Fastback

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For other uses, see Fastback (disambiguation).
Art Deco fastback: 1935 Stout Scarab
Finned fastback: 1936–1950 Tatra T87

A fastback is a car body style whose roofline slopes continuously down at the back. The word can also designate the car itself.[1][2] The style is seen on two-door coupés as well as four-door sedans.

History[edit]

Starting in the 1930s, designers began using elements of aircraft aerodynamics to smooth out the boxy-looking automobile.[3] Some designs that were ahead of their time when exhibited during the early 1930s included "teardrop" streamlining of the car's rear; a configuration similar to what would become known as 'fastback' 25 years later."[4] 'Fastback' was first recognized as a definition by Merriam-Webster in 1954, many years before the term 'hatchback' was popularized and entered the dictionary in 1970.[5] Opinions vary as to whether the terms are mutually exclusive.

A contributor to an automotive-interest website singles out the unusual Stout Scarab from the early 1930s as "[p]ossibly the epitome of the early fastback definition".[6] The Packard 1106 Twelve Aero Sport Coupe,[7] introduced in 1933, is cited elsewhere as a fastback that foreshadowed trends which continued into the 1940s.[8]

Starting in 1935, Australian automakers introduced fastback body design that became known as the "Sloper". It was first designed by General Motors' Holden as one of the available bodies on Oldsmobile, Chevrolet, and Pontiac chassis. The Sloper design was added by Richards Body Builders in Australia to Dodge and Plymouth models in 1937, by Ford Australia in 1939 and 1940, as well as a sloper style made on Nash chassis.[9] According to automotive historian G.N. Georgano, "the Slopers were advanced cars for their day."[10]

Early European fastback automobiles include: Bugatti Type 57 Atlantic, Tatra T87, Porsche 356, Saab 92/96, Standard Vanguard, GAZ-M20 Pobeda, and Bentley Continental R-Type.

Numerous fastbacks were also made in America, where the style was previously called "torpedo back".[11] They included Cadillac's Series 61 and 62 Club Coupes as well as various models from General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler. In 1948, the all new Hudsons were available a fastback body for the Brougham and sedan models.[12]

At the 2007 EyesOn Design annual car show, entries from the mid-1930s to the mid-1950s in a class called "Fabulous Fastbacks" included Nash Ambassador, Buick Roadmaster and Hudson Commodore models.[6] A "Return of the Fastbacks" class at this show included examples from the 1960s and 1970s with a Buick Riviera, Ford Mustang Cobra, and an AMC AMX among others.[6]

At a 2007 concours d'élégance in England, a similarly named class for 1950s cars attracted examples from Maserati,[13] Lancia,[14] Fiat [15] and Ferrari.[16]

Aerodynamic advantages[edit]

Rear-engined fastback: Porsche 356

Fastbacks provide an advantage in developing aerodynamic vehicles with a low drag coefficient.[17] The Kamm tail is a related concept. The trend towards a more steeply raked rear window on traditional three-box sedans blurs the distinction between fastback and notchback designs. However, the roof of a true fastback design slopes down continuously to the rear, most often to the base of the trunk at the rear bumper. There is no distinct change of angle to a rear deck, whereas most four-door cars with steeply raked rear windows have less angled trunk lids; also high tails to maximize cargo space.

In 2008, the fastback design appeared on a concept car that almost defies categorization, the Chrysler ecoVoyager, that "Jack Telnack, former design chief for the Ford Motor Company, declared, 'It’s a fastback van.'"[18] New types of crossover vehicles and different body proportions made possible by technological advances and new powerplants, are changing the shape of automobiles. Traditional nomenclature describing distinct vehicle bodies, such as the three-box sedan (engine compartment, passenger cabin and trunk) will vanish.[18]

Fastback types[edit]

A hatchback/liftback: 1999 Toyota Celica

Hatchbacks and liftbacks[edit]

When the rear window of a car with a fastback profile is integral to a lid or 'fifth door' (i.e. a hatch) giving access to the trunk area, the car may also fit the classification of hatchback or liftback. The late-model Toyota Celica and the Chevrolet Vega are examples.

A definition of a fastback by Road & Track addresses this distinction: "A closed body style, usually a coupe but sometimes a sedan, with a roof sloped gradually in an unbroken line from the windshield to the rear edge of the car. A fastback naturally lends itself to a hatchback configuration and many have it, but not all hatchbacks are fastbacks and vice versa."[19]

Some small family cars have evolved over time from fastbacks into liftbacks without altering their profile, e.g. Fiat 127, Volkswagen Passat, and Citroën GS.

