Fastest animals

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This is a list of the fastest animals in the world, grouped by types of animal.

Mammals[edit]

Animal Maximum speed Notes
Cheetah 112–120 km/h (70–75 mph)[a] The Cheetah can accelerate from 0 to 96.6 km/h (60.0 mph) in under three seconds, though endurance is limited: most Cheetahs run for only 60 seconds at a time.[1] When sprinting, cheetahs spend more time in the air than on the ground.[7]
Free-tailed bat
(in flight)
700196600000000000096.6 km/h (60.0 mph)[b] Some attribute such flying capabilities specifically to the Mexican free-tailed bat.[9] Tail wind is what allows free-tailed bats to reach such high speeds.[10]
Pronghorn 700188500000000000088.5 km/h (55.0 mph)[c] The Pronghorn (American Antelope) is the fastest animal over long distances; it can run 56 km/h for 6 km (35 mph for 4 mi), 67 km/h for 1.6 km (42 mph for 1 mi), and 88.5 km/h for .8 km (55 mph for .5 mi).[1]
Springbok 700188000000000000088 km/h (55 mph)[15][16] The springbok, an antelope of the gazelle tribe in southern Africa,[16] can make long jumps and sharp turns while running. Unlike pronghorns, springboks are poor long-distance runners.[1]
Wildebeest 700180500000000000080.5 km/h (50.0 mph)[d] The wildebeest, an antelope, exists as two species: the blue wildebeest and the black wildebeest. Both are extremely fast runners, which allows them to flee from predators.[19] They are better at endurance running than at sprinting.[18]
Blackbuck 700180000000000000080 km/h (50 mph)[15][20] The blackbuck antelope can sustain speeds of 80 km/h (50 mph) for over 1.5 km (0.93 mi) at a time.[20] Each of its strides (i.e., the distance between its hoofprints) is 5.8–6.7 m (19–22 ft).[15]
Lion 700150000000000000080 km/h (50 mph) Lionesses are faster than males and can reach maximum speeds of 35 mph (57 km/h)[21] on short distances of the order of approximately 90 meters, and a top speed on 50 mph (80 km/h) for 20 meters. Lions are very agile and have fast reflexes. As other predators, they hunt sick prey. Their rates of success in hunting is greatest at night. Lions hunt especially buffalos, giraffes, warthogs, wildebeests and zebras, and sometimes various antelopes as opportunities present themselves.
Greyhound 700174000000000000074 km/h (46 mph)[e] Greyhounds are the fastest dogs, and have primarily been bred for coursing game and racing.
Jackrabbit 700172000000000000072 km/h (45 mph)[f] The jackrabbit's strong hind legs allow it to leap 3 m (9.8 ft) in one bound; some can even reach 6 m (20 ft).[31] Jackrabbits use a combination of leaps and zig-zags to outrun predators.[25]
African wild dog 700171000000000000071 km/h (44 mph)[g] When hunting, African wild dogs can sprint at 66 km/h (41 mph) in bursts, and they can maintain speeds of 56–60 km/h (35–37 mph) for up to 4.8 km (3 mi).[35][36] Their targeted prey rarely escapes.[33]
Kangaroo 700171000000000000071 km/h (44 mph)[h] The comfortable hopping speed for a kangaroo is about 21–26 km/h (13–16 mph), but speeds of up to 71 km/h (44 mph) can be attained over short distances, while it can sustain a speed of 40 km/h (25 mph) for nearly 2 km (1.2 mi).[38] The faster a kangaroo hops, the less energy it consumes (up to its cruising speed).[37]
Horse 700170760000000000070.76 km/h (43.97 mph)[39] According to the Guinness World Records, the fastest speed for a race horse, 70.76 km/h (43.97 mph), was achieved by the horse "Winning Brew" in a 2008 race in Grantville, Pennsylvania.
Onager 700170000000000000070 km/h (43 mph)[i] The onager consists of several subspecies, which most likely share the same ability to run at high speeds.[42]
Thomson's gazelle 700170000000000000070 km/h (43 mph)[j] Thomson's gazelles, being long-distance runners, can escape cheetahs by sheer endurance.[44] Their speed is partially due to their "stotting", or bounding leaps.[43]
Coyote 700165000000000000065 km/h (40 mph)[k] Coyotes can easily reach 48 km/h (30 mph), and can sprint at 65 km/h (40 mph) when hunting.[46] Even when lacking a front foot, a coyote can still run at around 32 km/h (20 mph).[45]
Common Dolphin 700165000000000000065 km/h (40 mph)[l] Common Dolphins are the fastest marine mammal. When reaching their top speed, they take very short breaths. As an example, Fin whales, which are much larger, can empty and refill their lungs in 2 seconds
Zebra 700164000000000000064 km/h (40 mph)[m] Zebras have a home range anywhere between 11 and 232 sq mi (28 and 601 km2) and they can travel 10 mi (16 km) a day while grazing.[51]
Tiger 700164000000000000064 km/h (40 mph)[n] Tigers are the largest species of big cat in the world. They live in jungles, and have been clocked going anywhere from 30 mph (48 km/h) to 40 mph (64 km/h), although only in short bursts.
Hyena 700160000000000000060 km/h (37 mph)[o] The hyena can run up to 60 km/h (37 mph); some attribute this performance specifically to the spotted hyena.[55] They use their speed to chase their prey, sometimes traveling 15 mi (24 km) in a single chase.
Human 700127790000000000044.72 km/h (27.79 mph)[56] Usain Bolt set the 100m world record at 9.58 seconds, which is about 10.44 meters/sec (23.35 mph, 37.58 km/h). His fastest speed during that sprint was 12.42 meters/sec (27.79 mph, 44.72 km/h) during the 60m to 80m interval. Compared to other land animals, humans are exceptionally capable of endurance, but exceptionally incapable of great speed.
Elephant 700125000000000000040 km/h (25 mph)[57] The biologist John Hutchinson, in workbench a real record in 2002, by organizing a running with 42 elephants, the fastest reached 15 mph (24 km/h) on average during the sprint, by knowing that he weighs only 3 tons (what is little compared with an African elephant which must be even less fast). In the short period, values as a top speed 25 mph (40 km/h), the elephant it is to run, but if we compare him with the other animals, he is not very fast.[clarification needed]

