Farmers' suicides in India

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India is an agrarian country with around 60% of its people depending directly or indirectly upon agriculture. Agriculture in India is often attributed as gambling with monsoons because of its almost exclusive dependency on precipitation from monsoons. The failure of these monsoons can lead to a series of droughts, lack of better prices, and exploitation of the farmers by middlemen, all of which have led to a series of suicides committed by farmers across India.[1]


Farmers in India became the centre of considerable concern in the 1990s when the journalist P Sainath highlighted the large number of suicides among them. Official reports initially denied the farmer suicides but as more and more information came to light the government began to accept that farmers in India were under considerable stress. On figures there was much debate since the issue was so emotive. More than 17,500 farmers a year killed themselves between 2002 and 2006, according to experts who have analyzed government statistics.[2]

Others traced the beginning of the increase in farmer suicides to the early 1990s.[3][4] It was said, a comprehensive all-India study is still awaited, that most suicides occurred in states of Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Punjab.[5][6][7][8][9] The situation was grim enough to force at least the Maharashtra government to set up a dedicated office to deal with farmers distress.[10]

In 2006, the state of Maharashtra, with 4,453 farmers’ suicides accounted for over a quarter of the all-India total of 17,060, according to the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB). NCRB also stated that there were at least 16,196 farmers' suicides in India in 2008, bringing the total since 1997 to 199,132.[11] According to another study by the Bureau, while the number of farm suicides increased since 2001, the number of farmers has fallen, as thousands abandoning agriculture in distress.[12]

According to government data, over 5,000 farmers committed suicide in 2005-2009 in Maharashtra, while 1,313 cases reported by Andhra Pradesh between 2005 and 2007. In Karnataka the number stood at 1,003, since 2005-06 till August 2009. According to IFFRI study number of suicides during 2005-2009 in Gujarat 387, Kerala 905, Punjab 75 and Tamil Nadu 26.[13] While 1802 farmers committed suicide in Chhattisgarh in 2009 and 1126 in 2010, in 2011 Chhattisgarh reported zero suicides among farmers, leading to accusations of fudging death data. [14] At least 17,368 Indian farmers killed themselves in 2009, the worst figure for farm suicides in six years, according to data of the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB).[15]

According to the latest statistics from the National Crime Records Bureau (2012), the farmer suicides statistics are as follows (Note: The NCRB lists suicides in the different employment categories, but it is not necessary that farming or crop-failure is the cause of the suicides listed in the "farmer" category):[16]

Farmer suicides in the Indian states (2012)
State Farmer suicides
Andhra Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Tamil Nadu
Himachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Jammu & Kashmir
Farmer suicides as a % of total suicides in the state (2012)
State Farmer suicides as a % of total suicides
Andhra Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
Tamil Nadu
Jammu & Kashmir


Significant reporting on suicides among farmers in India began in the 1990s In the 1990s India woke up to a spate of farmers suicides. One of the major reporters of these suicides was the Rural Affairs Editor of The Hindu, P. Sainath. The first state where suicides were reported was Maharashtra. Soon newspapers began to report similar occurrences from Andhra Pradesh.[17]

In the beginning it was believed that most of the suicides were happening among the cotton growers, especially those from Vidarbha.[18] A look at the figures given out by the State Crime Records Bureau, however, was sufficient to indicate that it was not just the cotton farmer but farmers as a professional category were suffering, irrespective of their holding size.[19] Moreover, it was not just the farmers from Vidarbha but all over Maharashtra who showed a significantly high suicide rate.[20][21]

Government inquiries[edit]

The government appointed a number of inquiries to look into the causes of farmers suicide and farm related distress in general. Subsequently Prime Minister Manmohan Singh visited Vidarbha and promised a package of ₹110 billion (about $2.4 billion) to be spent by the government in Vidarbha. The families of farmers who had committed suicide were also offered an ex gratia grant to the tune of ₹100,000 (about $2,000) by the government, though this amount was changed several times.[22]


Research by various investigators like Raj Patel,[2] Nagraj,[20][21] Srijit,[23] Behere and Behere,[24] and Meeta and Rajivlochan,[3] identified a variety of causes. India was transforming rapidly into a primarily urban, industrial society with industry as its main source of income; and the government and society had become unconcerned about the condition of the countryside.

Moreover, a downturn in the urban economy was pushing a large number of distressed non-farmers to try their hand at cultivation - the farmer was also caught in a Scissors Crisis. In the absence of any responsible counseling either from the government or society there were many farmers who did not know how to survive in the changing economy. Such stresses pushed many into a corner where suicide became an option.

