Death from laughter refers to a rare instance of death, usually resulting from cardiac arrest or asphyxiation, caused by a fit of laughter. Instances of death by laughter have been recorded from Ancient Greece to the modern day. The first recorded use of the alternative term fatal hilarity is from 1956.
Death may result from several pathologies that deviate from benign laughter. Infarction of the pons and medulla oblongata in the brain may cause pathological laughter.
Laughter can cause atonia and collapse ("gelastic syncope"), which in turn can cause trauma. See also laughter-induced syncope, cataplexy, and Bezold-Jarisch reflex. Gelastic seizures can be due to focal lesions to the hypothalamus. Depending upon the size of the lesion, the emotional lability may be a sign of an acute condition, and not itself the cause of the fatality. Gelastic syncope has also been associated with the cerebellum.
Historical deaths attributed to laughter 
- Zeuxis, a 5th century BC Greek painter, is said to have died laughing at the humorous way he painted the goddess Aphrodite - after the old woman who commissioned it insisted on modeling for the portrait.
- One ancient account of the death of Chrysippus, the 3rd century BC Greek Stoic philosopher, tells that he died of laughter after he saw a donkey eating his figs; he told a slave to give the donkey neat wine to drink to wash them down with, and then, '...having laughed too much, he died' (Diogenes Laertius 7.185).
- In 1410, King Martin of Aragon died from a combination of indigestion and uncontrollable laughter.
- In 1556, Pietro Aretino "is said to have died of suffocation from laughing too much".
- In 1660, Thomas Urquhart, the Scottish aristocrat, polymath and first translator of François Rabelais's writings into English, is said to have died laughing upon hearing that Charles II had taken the throne.
- On 24 March 1975, Alex Mitchell, from King's Lynn, England, died laughing while watching the "Kung Fu Kapers" episode of The Goodies, featuring a kilt-clad Scotsman with his bagpipes battling a master of the Lancastrian martial art "Eckythump", who was armed with a black pudding. After twenty-five minutes of continuous laughter, Mitchell finally slumped on the sofa and died from heart failure. His widow later sent The Goodies a letter thanking them for making Mitchell's final moments of life so pleasant. Diagnosis of his granddaughter in 2012 of having the inheritable long QT syndrome (a heart rhythm abnormality) suggests that Mitchell may have died of a cardiac arrest caused by long QT syndrome.
- In 1989, Ole Bentzen, a Danish audiologist, died laughing while watching A Fish Called Wanda. His heart was estimated to have beaten at between 250 and 500 beats per minute, before he succumbed to cardiac arrest.
- In 2003, Damnoen Saen-um, a Thai ice cream salesman, is reported to have died while laughing in his sleep at the age of 52. His wife was unable to wake him, and he stopped breathing after two minutes of continuous laughter. He is believed to have died of either heart failure or asphyxiation.
Fictional deaths attributed to laughter 
- In a novel by C.J Jeanelle a dancer named Morgan is kidnapped by the villian, who ties her down and tickles her bare feet with feathers until she laughs so hard she can't breathe and dies laughing.
- J. P. Cubish from Daffy Duck's Quackbusters.
- The Toon Patrol in Who Framed Roger Rabbit.
- In one of the Give Yourself Goosebumps books by R. L. Stine, it is possible to get an ending where chimpanzees tickle your feet until you die of laughter.
- Kenny McCormick, a character on South Park, suffers said fate in the fifth-season episode "Scott Tenorman Must Die" while he watched a video of Cartman singing "I'm a Little Piggy" and oinking.
- Ana in the play, The Clean House, by Sarah Ruhl.
- Jerry's friend, Fulton, in the Seinfeld episode entitled "The Stand-In".
- In the Batman franchise, famed villain The Joker often kills his victims using a poison that causes uncontrollable and quickly fatal fits of manic laughter - the victim's corpse is often left with a huge ghastly smile reminiscent of the Joker's own. In the 1989 film, a news broadcast reporting a scheme involving this very toxin (named "Smilex" in this film) is cut short when one of the reporters begins laughing hysterically, as if amused by the sinister plot, before collapsing dead with the characteristic rictus.
- At the end of the film Mary Poppins, Uncle Albert (Ed Wynn) is said to have literally died laughing after being told a joke: "I know a man with a wooden leg named Smith." "Really? What's the name of his other leg?"
- In Episode 12 of Season 1 of 1000 Ways to Die, a man dies after laughing continuously for 36 hours at an unknown joke.
