|This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2013)|
Location of Faridpur in Bangladesh
|• Total||2,072.72 km2 (800.28 sq mi)|
|Population (2011 census)|
|• Density||920/km2 (2,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||BST (UTC+6)|
Faridpur (Bengali: ফরিদপুর জেলা, Faridpur Jela also Faridpur Zila) is a district in central Bangladesh. It is a part of the Dhaka Division. Faridpur District has a population of over 1.7 million people and is situated on the banks of the Padma river (Lower Ganges). Once a subdivision, the original area of the district comprised what is today the Greater Faridpur region, which includes the present-day districts of Rajbari, Gopalgonj, Madaripur, Shariatpur and Faridpur.
It is notable for its jute fields, which are considered to produce the finest raw jute, and aristocratic landlord families. The district had numerous leaders who took part in political movements in Bengal during the rule of the British Empire and the early days of the Pakistan era. It produced some of the most prominent politicians and cultural figures of Bengal.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Administrative
- 5 Administration
- 6 Education
- 7 Economy
- 8 Places of interest
- 9 Notable peoples
- 10 Jasim Polli Mela
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Faridpur is located in central Bangladesh under Dhaka division. The area of this district is 2072.72 km². The district is bounded by the Padma river to the north and east; across the river are the Manikganj, Dhaka and Munshiganj districts. It is bordered by Madaripur to the east, Gopalgonj to the south and Rajbari, Narail and Magura to the west.
The soil is highly fertile as the district lies in the floodplain of the Padma river, also called the Lower Ganges. Smaller rivers in the district include Old Kumar, Arial khan, Gorai, Chandana, Bhubanshwar and Modhumoti. The main depressions are Dhol Samudra, Beel Ramkeli, Shakuner Beel and Ghoradar Beel.
The region was ruled by local Muslim sultans and Hindu rajas until the Mughal conquest of Bengal in the 16th century, after which many nobles and merchants from North India settled in the area. In 1582 in the reign of Emperor Akbar, the province of Bengal was formed into 33 sarkars or financial sub-divisions, and Faridpur area appears to have been included within the sarkar of Muhammad Abud. During the Emperor Shah Jahan, these divisions were carried onto such an extent as to cause in a falling of the imperial revenue. In 1721 a new partition of the country was made the province of Bengal being formed into 13 large divisions (chaklas) instead of sarkars.
In 1765 the English took over the financial administration of Faridpur, together with the rest of Bangal. In 1790 they gave the collectors of taxes magisterial authority, as part of the criminal administration of the country. In 1793 the collectors were relieved of their magisterial duties. Separate officers were appointed who united Judicial and Magisterial power together. The greater portion of Faridpur was then comprised within Dacca Jalalpur.
In 1811 Faridpur was separated from Dacca collectorate. The district was initially known as Fatehabad. In 1840 the Faridpur Zila School was established, and it is one of the oldest schools in modern-day Bangladesh. Under British rule in 1860, the district was named as Faridpur after 12th-century Sufi saint, Shah Sheikh Fariduddin. The British administration declared Faridpur town as a municipality in 1862, and a District Prison was set up in 1865.
The original district stretched out across central Bengal, comprising what is, today, the Greater Faridpur region. A politically important district during the British Raj, Faridpur became a sub-division of Dhaka Division after the creation of Pakistan in 1947.
In 1971 Bangladesh became independent. In 1984, with the Decentralization Program of the Bangladesh government, Faridpur district was broken into five separate districts: Rajbari, Gopalgonj, Madaripur, Shariatpur and Faridpur.
Faridpur is notable for its rich zamindari history. They included the Senguptas (dewanji) of Dhamaron, the Basu Roy Chowdhurys of Ulpur (Shahapur), the Sikdars of Kanaipur, The Golam Imam Chowdhury of Kabirazpur,Rajoir, The Bhawal Rajas of Pangsha, the Lords of Choddo and Baish Roshi estates of Bhanga. Muslim zamindaris included the Chanpur Estate and the Boalmari Estate in present-day Faridpur, Golam Ali Chowdhury of Idilpur pargana and the Padamdi Nawab Estate in present-day Rajbari. The most powerful Muslim landlords were Nawab Abdul Latif, Golam Imam Chowdhury, Habibunessa Chowdhurani, Chowdhury Moyezuddin Biwshash and Lehajuddin Matubbar of C&B Ghat the last Jamindar of Faridpur.