Research in Andhra Pradesh showed the very rapid change in seed and pesticide products to have caused "deskilling" in the cotton sector.[25]


As much as 80% of India's farmland relies on flooding during monsoon season, so inadequate rainfall can cause droughts, making crop failure more common.[26][27] In regions that have experienced droughts, crop yields have declined, and food for cattle has become scarcer.[28] Agricultural regions that have been affected by droughts have subsequently seen their suicide rates increase.[29]

New Economic Policy[edit]

Left leaning economists like Utsa Patnaik, Jayati Ghosh and Prabhat Patnaik hold that structural changes in the macro-economic policy of Indian Government that favoured privatization, liberalization and globalization is the root cause of farmer suicides.[30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35]

GM crops[edit]

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, public attention was drawn to suicides by indebted farmers in India following crop failures.[36] As of 2009, 87% of Indian cotton-growing land was used for Bt cotton.[37] Various studies identify the important factors as insufficient or risky credit systems, the difficulty of farming semi-arid regions, poor agricultural income, absence of alternative income opportunities, a downturn in the urban economy which forced non-farmers into farming, and the absence of suitable counseling services.[38][39][40] The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and the Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR) stated that in the five years from 2007 to 2012 the cost of cotton cultivation had jumped, as a consequence of rising pesticide costs associated with Bt cotton production, while crop yield declined.[41]

In 2004, in response to a request from the All India Biodynamic and Organic Farming Association, the Mumbai High Court required the Tata Institute to produce a report on farmer suicides in Maharashtra, and the institute submitted its report in March 2005.[42][43] The survey cited "government apathy, the absence of a safety net for farmers, and lack of access to information related to agriculture as the chief causes for the desperate condition of farmers in the state."[42]

In 2008, a report published by the International Food Policy Research Institute, an agriculture policy think tank based in Washington DC, stated that there was no evidence for an increased suicide rate following the 2002 introduction of Bt cotton.[44] The report stated that farmer suicides predate the official commercial introduction of Bt cotton by Monsanto Mahyco in 2002 (and its unofficial introduction by Navbharat Seeds in 2001) and that such suicides were a fairly constant portion of the overall national suicide rate since 1997.[38][44]

The report concluded that while Bt cotton may have been a factor in specific suicides, the contribution was likely marginal compared to socio-economic factors. Anti-biotech activist Vandana Shiva criticized the report saying, "Nothing in that paper is addressing the issue of debt, which is the prime cause of suicide." [38][44]

In 2011, a review of the evidence regarding the relationship between Bt cotton and farmers' suicides in India was published in the Journal of Development Studies, also by researchers from IFPRI, which found that "Available data show no evidence of a ‘resurgence’ of farmer suicides. Moreover, Bt cotton technology has been very effective overall in India."[45]

More recently, in 2012 the ICAR and the CICR stated that for the first time farmer suicides could be linked to a decline in the performance of Bt cotton, and they issued an advisory stating that “cotton farmers are in a deep crisis since shifting to Bt cotton. The spate of farmer suicides in 2011-12 has been particularly severe among Bt cotton farmers.”[41] As of August 2012, technical experts appointed by the India Supreme Court have recommended a 10-year moratorium on all field trials of GM food, as well as the termination of all current trials of transgenic crops.[46]

Responses to farmers' suicides[edit]

Vidarbha was in the media for a spate of farmer suicides in recent years ostensibly because of the falling Minimum Support Price for cotton. The problem is complex and root causes include lopsided policies of the World Trade Organisation and developed nations' subsidies to their cotton farmers which make Vidarbha's cotton uncompetitive in world markets. Consequently Vidarbha is plagued by high rates of school drop outs, penniless widows left in the wake of suicides, loan sharks and exploitation of the vulnerable groups.[47]

The Indian government had promised to increase the minimum rate for cotton by approximately ₹122.90 ($2) but reneged on its promise by reducing the Minimum Support Price further. This resulted in more suicides as farmers were ashamed to default on debt payments to loan sharks. "In 2006, 1,044 suicides were reported in Vidarbha alone - that's one suicide every eight hours."[48]

In April 2007, a development consulting group named Green Earth Social Development Consulting produced a report after doing an audit of the state and central government relief packages in Vidarbha.[49][unreliable source?] The report's conclusions were:

  • Farmers' demands were not taken into account while preparing the relief package. Neither were civil society organisations, local government bodies, panchayats etc. consulted.
  • The relief packages were mostly amalgamations of existing schemes. Apart from the farmer helpline and the direct financial assistance, there was scarcely anything new being offered. Pumping extra funds into additional schemes shows that no new idea was applied to solve a situation where existing measures had obviously failed.
  • The farmer helpline did not give any substantial help to farmers except in Karnataka.
  • The basis for selection of beneficiaries under the assistance scheme was not well-defined. Also, type of assistance to be given led to problems like a farmer needing a pair of bullocks getting a pump set and vice versa (or a farmer who has no access to water sources being given pump sets)
  • Awareness regarding the package was also fairly low.

