Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry
Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is cyclic voltammetry with a very high scan rate (up to 1×106 V·s−1). Application of high scan rate allows rapid acquisition of a voltammogram within several milliseconds and ensures high temporal resolution of this electroanalytical technique. An acquisition rate of 10 Hz is routinely employed.
FSCV in combination with carbon-fiber microelectrodes became a very popular method for detection of neurotransmitters, hormones and metabolites in biological systems. Initially, FSCV was successfully used for detection of electrochemically active biogenic amines release in chromaffin cells (adrenaline and noradrenaline), brain slices (5-HT, dopamine, norepinephrine) and in vivo in anesthetized or awake and behaving animals (dopamine). Further refinements of the method have enabled detection of 5-HT, norepinephrine, adenosine, oxygen, pH changes in vivo in rats and mice as well as measurement of dopamine and serotonin concentration in fruit flies.
Principles of FSCV
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Measurement of dopamine in vivo
FSCV is used to monitor changes in concentration of dopamine in mammalian brain in real time with sensitivity down to 1 nM. Using an acquisition rate of 10 Hz is fast enough to sample dynamics of neurotransmitter release and clearance. Pharmacological action of dopaminergic drugs such as D1 and D2 receptors agonists and antagonist (raclopride, haloperidol), dopamine transporter blockers (cocaine, nomifensine, GBR 12909) could be evaluated with FSCV. The fast acquisition rate also allows the study of dopamine dynamics during behavior.
FSCV of dopamine dynamics and drug addiction
The effects of psychostimulants (cocaine, amphetamine and methamphetamine), opioids (morphine and heroin), cannabinoids, alcohol and nicotine on dopaminergic neurotransmission and development of drug addiction was studied with FSCV.
FSCV of dopamine dynamics and decision making
Dopamine is a primary neurotransmitter mediating learning, goal-directing behavior and decision making. Monitoring of dopamine concentration in vivo in behaving animals with FSCV reveals dopamine coding of the brain's decision making process.
Measurement of other monoamine neurotransmitters
FSCV is used to study dynamics of exocytosis of noradrenaline and adrenaline from chromaffin cells; release of serotonin from mast cells; release of 5-HT in brain slices; release of 5-HT in brain of anesthetized rodents and fruite flies; release of norepinephrine in brain of anesthetized and freely moving rodents.
Measurement of metabolites
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