KHAN BAHADUR NAWAB ABDUL LATIF FAMILY, RAJAPUR, BOALMARI[dubious ]
Syed Family Of Bonomalidia
The Syeds of Modhukhali have been prominent in Modhukhali Upozilla under Faridpur District.
- Barrister Syed Kamrul Islam Mohommod Salehuddin (S.K.I.M. Salehuddin, commonly known as Barrister Salehuddin, (1937–1983). Salehuddin was born in Gopalgonj in 1937. His father was Syed Mohommod Abdul Halim and mother Saleha Khatun. He became a barrister, a member of the Honorable society of the Inner Temple (London); he was called to the bar from the same society in 1968. He was a Queens Counsellor (QC) in England. He was a member of the British Civil Service in England.
In 1970, he was elected Pakistan National Assembly Member (MNA) from Boalmari Upozilla under Faridpur District in 1970 from Awami League. In 25 March 1971 he Uphold the Flag of Bangladesh in front of Boalmari Rest House (Dakbanglaw) in a public Meeting. After independence, Salehuddin acted as a Constituent Assembly Member (1972) and signed the First Constitution (1972) of Bangladesh. He was elected as an Independent Parliament Member (MP) at the first national election in 1973 from the Boalmari-Alfadanga-Baliakandi area under Faridpur District. He was a Parliamentarian-Constitution expert and a great politician of the country.
He was a follower of the Father of the Nation, Bangabandhu Shaikh Mujibur Rahman and Moulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhasani. In 1981 Salehuddin formed the Bangladesh Justice Party in 1981. Former President H.M. Earshad divided the Boalmari Upozilla and created a new Upozilla named "Modhukhali". The original home village of Barrister Salehuddin, named Bonomalidia is now situated at Modhukhali upozella. Barrister Salehuddin died in 24 May 1983, in Dhaka. He was buried in Banani Graveyeard, Dhaka.
- Syed Mohommod Abdul Halim (1912–1999), a civil servant in the Bengal Civil Service (BCS), he was a vice president of undivided Bengal Student Association. He wrote the original Memorandum during the Partition in 1947 to include the Greater Khulna District in Pakistan, with assistance from Sher-E-Bangla, A.K. Fazlul Haq, Hossain Shahid Sarwardhy, Khan A.Sabur (Sabur Khan of Khulna), M.A. Majid Advocate. He was awarded a TQA by the Pakistan Government. He rejected this TQA title during the War of Liberation in 1971. His elder son Barrister Syed Kamrul Islam Mohommod Salehuddin was a politician of Bangladesh.
- Professor Dr. Syed Safiullah, a scientist and a professor of chemistry, Jahangirnagar University, Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. He was Secretary General of IIESDM. He completed his PhD at London University. He was awarded the third World Academy of Science Prize from Italy. He is a Fellow of the Royal College of Chemistry (FRCC), UK. His father was Syed Mohommod Abdul halim and mother was Saleha Khatun.
- Dr. Syed Zaved Mohommod Salehuddin (2 February 1972- )
Dr Syed Zaved Mohommod Salehuddin born in 2 February 1972.His father is Syed Kamrul Islam Mohommod Salehuddin, a prominent barrister and politician. His mother is Dilafroze Begum. Syed Zaved Mohommod Salehuddin earned his M.S.S.(Political science) from Dhaka University in 1993. He did his LL-B.from the same university under Central Law College. He received his M.Phil. Degree in 2000 and Phd in 2006 under Dhaka University.
He started his career as an advocate in 1998.He become Advocate of Bangladesh Supreme Court in 2001. He is an active member of several national and international organizations like ; Bangladesh Supreme Court Bar Association, Dhaka Bar Association,Dhaka Taxes Bar Association, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh; Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB); Lions Club International, Barrister Salehuddin Trust, Barrister Salehuddin Smriti Sangshad,He is founder of Bengal University Foundation and Bengal University Trust.He is a Notary Public appointed by the Ministry of Law,Justice & Parliamentary Affairs,Government of Bangladesh since 2011. He was a former teacher of Public Administration Department, Jahangirnagar University,Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Chowdhury Moyezuddin Family
This family is one of the few pre-British period ruling families who still are prominent in the district today.
The family came from the Jaunpur in the 13th century. They were Muslim clerics and later important rank holders in the Mughal Army. In the early 1600s, Arafat Ali migrated to Bengal, where he settled. He and other migrants set up a garrison at Durgapur in circa 1630. His family were granted the Jagirdari of what is Northern Faridpur (Rajbari district and present Faridpur).