The report concluded quite alarmingly that the loan burden of the farmers would double in 2008.

To attract attention a variety of catch phrases were coined such as ‘SEZ’ or (Farmers) ‘Special Elimination Zone’ states.[50]

The government set up a dedicated group to deal with farm distress in 2006 known as the Vasantrao Naik Sheti Swavlamban Mission, based in Amravati[10] A group to study the Farmers Suicides was also constituted by the Government of Karnataka under the Chairmanship of Dr Veeresh, Former Vice Chancellor of Agricultural University and Prof Deshpande as member.[51]

In popular culture[edit]

Summer 2007 by producer Atul Pandey, focused on the issue of farmer suicides in Maharashtra's Vidarbha region, as did the 2009 Bollywood film Kissan.[52] Prior to this The Dying Fields, a documentary directed by Fred de Sam Lazaro was aired in August 2007 on Wide Angle (TV series). The 2010 award-winning film Jhing Chik Jhing is based around the emotive issue of farmer suicides in Maharashtra. It looks at how the farmer has very little in his control and looks at the impact of indebtedness on his family.[53] Additionally, Peepli Live is a dark comic satire from 2010 depicting the state of farmers' suicides in the fictional Indian state of Mukhya Pradesh, and the political and media frenzy surrounding them.

In 2006, a documentary by Indian film maker Sumit Khanna titled Mere Desh Ki Dharti, did a comprehensive review of the way we grow our food. A well researched and in-depth understanding of the agrarian crisis, it won the national award for the best Investigative film.

In 2009, the International Museum of Women included an examination of the impact of farmers' suicides on the lives of the farmers' wives and children in their exhibition Economica: Women and the Global Economy. Their slideshow "Growing Debt" and accompanying essay by curator Masum Momaya entitled "Money of Her Own" showed how many widows were left with the burden of their husbands' debts, and were forced to work as indentured servants to repay the debt. The widows were also unlikely to remarry, because other men in the community were unwilling to take on the widows' debts for themselves.[54]

  • The Corporation - Explains the impact of commodification and patenting life forms on independent farmers.
  • Battle in Seattle, (a 2007 film that quotes the Indian suicide statistic in the end credits)

