Muslims and called for social justice. Haji Shariatullah started the Faraizi Movement to restore the lost pride of the Muslims and to remove what he thought were immoral Hindu practices which had crept into Islam. He placed emphasis on praying for past sins and promising to live a righteous life in the future. However, Haji Shariatullah died in 1840 and a different situation arose.
Under his son, Muhammad Muhsin, who was also known as "Dudu Mian" or "Dhodu Mian" the movement took a more militant form. He organized resistance to Hindu landlords and moneylenders, boycotting the payment of taxes and interest charges, which he thought were unfair. He also formed an armed force of cudgel bearers to attack the landlords and their followers and then went one stage further by attempting to form a parallel Muslim government within East Bengal. District Commissioners called khalifas were appointed to each village, their role being to raise funds, carry out propaganda, and settle disputes between villagers who were expressly forbidden from taking their cases to the British courts without permission. He even threatened to declare Jihad against the British government in Bengal. The British made persistent attempts to prosecute Mian for crimes ranging from theft to murder, but all such allegations foundered from a lack of witnesses prepared to give evidence – though he was placed under arrest during the Mutiny. However the Faraizi ‘state within a state’ went into decline following Miyan’s death in 1860.
Dadu Mian's real Name was Mohsin Ud din Ahmed. He introduced more important economic measures. Dadu Mian took leadership of Farizi Movement after his father. The Hindus used to demand the Muslim tenants and workers (who worked on their farms) to pay tax for Durga Mata, to which Dadu Mian asked Muslims not to pay any such tax because they were not Hindus and asked only to pay tax to government. The British government and Landlords fabricated cases against Dadu Mian for trouble making and put him in jail. He died in 1862 while he was still in prison.
To this present day, there are lineages of the Faraizi movement that has survived on. Even the 1947 creation of Pakistan is sometimes said[by whom?] to be called an inspiration from the Faraizi Movement.
- Faraizi Movement [1830-57] at Storyofpakistan.com