Birds[edit]

Animal Maximum recorded speed Notes
Peregrine Falcon 389 km/h (242 mph)[58][59] The Peregrine Falcon is the fastest bird, and the fastest member of the animal kingdom. When in its hunting dive, the stoop, it soars to a great height, then dives steeply at speeds of over 200 mph. However, it does not hold first place when travelling in level flight.
White-throated Needletail 169 km/h (105 mph)[60][61][62] The fastest-flying bird in flapping flight.
Eurasian Hobby 160 km/h (100 mph)[63] It can sometimes even outfly birds such as the Swift when hunting.
Frigatebird 153 km/h (95 mph)[64]

The frigatebird's high speed is helped by its having the largest wingspan to body weight ratio of any bird.

Anna's Hummingbird 98.27 km/h (61.06 mph)[65] The stated speed equals 385 body lengths per second, the highest known length-specific velocity attained by any vertebrate.
Ostrich 97 km/h (60 mph)[66] The ostrich is the tallest and heaviest species of all living birds. Although its bulky body means that flying is out of the question, the ostrich has adapted to life on the ground with impressive agility. Ostriches are superb runners that can sprint at speeds of up to 45 mph (72 km/h)[67] on average, with a peak 60 mph (97 km/h) during short periods, with 12 foot strides. This also makes the ostrich the fastest animal on two legs. The ostrich is also an endurance runner and can jog at 30 mph (48 km/h) for as long as half an hour.

Reptiles[edit]

Animal Maximum recorded speed Notes
Bearded Dragon 34 km/h (21 mph)[citation needed]
Leatherback Sea Turtle 35.28 km/h (21.92 mph)[68] Leatherback turtles have the most hydrodynamic body design of any sea turtle, with a large, teardrop-shaped body.
Six-lined Racerunner 32 km/h (20 mph)[69]
Black Mamba 23 km/h (14 mph)[70]

Fish[edit]