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Shiva, Vandana. "Why Are Indian Farmers Committing Suicide and How Can We Stop This Tragedy?". Voltaire Network. Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Raj Patel, Stuffed and Starved, Portobello Books, London, 2007
  3. ^ a b Meeta and Rajivlochan (2006) Farmers suicide: facts and possible policy interventions, Yashada, Pune.
  4. ^ Glocal Hyperreal and the Sad Demise of the Corporeal: An Obituary
  5. ^ "Drought, debt lead to Indian farmers' suicides". Associated Press. Auhust 28, 2009. 
  6. ^ "Spate of farmers' suicides in India worrying WHO". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Oct 15, 2006. 
  7. ^ Waldman, Amy (June 6, 2004). "Debts and Drought Drive India's Farmers to Despair". New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-02. 
  8. ^ Huggler, Justin (2 July 2004). "India acts over suicide crisis on farms". London: The Independent. Retrieved 2010-05-02. 
  9. ^ Pinglay, Prachi (5 May 2008). "No let up in India farm suicides". BBC News. 
  10. ^ a b VNSS Mission
  11. ^ India together
  12. ^ "Farm suicides worse after 2001 — study". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Nov 13, 2007. .
  13. ^ "Farmers’ suicides in India not due to Bt cotton: IFFRI". Mint. Nov 11, 2008. 
  14. ^ "Chhattisgarh eliminates farmer suicides by fudging death data". Mumbai: The Times of India. Aug 27, 2012. Retrieved 2014-04-11. 
  15. ^ The Hindu-December 2010 column
  16. ^ "Farmer suicides: What do the Gujarat numbers really mean". Firstpost. 2014-03-27. 
  17. ^ Rediff News
  18. ^ Planning Commission report
  19. ^ 1. Meeta and Rajivlochan (2006) Farmers suicide: facts and possible policy interventions, Yashada, Pune, pp. 11-13.
  20. ^ a b Macroscan reports
  21. ^ a b Nagraj, K. (2008) Farmers suicide in India: magnitudes, trends and spatial patterns
  22. ^ M Rajivlochan (2007) "Farmers and firefighters" in Indian Express, August 28, 2007, [1]
  23. ^ Mishra, Srijit (2007). "Risks, Farmers’ Suicides and Agrarian Crisis in India: Is There A Way Out?". Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR). 
  24. ^ Behere PB, Behere AP. Farmers' suicide in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state: A myth or reality?. Indian J Psychiatry [serial online] 2008 [cited 2009 Oct 23];50:124-7. Available from:
  25. ^ Stone, Glenn Davis, 2007. "Agricultural Deskilling and the Spread of Genetically Modified Cotton in Warangal." Current Anthropology 48:67-103
  26. ^ Abid, R. (1 January 2013). "The myth of India’s ‘GM genocide’: Genetically modified cotton blamed for wave of farmer suicides". National Post. Retrieved 28 June 2013. 
  27. ^ Ghosh, P. (2 May 2013). "India Losing 2,000 Farmers Every Single Day: A Tale Of A Rapidly Changing Society". International Business Times. Retrieved 28 June 2013. 
  28. ^ Gagdekar, R. (25 March 2013). "Farmer suicides: No drought of grief in Gujarat". dna India. Retrieved 28 June 2013. 
  29. ^ The Associated Press (28 August 2009). "Indian farmers faced with debt and drought turn to suicide, leaving families helpless in the fields". Daily News (New York). Retrieved 28 June 2013. 
  30. ^ T.K Rajalakshmi. "It is a crisis rooted in economic reforms". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 
  31. ^ Freedom from Hunger, Jayati Ghosh
  32. ^ Kerala could arrest farmer suicides
  33. ^ State must engage with peasantry: Says Prabhat Patnaik
  34. ^ Prof. Prabhat Patnaik (JNU) interviewed by Pragya Singh
  35. ^ Distinguished lecture by Utsa Patnaik, University of Hyderabad
  36. ^ FRONTLINE/WORLD . Rough Cut . Seeds of Suicide. PBS (July 26, 2005).
  37. ^ Choudhary, B. & Gaur, K. 2010. Bt Cotton in India: A Country Profile. ISAAA Series of Biotech Crop Profiles. ISAAA: Ithaca, NY.
  38. ^ a b c Guillaume P. Gruère, Purvi Mehta-Bhatt and Debdatta Sengupta (2008). "Bt Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India: Reviewing the Evidence". International Food Policy Research Institute. 
  39. ^ Nagraj, K. (2008). "Farmers suicide in India: magnitudes, trends and spatial patterns". 
  40. ^ Mishra, Srijit (2007). "Risks, Farmers' Suicides and Agrarian Crisis in India: Is There A Way Out?". Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR). 
  41. ^ a b Times, Hindustan. "Ministry blames Bt cotton for farmer suicides - Hindustan Times". Retrieved 2013-05-02. 
  42. ^ a b Staff, InfoChange August 2005. 644 farmer suicides in Maharashtra since 2001, says TISS report
  43. ^ Dandekar A, et al, Tata Institute. Causes of Farmer Suicides in Maharashtra: An Enquiry. Final Report Submitted to the Mumbai High Court March 15, 2005
  44. ^ a b c "Doubts surround link between Bt cotton failure and farmer suicide : Article : Nature Biotechnology". Retrieved 2013-05-06. 
  45. ^ Gruère, G.; Sengupta, D. (2011). "Bt Cotton and Farmer Suicides in India: An Evidence-based Assessment". Journal of Development Studies 47 (2): 316–337. doi:10.1080/00220388.2010.492863. PMID 21506303.  edit
  46. ^ Economic Times of India Bureau (19 October 2012). "Panel recommends 10-year moratorium on Bt crop trial". The Times Of India. 
  47. ^ Deshpande and Arora. Agrarian Crisis and Farmer Suicides. Sage,. ISBN 978-81-321-0512-1(HB). 
  48. ^ "The Dying Fields". Wide Angle (TV series). PBS. 2007.
  49. ^ "GreenEarth report on Impact of Relief Packages on farmers suicides in Vidarbha". Retrieved 4 January 2012. 
  50. ^ "17,060 farm suicides in one year". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Jan 31, 2008. 
  51. ^ Deshpande(2002)
  52. ^ "Has Bollywood shut its eyes to movies on farmers?". The Economic Times. 29 Aug 2009. [dead link]
  53. ^ "Jhing Chik Jhing - a story of hope". January 2010. 
  54. ^ "Marriage and Money". Economica: Women and the Global Economy. October 2009.