- In Ice Age: Dawn of the Dinosaurs where the heroes cross the "Chasm of Death". The chasm is filled with gas fumes (a mixture of helium and laughing gas, causing anyone who breathes in it to laugh uncontrollably while speaking in a high-pitched voice). Although the gas is not the actual cause of death, victims usually cannot stop laughing and thus die while trying to cross the chasm.
- In the Monty Python sketch The funniest joke in the world, the British win the Second World War by translating a lethally funny joke into German and transmitting it via loudspeaker to German troops.
- In Coleman Barks' translation of Jelaluddin Rumi's poem "Dying, Laughing". From his collection of poems The Essential Rumi. "He opened like a rose that drops to the ground and died laughing." 
- In the novel, Holes, the outlaw Kissin' Kate Barlow is said to have died laughing after being bitten by a yellow spotted lizard.
See also 
- ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press (1993). The Compact Oxford English Dictionary.
- ^ Gondim, FA; Parks BJ, Cruz-Flores S et al. (December 2001). ""Fou rire prodromique" as the presentation of pontine ischaemia secondary to vertebrobasilar stenosis". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 71 (6): 802–804. doi:10.1136/jnnp.71.6.802. PMC 1737630. PMID 11723208.
- ^ Reiss AL, Hoeft F, Tenforde AS, Chen W, Mobbs D, Mignot EJ (2008). "Anomalous hypothalamic responses to humor in cataplexy". In Greene, Ernest. PLoS ONE 3 (5): e2225. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002225. PMC 2377337. PMID 18493621.
- ^ Nishida K, Hirota SK, Tokeshi J (2008). "Laugh syncope as a rare sub-type of the situational syncopes: a case report". J Med Case Reports 2 (1): 197. doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-197. PMC 2440757. PMID 18538031.
- ^ Totah AR, Benbadis SR (January 2002). "Gelastic syncope mistaken for cataplexy". Sleep Med. 3 (1): 77–8. doi:10.1016/S1389-9457(01)00113-7. PMID 14592259.
- ^ Lo R, Cohen TJ (November 2007). "Laughter-induced syncope: no laughing matter". Am. J. Med. 120 (11): e5. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2006.07.019. PMID 17976409.
- ^ Cheung CS, Parrent AG, Burneo JG (December 2007). "Gelastic seizures: not always hypothalamic hamartoma". Epileptic Disord 9 (4): 453–8. doi:10.1684/epd.2007.0139. PMID 18077234.
- ^ Famularo G, Corsi FM, Minisola G, De Simone C, Nicotra GC (August 2007). "Cerebellar tumour presenting with pathological laughter and gelastic syncope". Eur. J. Neurol. 14 (8): 940–3. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2007.01784.x. PMID 17662020.
- ^ Laertius, Diogenes (1964-5). Lives, Teachings and Sayings of the Eminent Philosophers, with an English translation by R.D. Hicks. Cambridge, Mass/London: Harvard UP/W. Heinemann Ltd.
- ^ Paul N. Morris, Patronage and Piety Montserrat and the Royal House of Medieval Catalonia-Aragon, October 2000
- ^ Waterfield, Gordon, ed. First Footsteps in East Africa, (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1966) pg. 59 footnote.
- ^ Brown, Huntington (1968). Rabelais in English Literature. Routledge. p. 126. ISBN 0-7146-2051-3.
- ^ The History of Scottish Poetry. Edmonston & Douglas. 1861. p. 539.
- ^ a b "The Last Laugh's on Him". Urban Legends Reference Pages. 2007-01-19. Retrieved 2007-06-23.
- ^ The Complete Goodies — Robert Ross, B T Batsford, London, 2000.
- ^ Man Dies Laughing at The Goodies, "Daily Mail", London (29 March 1975)
- ^ A Goodies Way to Go — Laughing, "Eastern Daily Press", Norwich (29 March 1975)
- ^ Slapstick! The Illustrated Story of Knockabout Comedy — Tony Staveacre, Angus & Robinson 1987
- ^  Man who died laughing at Goodies had Long QT syndrome
- ^ 9 People Who Died Laughing - Death - Book of Lists - Canongate Home (version archived by the Internet Archive)
- ^ Moyne, translated by Coleman Barks, with Reynold Nicholson, A.J. Arberry, John (2004). The essential Rumi (New expanded ed. ed.). New York, NY: HarperOne. ISBN 0062509594pbk.
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