Animal Maximum recorded speed Notes
Black marlin 130 km/h (80 mph)[71] A hooked black marlin has been recorded stripping line off a fishing reel at 120 feet per second (82 mph).[71]
Sailfish 109.19 km/h (67.85 mph)[72] In a series of tests carried out in a fishing cam at Long Key, Florida, USA, sailfish swam and leapt 91 meters in 3 seconds, equivalent to a speed of 109 km/h., although this speed includes leaps out of the water, which do not strictly qualify as swimming speed.[73]
Swordfish 97 km/h (60 mph)[74] The 60 mph figure listed for the swordfish is based on a corrupted version of calculations made by Sir James Gray to estimate the impact speed necessary for a hypothetical 600-lb swordfish to embed its sword 3 feet in the timbers of ships, as has been known to occur; the figure seems to have entered the literature without question as though someone had actually timed a swordfish at that speed.[75]

Insects[edit]

Animal Maximum recorded speed Notes
Horse-fly 140 km/h (90 mph)[76][77][unreliable source?] Male of species Hybomitra hinei wrighti is the fastest flying insect known to science.[77][unreliable source?]
Dark Sword-grass 110 km/h (70 mph)[77][unreliable source?] Moth also known as Black Cutworm from Noctuidae Family.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Different sources cite different speeds; estimates include 96–120 km/h (60–75 mph),[1] 98 km/h (61 mph),[2] 100 km/h (62 mph),[3] 104 km/h (65 mph),[4] and 104.4 km/h (64.9 mph).[5][6] There is a tendency to overestimate the speed of fast animals, and claims of the cheetah running 114 km/h (71 mph) or faster have been discredited.[1][6]
  2. ^ Estimates include 95 km/h (59 mph)[8] and 96.6 km/h (60.0 mph).[9][10]
  3. ^ Estimates include "over 53 miles (86 kilometers) per hour",[11] 88.5 km/h (55.0 mph),[1][4] an "alleged top speed of 60 miles an hour [96.6 km/h]" (emphasis added),[12] 98 km/h (61 mph),[13] and "a top speed of about 100 km/hr [62 mph]" (emphasis added).[14]
  4. ^ Estimates include 70 km/h (43 mph) (specifically the black wildebeest),[17] "approximately 80 km/h or 50 mph",[18] and "over 50 miles per hour [80.5 km/h]" (specifically the blue wildebeest).[19]
  5. ^ Estimates include 67 km/h (42 mph),[22] 68.4 km/h (42.5 mph),[23] and 69 km/h (43 mph).[4]
  6. ^ Estimates include 64 km/h (40 mph),[24][25] 70 km/h (43 mph),[26]:237[27] and 72 km/h (45 mph) (some attribute this to the antelope jackrabbit,[8] others to the white-tailed jackrabbit,[28][29] and still others to jackrabbits in general.[30])
  7. ^ Estimates include 66 km/h (41 mph)[32] and 71 km/h (44 mph)[33][34]
  8. ^ Estimates include "more than 30 miles per hour (48 kilometers per hour)"[37] and 71 km/h (44 mph).[38]
  9. ^ Estimates include 64 km/h (40 mph),[40]:169 69 km/h (43 mph) (specifically for the kulan subspecies),[41] and 70 km/h (43 mph) (specifically for the Persian subspecies).[42]
  10. ^ Estimates include 64 km/h (40 mph)[43] and 70 km/h (43 mph).[44]
  11. ^ Estimates include 64 km/h (39.8 mph),[45] 64.4 km/h (40 mph),[46] and 65 km/h (40 mph)[47]:55
  12. ^ Estimates include 64 km/h (39.8 mph),[48]
  13. ^ Estimates include 35 mph (56 km/h)[49] and 40 mph (64 km/h) for both the Grévy's zebra and Burchell's zebra.[50][51]
  14. ^ Estimates include 40 mph (64 km/h)[52]
  15. ^ Estimates include 30 mph (48 km/h),[53] 25–31 mph (40–50 km/h) (specifically for the brown hyena)[54] and 37 mph (60 km/h)[40]:160[55]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Carwardine, Mark (2008). Animal Records. New York: Sterling. pp. 11, 43. ISBN 9781402756238. 
  2. ^ Smith, Roff (2 August 2012). "Cheetah Breaks Speed Record—Beats Usain Bolt by Seconds". National Geographic Daily News (National Geographic Society). 
  3. ^ Sears, Edward S. (2001). Running Through the Ages. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. p. 5. ISBN 9780786409716. 
  4. ^ a b c "Even Rohan Harikumar can't beat greyhounds, cheetahs...or pronghorn antelope". ScienceDaily. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  5. ^ "Speed sensation". Nature Video Collections. BBC Nature. 
