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Cross-section through middle of left leg. (Anterior compartment at upper left; lateral at center left; deep posterior at center; superficial posterior at bottom right.)
A compartment is a section within the body that contains muscles and nerves and is surrounded by fascia. In the human body, limbs such as the arms and legs contain multiple compartments. For example, there are two compartments in the upper arm: anterior and posterior and 4 compartments in the lower leg: anterior, lateral, and posterior (deep and superficial).
If these segments are cut transversely, it is apparent that they are divided into multiple sections. These are called fascial compartments, and are formed by tough connective tissue septa.
These compartments usually have a separate nerve and blood supply to their neighbours. The muscles in each compartment will often all be supplied by the same nerve. 
Sometimes the segment is also covered by bone profoundly (as e.g. the brachial fascia). It is distinguished from pharmacokinetic compartment, which is a defined volume of body fluids.
Compartment syndrome is an acute medical problem following injury or surgery in which increased pressure (usually caused by inflammation) occurs within a compartment.
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