|Ward of Farringdon Without|
Ward of Farringdon Without shown within Greater London
|OS grid reference|
|Sui generis||City of London|
|Administrative area||Greater London|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Postcode district||EC1, EC4|
|Police||City of London|
|UK Parliament||Cities of London and Westminster|
|London Assembly||City and East|
Farringdon Without is a ward in the City of London, the historic and financial centre of London. It covers the western fringes of the City, including the Middle Temple, Inner Temple, Chancery Lane, Smithfield and St Bartholomew's Hospital, as well as the area east of Chancery Lane.
It is the largest of the City's 25 wards, though was reduced in area considerably after a boundary review in 2003. Its resident population is 1,099 (2011).
Originally known as the Ward of Anketill de Auvergne, Farringdon was named after Sir Nicholas de Faringdon, who was appointed Lord Mayor of London for "as long as it shall please him" by King Edward II. The ward had been in the Faringdon family for 82 years at this time, his father, William de Faringdon preceding him as alderman in 1281, when he purchased the position. William de Faringdon was Lord Mayor in 1281-82 and also a warden of the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths. During the reign of King Edward I, as an alderman and goldsmith, William Faringdon was implicated in the arrest of English Jewry (some, fellow goldsmiths) for treason.
The ward was split into two in 1394: Farringdon Without and Farringdon Within. "Without" and "Within" denote whether the ward fell outside or within the London Wall — such designation also applied to the wards of Bridge Within and Without.
As well as goldsmiths, in medieval times the Fleet Ditch attracted many tanners and curriers to the ward. As the City became more populous, these trades were banished to the suburbs and by the 18th century the River Fleet had been culverted and built over. In its later years, the Fleet became little more than an open sewer, and the locality was given over to slums due to undesirable odours. The modern Farringdon Street was built over it, with the Fleet Market opening for the sale of meat, fish and vegetables in 1737. Charles Dickens described the market, in unflattering terms, in his novel Barnaby Rudge, set in 1780:
"Fleet Market, at that time, was a long irregular row of wooden sheds and penthouses, occupying the centre of what is now called Farringdon Street. They were jumbled together in a most unsightly fashion, in the middle of the road; to the great obstruction of the thoroughfare and the annoyance of passengers, who were fain to make their way, as they best could, among carts, baskets, barrows, trucks, casks, bulks, and benches, and to jostle with porters, hucksters, waggoners, and a motley crowd of buyers, sellers, pick–pockets, vagrants, and idlers. The air was perfumed with the stench of rotten leaves and faded fruit; the refuse of the butchers’ stalls, and offal and garbage of a hundred kinds. It was indispensable to most public conveniences in those days, that they should be public nuisances likewise; and Fleet Market maintained the principle to admiration."
On 27 January 1769, the radical John Wilkes was elected alderman for this ward, while a prisoner in Newgate Prison. This was after he had repeatedly been elected as a Member of Parliament and expelled from the British parliament for "outlawry"; essentially what was considered at the time 'obscene and malicious libel' against, among others, George III. Later, Wilkes became Lord Mayor of London (1774-75). Other famous aldermen included the scions of the Childs, Hoares and Goslings banking families.
Farringdon Without is one of 25 wards in the City of London, each electing an alderman to the Court of Aldermen and commoners (the City equivalent of a councillor) to the Court of Common Council of the City of London Corporation. Only electors who are Freemen of the City of London are eligible to stand.
- Farringdon station
- Fleet Street
- Alpheus Morton, deputy-Alderman of Farringdon Without from 1882 to 1923
- City of London Corporation - Farringdon Without. Retrieved 20 October 2006.
- 'Ward of Anketill de Auvergne', A Dictionary of London (1918). Date accessed: 27 October 2006.
- Nicholas de Faringdon served as Lord Mayor 1308-9, 1320-1, and again, 1323-4
- 'The Lord Mayors of London', Old and New London: Volume 1 (1878), pp. 396-416. Date accessed: 27 October 2006.
- 'Gregory's Chronicle: 1250-1367', The Historical Collections of a Citizen of London in the fifteenth century (1876), pp. 67-88. Date accessed: 27 October 2006.
- Dickens, Charles Barnaby Rudge (1841), chpt. 60
- Walter Thornbury, Old and New London: A Narrative of its History, its People and its Places. Illustrated with Numerous Engravings from the Most Authentic Sources.: Volume 2. Date accessed: 27 October 2006.
- Map of Early Modern London: Farringdon Ward (without) - Historical Map and Encyclopedia of Shakespeare's London (Scholarly)