  6. ^ a b Sharp, N. C. C. (1 March 1997). "Timed running speed of a cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)". Journal of Zoology 241 (3): 493–494. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1997.tb04840.x. 
  7. ^ Bardo, Matt (2012-09-08). "Cheetah's speed secrets revealed". BBC Nature. Retrieved 2012-01-07. 
  8. ^ a b Feldhamer, George A.; Bruce C., Thompson; Chapman, Joseph A., eds. (21 October 2003). Wild Mammals of North America: Biology, Management, and Conservation (2nd ed.). The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 65, 140, 909. ISBN 0801874165. 
  9. ^ a b Hamilton Jr, W. J. (1998). Mammals of the Eastern United States. Cornell University Press. pp. 76,147. ISBN 9780801434754. 
  10. ^ a b Tuttle, Merlin (1994). "The Lives of Mexican Free-tailed Bats". BATS Magazine (Bats Conservation International) 12 (3). Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  11. ^ "Pronghorn (Antilocapra americana)". National Geographic. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  12. ^ Nowak, Rachel (1 December 1992). "The Pronghorn's Prowess". Discover Magazine (Kalmbach Publishing Co). Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  13. ^ Krejci, Kandace; Dewey, Tanya. "Antilocarpa americana: pronghorn". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  14. ^ McKean, Tom; Ben Walker (September 1974). "Comparison of selected cardiopulmonary parameters between the pronghorn and the goat". Respiration Physiology 21 (3): 365–370. doi:10.1016/0034-5687(74)90066-8. ISSN 0034-5687. PMID 4417857. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  15. ^ a b c Burton, Maurice; Burton, Robert (1 January 2002). International Wildlife Encyclopedia Set. Marshall Cavendish. pp. 226, 2499. ISBN 9780761472667. 
  16. ^ a b Estest, Richard. "springbok". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  17. ^ Kohn, Tertius Abraham (1 December 2011). "Black wildebeest skeletal muscle exhibits high oxidative capacity and a high proportion of type IIx fibres". The Journal of Experimental Biology 214 (23): 4041–4047. doi:10.1242/jeb.061572. ISSN 0022-0949. 
  18. ^ a b McGowan, Christopher (28 February 1999). A Practical Guide to Vertebrate Mechanics. Cambridge University Press. p. 162. ISBN 9780521576734. 
  19. ^ a b PBS. "Animal Guide: Blue Wildebeest". Nature. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  20. ^ a b Nowak, Ronald M. (7 April 1999). Walker's Mammals of the World. JHU Press. p. 1193. ISBN 9780801857898. 
  21. ^ Rosamond Gifford Zoo Education: African Lion
  22. ^ Branigan, Cynthia A. (14 April 2004). Adopting the Racing Greyhound. John Wiley & Sons. p. 17. ISBN 9780764558986. 
  23. ^ Knight, Kathryn (15 July 2012). "How Cheetahs Outpace Greyhounds". The Journal of Experimental Biology 215 (14): i–i. doi:10.1242/jeb.075788. ISSN 0022-0949. 
  24. ^ Virchow, Dallas; Hygnstrom, Scott; Ferraro, Dennis (1 January 2003). "G03-1526 Prevention and Control of Rabbit Damage". Historical Materials from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension. 
  25. ^ a b "Jackrabbit: Lepus californicus". National Geographic. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  26. ^ Vaughan, Terry; Ryan, James; Czaplewski, Nicholas (21 April 2011). Mammalogy. Jones & Bartlett Learning. ISBN 9780763762995. 
  27. ^ Mares, Michael A.; Oklahoma Museum of Natural History (199). Deserts. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 310. ISBN 9780806131467. 
  28. ^ "Whitetailed jackrabbit". Nevada Wildlife: Fact Sheets. Nevada Department of Wildlife. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  29. ^ "White-tailed Jackrabbit". Iowa Department of Natural Resources. March 2004. 
  30. ^ Deal, Kevin H. (1 June 2002). Wildlife & Natural Resource Management. Cengage Learning. p. 129. ISBN 9780766826816. 
  31. ^ Ballenger, Liz. "Lepus californicus: black-tailed jackrabbit". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 9 January 2013. 
  32. ^ Endangered Wildlife and Plants of the World: Dee-fox. Marshall Cavendish. 2001. p. 458. ISBN 9780761471981. 