When the British colonization took place, the territory that they controlled was divided into 23 segments. Twenty-two portions were auctioned to many Hindu merchants, mostly from West Bengal. This was the origin of many of the Hindu zamindaris of Faridpur. The portion retained by the family became known as the Chanpur Estate, based in Shibrampur village of Ishan Goplapur union. In the 1790s, they adopted the title of Bishwash, given to them by the people of the locality. They built a vast palace complex spread over 200 acres of land.
The son of Chowdhury Jamaluddin was Chowdhury Moquimuddin Bishwash who expanded the estate in West Bengal ( currently a part of India ). His eldest son Chowdhury Moyezuddin Bishwash, born in 1840, rose to be the most notable of their family. Due to a falling out with his family after his father's death in 1856, he migrated to Rangpur district. He built his initial wealth through a series of small businesses. Through his entrepreneurship, he accumulated the capital to purchase lands across North Bengal (present West Bengal province of India), and eventually in Faridpur.
He returned to Faridpur in 1871, and lived in Chanpur with his family after reconciling differences. In 1883 he relocated to Faridpur town and was the first prominent Muslim to live in town. At his death on 23 December 1923, Chowdhury Moyezuddin Bishwash's estate stretched across the greater Faridpur region for 4000 square kilometers. It held a population of 14,20,00 [number does not make sense!] people, according to 1911 census (across all districts where the estate had fragments). The estate also included lands across Bengal (24 parganas, hoogli, darjeeling), and some in Punjab and Ottoman Arabia (mainly Makkah).
In 1885 Moyezuddin had built the Moyez Manzil Palace in Faridpur, adjacent to the Circuit House. It replaced Biwshash Bari as the seat of the Chanpur Estate. He developed modern sewerage and electricity systems for the town in the early 1900s. As a philanthropist, he also built many schools, madrasas, and orphanages. He supported the creation of the All Indian Congress and the People's Association of Faridpur. These independent groups developed in opposition to the colonial administration.
His sons Chowdhury Abd-Allah Zaheeruddin Lal Mia, Chowdhury Yusuf Ali Mohon Mia and Chowdhury Enayet Hossain Tara Mia all rose to prominence as leading political figures of Bengal and Pakistan. They were all elected as members of the Parliament and held ministries at various times from the 1920s until the early 1970s. At the time of independence, they were one of the most powerful families of Bengal and Pakistan. By winning the local municipality and other administrative positions, they essentially governed Faridpur within the family.
Several grandsons of Chowdhury Moyezuddin Bishwas have been elected as Members of Parliament, and some have been appointed as Ministers since the late 1970s.
Sikdars of Kanaipur
They rose to power mostly under the lady zamindar Bhabatarini Sikdar, a widow who was an efficient ruler and was notable in her time for her business acumen. She conducted trading on river throughout India and brought back enormous wealth to her estate. Her only son, Satish Chandra Sikdar, was also efficient in looking after the estate. He was known for his arrogance and shrewdness that he used to rule his subjects. His two sons of different wives were Surendranath Sikdar and Nirodboron Sikdar were later the rulers of the divided estate though majority of the property going under Surendranath Sikdar being the elder son. He and his wife Radha Rani Sikdar, a daughter of a zamindar of Kalighat in Calcutta had six children, among them the eldest and the only daughter Arati Sikdar, Shukho Surjo Sikdar, Nihar Ranjan Sikdar, Timir Boron Sikdar, Dilip sikdar and Basudeb Sikdar. Surndranath sikdar had an early life, thus the estate came under Radha Rani Sikdar as his elder son became an aesthetic, her second son went to Calcutta to become an automobile engineer who later married to Pushpa Rani Sikdar and settled in Calcutta and took no interest in zamandari affairs but officially was the owner of the estate being the second married son and the other sons were both incapable and inefficient to run the estate and thus losing the vast property to the Government. Till the death of Radha Rani Sikdar the estate was looked and maintained properly by herself.
During the 1800s Haji Shariatullah, after returning from Mecca, began the famous Faraizi movement aimed at ending the persecution of Muslims by upper caste Hindu zamindars. The Indigo Resistance Movement which resisted Indigo plantations promoted by the British East India Company, also began in Faridpur. The movement was led by Pir Dudu Miah.