Two-door fastbacks[edit]

1950 Chevrolet Fleetline, one of several American fastbacks
GT fastback: race-prepared 1966 Toyota 2000GT
Hardtop fastback: 1967 Rambler Marlin
Pony car fastback: 1968 Ford Mustang
full-size fastback: 1968 Mercury Monterey
Small fastback: Fiat 127 first series
Four-door fastback: Citroën CX
Modern fastback: Mercedes-Benz CLS-Class

Four-door fastbacks[edit]

Tatra 77A

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "fastback". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  2. ^ "fastback". The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  3. ^ Walker, Clinton (2009). Golden Miles: Sex, Speed and the Australian Muscle Car. Wakefield Press. p. 16. ISBN 9781862548541. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  4. ^ Georgano, Nick N., ed. (2000). The Beaulieu encyclopedia of the automobile. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. p. 960. ISBN 978-1-57958-293-7. Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  5. ^ "hatchback". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c Clements, Rob. "EyesOn Design 2007 Report". Ultimatecarpage.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  7. ^ Packard 1106 Twelve Aero Sport Coupe photo[dead link], retrieved on August 15, 2008
  8. ^ Adler, Dennis (2004). Packard. MotorBooks/MBI. p. 960. ISBN 978-0-7603-1928-4. Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  9. ^ "The Sloper Page". Hand Publishing. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  10. ^ Walker, p. 18.
  11. ^ "The Forty-Niners". Time. 24 January 1949. Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  12. ^ Flory, J. Kelly (2008). American cars, 1946-1959: every model, year by year. McFarland. pp. 153–155. ISBN 9780786452309. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  13. ^ "1954 Maserati A6G54 Zagato photograph". italiaspeed.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  14. ^ "circa 1958 Lancia Flaminia Zagato photograph". italiaspeed.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  15. ^ "1958 Fiat 8V photograph". italiaspeed.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  16. ^ "Ferrari 250 GT Tour de France photograph". italiaspeed.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  17. ^ Noffsinger, Ken R. "The G-Series Wind Tunnel Test Report" retrieved on 2008-05-23.[dead link]
  18. ^ a b Patton, Phil (20 January 2008). "Looking at the Slope of Things to Come". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  19. ^ Dinkel, John (2000). Road & Track Illustrated Automotive Dictionary. Bentley. ISBN 0-8376-0143-6. 
  20. ^ King, Jenny (26 June 2007). "EyesOn Design show focuses on breathtaking aerodynamics". Detroit News. Retrieved 4 March 2013. [dead link]
  21. ^ Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (20 June 2007). "1934, 1935, 1936 and 1937 Pierce-Arrows". Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  22. ^ Leggett, Jullian (November 1940). "The 1941 cars". Popular Mechanics 74 (5): 116A. Retrieved 8 July 2012. 
  23. ^ Gunnell, John (2005). Catalogue of Cadillac 1903–2005. KP Books. p. 136. ISBN 9780873492898. 
  24. ^ Flory, Jr., J. "Kelly" (2008). American Cars, 1946-1959 Every Model Every Year. McFarland. p. 283. ISBN 978-0-7864-3229-5. Retrieved 8 July 2012. 
  25. ^ "1950 Martin Stationette". Jay Leno’s Garage. 15 March 2008. Archived from the original on 1 March 2009. Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  26. ^ Smale, Glen (2007). Jaguar E-type: Portrait of a design icon. Haynes Publishing. p. 77. ISBN 9781844253388. The sleek fastback shape of the rear bodywork... 
  27. ^ Thorley, Nigel (2005). Jaguar All the Cars. Haynes Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 9781844250011. roof slopes back (fastback) to form a side-opening door with...rear screen... 
  28. ^ Gunnell, John (2005). American Cars of the 1960s. Krause Publications. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-89689-131-9. Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  29. ^ Severson, Aaron (25 December 2009). "What's a Matador? AMC's Midsize Classic, Rebel, and Matador Coupe". ateupwithmotor com. Retrieved 8 July 2012. 
  30. ^ Foster, Patrick R. (1993). American Motors - The Last Independent. Krause Publications. p. 195. ISBN 978-0-87341-240-7. 
  31. ^ Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (20 June 2007). "1933 Pierce-Arrow Silver Arrow". howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 1 August 2013. 
  32. ^ Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (13 June 2007). "How Tucker Cars Work". Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  33. ^ Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (6 November 2007). "1949-1951 Nash Airflyte". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 4 March 2013. 
  34. ^ Flory, J. Kelly (2008). American Cars 1946-1959: Every Model Year by Year. McFarland. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-7864-3229-5. Retrieved 4 March 2013. Around back, all cars were of a fastback design, and all panels—roof, rear quarter panels, and decklid—met smoothly at the rear bumper.