  33. ^ a b World Wildlife Fund. "African Wild Dog". Species. Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  34. ^ Hart, Donna L.; Sussman, Robert W. (2005). Man The Hunted: Primates, Predators, and Human Evolution. Basic Books. p. 105. ISBN 9780813339368. 
  35. ^ African Wildlife Foundation. "African Wild Dog". Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  36. ^ "African Wild Dog". Animal Bytes. San Diego Zoo. Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  37. ^ a b Zoological Society of San Diego. "Animal Bytes: Kangaroo and Wallaby". San Diego Zoo. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  38. ^ a b Penny, Malcolm (2002). The Secret Life of Kangaroos. Austin TX: Raintree Steck-Vaughn. ISBN 0739849867. 
  39. ^ "Fastest speed for a race horse". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  40. ^ a b Cooke, Fred; Bruce, Jenni (1 October 2004). The Encyclopedia of Animals: A Complete Visual Guide. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520244061. 
  41. ^ Reuter, Bradley. "Equus hemionus: kulan". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  42. ^ a b Grogan, Jill. "Equus hemionus onager: onager". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  43. ^ a b "Thomson's Gazelle: Gazella thomsonii". National Geographic. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  44. ^ a b Auman, Amy; Fye, Rachael; Dewey, Tanya. "Eudorcas thomsonii: Thomson's gazelle". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  45. ^ a b Verts, B. J.; Carraway, Leslie N. (1998). Land Mammals of Oregon. University of California Press. p. 360. ISBN 9780520211995. 
  46. ^ a b U.S. Department of the Interior National Park Service. "The Coyote". Big Bend National Park. Retrieved 10 January 2013. 
  47. ^ North American Wildlife. Marshall Cavendish. 1 September 2010. ISBN 9780761479383. 
  48. ^ "Marine Mammals - Descriptions & Behvior". MarineBio.org. MarineBio.org. Retrieved 28 April 2013. 
  49. ^ Zoological Society of San Diego. "Animal Bytes: Zebra". San Diego Zoo. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  50. ^ African Wildlife Foundation. "Grevy's Zebra". Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  51. ^ a b "Damara zebra". Oregon Zoo. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  52. ^ Environmental Graffiti activist site. "50 Fun Facts About Tigers". Retrieved 5 February 2014. 
  53. ^ Zoological Society of San Diego. "Animal Bytes: Spotted Hyena". San Diego Zoo. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  54. ^ Schmidtke, Mike; University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. "Hyaena brunnea: brown hyena". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  55. ^ a b Mills, M. G. L.; Mills, Gus; Hofer, Heribert (1998). Hyaenas: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN. p. 33. ISBN 9782831704425. 
  56. ^ Sporting Speed Records
  57. ^ Liberation - The elephant is a runner[unreliable source?]
  58. ^ Falling with the Falcon | Flight Today | Air & Space Magazine
  59. ^ Video of peregrine falcon
  60. ^ trails.com
  61. ^ travelalmanac.com
  62. ^ Newton
  63. ^ Seago, Michael J. "Birds of Britain - Hobby, Falco subbuteo". Retrieved 13 January 2013. 
  64. ^ Top 10 fastest animals | OneKind
  65. ^ Courtship dives of Anna's hummingbird offer insights into flight performance limits
  66. ^ GopetsAmerica Extreme Facts About Birds Records, Fastest running bird: ostrich
  67. ^ Ostrich : Fort Wayne Children's Zoo
  68. ^ McFarlan, Donald (1991). Guinness Book of Records 1992. New York: Guinness. 
  69. ^ The Animal Six-Lined Racerunner - KidsBiology.com
  70. ^ Black mamba#cite note-Adele2-25
  71. ^ a b BBC Worldwide (27 March 2008). Black marlin - the fastest fish on the planet. Ultimate Killers - BBC wildlife. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
  72. ^ Sailfish-Sailboat-Istiophorus Lacepède
  73. ^ Sailfish - The Fastest Swimming Animal | Animal Pictures and Facts | FactZoo.com
  74. ^ Swordfish Printout- EnchantedLearning.com
  75. ^ What's the Speediest Marine Creature?
  76. ^ The Physics of. . . Insect Flight http://discovermagazine.com/2000/apr/featphysics
  77. ^ a b c World's Fastest Flying Insects

External links[edit]