The Greater Faridpur region is also famous for producing some of the finest politicians of the Indian Subcontinent. They include Baba Ambika Charan Majumder, Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Mohonmiah Yusuf Ali Chowdhury, Buddhadeb Bhattacharya, Humayun Kabir and many more.
Faridpur hosted several key meetings of the Indian Independence movement. It was regularly visited by Subhas Chandra Bose, Chittaranjan Das, Rabindranath Tagore, and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. The annual conference of the Bengal Congress held on the grounds of the Moyez Manzil Palace in Faridpur in 1921 was attended by Mahatma Gandhi.
After the creation of Pakistan, Bengali nationalists frequently held large rallies in Faridpur. Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and Sher-e-Bangla A. K. Fazlul Huq would regularly visit the district. Prior to the elections of 1954 which brought Bengali nationalists to power in Faridpur, the Jukta Front coalition held a massive rally on the grounds of the Biwshash Bari zamindar mansion in the village of Chanpur. The rally was attended by Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy, Maulana Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani and Sher-e-Bangla A. K. Fazlul Huq.
Faridpur residents suffered many atrocities during the Bangladesh Liberation War. At dawn on April 26, 1971, the Pakistan Army landed at Daulatdia river port (present-day Rajbari). They began a massacre, with soldiers going from village to village killing sleeping civilians. In addition, Rajakars participated in trying to suppress the rebellion and in war crimes against the people.
Faridpur has a population of 1,714,496 people according to the 2001 census. 50.55% of the people are male and 49.23% are female.
The major religions are Islam and Hinduism. 88% of people are Muslims in the district. Although it was once a Hindu-dominated district, since the Partition of India, Hinduism has significantly declined. Today 11% of the population in Faridpur is Hindu. There was ethnic cleansing and genocide against Hindus by the Pakistani military and Razakars (Bengali collaborators of Pakistan) during the Bangladesh liberation war of 1971. An estimated total of one to three million people were killed in the country.
Religious institutions: mosques 3516, temples 251, Buddhist temples 21, churches 36.
Faridpur district consists of 9 upazilas, 4 municipalities, 79 union parishads, 36 wards, 92 mahallas and 1859 villages. The town consists of 9 wards and 35 mahallas. The area of the town is 20.23 km². The population of the town is 99634; male 51.73%, female 48.27%. The density of population is 4925 per km². The literacy rate among the town people is 66.6%. The town has two dakbungalows.
Faridpur district is divided into the following upazilas:
- Faridpur Sadar Upazila
- Boalmari Upazila
- Alfadanga Upazila
- Madhukhali Upazila
- Bhanga Upazila
- Nagarkanda Upazila
- Charbhadrasan Upazila
- Sadarpur Upazila
- Shaltha Upazila
Minister M.P: Engineer Khandker Mosharraf Hossain, Ministry of Expatriates' Welfare & Overseas Employment
Deputy Commissioner (DC): Moyeen Uddin Ahmed
Administrator of Zila Porishod:
- Government Rajendra University College
- Faridpur Medical College
- Faridpur Polytechnic Institute
- Faridpur Zilla School
- Govt. Girls High School
- Govt. Yasin College
- Sardoda Shundori Mohila College
- Faridpur Diabetic Association Medical college
- Grassroots College of Technology
- Tarar Mela Ishan Memorial Adhunik Shishu Biddalaya
- Baptist Charch School
- Faridpur City College
- Kazi Mahbubullah College, Bhanga
- Kadirdi Degree College
- Govt. Kamarkhali Birshresth Munshi Abdur Rauf Degree College
- Modhukhali Govt. College
- Faridpur Muslim Mission
- Govt. Boalmari College
- Domrakandi High School
- Domrakandi Ideal Government Primary School
- Sharifabad High School & College, Bhanga
The district has mainly aggro-based economy. The main crops are jute and paddy. Other crops include peanut, wheat, oilseed, pulse, turmeric, onion, garlic and coriander. Many fruits are also produced, notably mango, jack fruit, blackberry, palm, coconut, betel nut, kul, tetul, bel, papaya, banana, and guava. The main exports are jute, Helsa fish and sugarcane.
Faridpur is famous for producing high quality raw jute. Once the principal earner of the country's economy, the jute industry has suffered a decline in recent years due to low prices on the international market, leading to many jute plants shutting down. However, Faridpur still has quite a few which are also some of the most prominent. They include notably Faridpur Jute Fibers and Sharif Jute Mills.
