The fossa ovalis. (Fascia lata labeled at bottom left.)
The fascia lata is the deep fascia of the thigh. It encloses the thigh muscles and forms the outer limit of the fascial compartments of thigh, which are internally separated by intermuscular septa. The fascia lata is thickened at its lateral side where it forms the iliotibial tract, a structure that runs to the tibia and serves as a site of muscle attachment.
The fascia lata is an investment for the whole of the thigh, but varies in thickness in different parts. It is thicker in the upper and lateral part of the thigh, where it receives a fibrous expansion from the gluteus maximus, and where the tensor fasciae latae is inserted between its layers; it is very thin behind and at the upper and medial part, where it covers the adductor muscles, and again becomes stronger around the knee, receiving fibrous expansions from the tendon of the biceps femoris laterally, from the sartorius medially, and from the quadriceps femoris in front.
Above and behind
The fascia lata is attached, above and behind (i.e. proximal and posterior), to the back of the sacrum and coccyx; laterally, to the iliac crest; in front, to the inguinal ligament, and to the superior ramus of the pubis; and medially, to the inferior ramus of the pubis, to the inferior ramus and tuberosity of the ischium, and to the lower border of the sacrotuberous ligament.
From its attachment to the iliac crest it passes down over the gluteus medius to the upper border of the gluteus maximus, where it splits into two layers, one passing superficial to and the other beneath this muscle; at the lower border of the muscle the two layers reunite.
Laterally, the fascia lata receives the greater part of the tendon of insertion of the Gluteus maximus, and becomes proportionately thickened.
The portion of the fascia lata attached to the front part of the iliac crest, and corresponding to the origin of the Tensor fasciae latae, extends down the lateral side of the thigh as two layers, one superficial to and the other beneath this muscle; at the lower end of the muscle these two layers unite and form a strong band, having first received the insertion of the muscle.
On either side of the patella it is strengthened by transverse fibers from the lower parts of the Vasti, which are attached to and support this bone.
Of these the lateral are the stronger, and are continuous with the iliotibial band.
The deep surface of the fascia lata gives off two strong intermuscular septa, which are attached to the whole length of the linea aspera and its prolongations above and below; the lateral and stronger one, which extends from the insertion of the gluteus maximus to the lateral condyle, separates the vastus lateralis in front from the short head of the biceps femoris behind, and gives partial origin to these muscles; the medial and thinner one separates the vastus medialis from the adductores and pectineus.
Besides these there are numerous smaller septa, separating the individual muscles, and enclosing each in a distinct sheath.
Since the 1920s fascia latas from deceased donors have been used in reconstructive surgery. In 1999 preserved mashed fascia latas became FDA-approved as a tissue product designed to replace areas of lost fascia or collagen.
It is named from its great extent. "Latus" give the superlative "Latissimus" meaning broadest or widest.
- Moore, KL; Dalley, AF; Agur, AM (2013). Clinically Oriented Anatomy (7th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 532. ISBN 978-1-4511-8447-1.
- Anatomy.med[dead link]
- Burres S (October 1999). "Preserved particulate fascia lata for injection: a new alternative". Dermatol Surg 25 (10): 790–4. doi:10.1046/j.1524-4725.1999.99118.x. PMID 10594581.
- Diab, M (1999). Lexicon of Orthopaedic Etymology. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-9057025976.