The district, being on the banks of the Padma, also accounts for a significant portion of exports of Helsa fish. The Helsa found in Padma are immensely popular at home and abroad and are called the Silver Helsa. The district has thriving fisheries and a growing poultry industry.
Manufacturing is moderate in the district although there are several industries. Kanaipur Industrial Area was set up in Faridpur town during the late 1980s. There are many sugar mills and jute plants as well. Some of the leading industries of the district are listen below:
- Faridpur Jute Fibers
- Pride Jute Mills
- Aziz Jute Fibers
- Aziz Pipes
- Faridpur Sugar Mills
- Khankhanapur Textile Mill
- Saiyed Jute Spinning
- Karim Jute Mill
- Faridpur Cold Storage
- Sharif Jute Mill
- BADC Cold Storage
- Rokeya Textile
- A H Jute Mills
- Altu Khan Jute Mills Ltd (Panna Group)
- J & J Jute Mills
In 2014, the Bangladesh government announced plans to construct the long demanded Padma Multipurpose Bridge. When completed in 2017, it will be the longest bridge in South Asia. The Padma bridge will greatly help in developing the greater Faridpur region as it would connect Dhaka with the districts.
Places of interest
- Kobi Jasimuddin's House, residence of the renonwed Bengali poet Jasimuddin
- Faridpur District Court, 19th century colonial styled court house
- Mazar of Dewan Saker Shah, mausoleum of the Dewan of the Boalmari Estate
- River Research Institute
- Moyez Manzil Palace, a mansion of the Chanpur Estate
- Baisrashi Babu Bari Palace, a mansion of the Baisrashi Estate
- Kamlapur, historic neighbourhood housing colonial buildings and zamindar mansions
- Dighir Par Masjid, a mosque in Bhanga built during the Mughal era
- Basudeva Mandir, famous Hindu temple
- Faridpur Zila School, one of the oldest schools in Bangladesh
- Bishwa Zaker Monjil, a mansion of the Aatroshi Estate
- Sri Angan, headquarters of the Mahanam Sampraday of Hindus
- Dholar Mor, place near Padma River.
- Alaol Ali Abbas Husaini, 17th-century poet and nobleman in the royal court of Arakan
- Haji Shariatullah, 18th-century Muslim leader
- Nawab Abdul Latif, 19th-century educationist
- Syed Abdur Rabb, 20th-century Bengali Muslim journalist and social worker
- Ambica Charan Mazumdar, President of the Indian National Congress (1916-1917)
- Munsi Muhammad Abdur Rouf, Bir Shrestho of the Bangladesh Liberation War
- Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, founder of Bangladesh
- Maulvi Tamizuddin Khan, Speaker of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan
- Fazlur Rahman Khan, Bangladeshi-American architect and the "Einstein of structural engineering"
- Tareque Masud, award-winning independent film director
- Buddhadeb Bhattacharya, former Chief Minister of West Bengal
- Jasimuddin, renowned pastoral poet of Bengal
- Firoza Begum, eminent Nazrul sangeet exponent
- Sunil Gangopadhyay, Indian poet and novelist
- Altamas Kabir, 39th Chief Justice of India
- Yusuf Ali Chowdhury, controversial lawmaker and politician, sided with the Pakistani genocidaires in 1971 liberation war
- Mrinal Sen, Indian film maker
- Sigma Huda, Bangladeshi human rights activist and United Nations Special Rapporteur
- Fakir Alamgir, popular Bangladeshi folk singer
- Humayun Kabir, eminent Indian politician and Adviser to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru
- Chowdhury Abdallah Zaheeruddin, former Pakistani central minister
- Geeta Dutt, Indian playback singer
- Goutam Ghose, Indian film maker
Jasim Polli Mela
Jasim Polli Mela, an annual fair, is held in Faridpur to commemorate the birth of renowned Bengali poet Jasimuddin. It is held on 1 January for a month and is arranged by the Polli Jasim Foundation at the premises of the poet's home by the river Kumar of Govindapur village in Faridpur. Handicrafts, everyday items used by the rural folk, tools and other items used in agricultural, literary works of Jasimuddin and more are on display at the fair. Other attractions include puppet show; circus; live performance of 'jari', 'shari', 'bhawaiya' and 'murshidi' songs; dance and recitation. Around two hundred stalls have been set up.